C W van Roermund

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (105)564.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABCD3 is one of three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters present in the peroxisomal membrane catalyzing ATP-dependent transport of substrates for metabolic pathways localized in peroxisomes. So far the precise function of ABCD3 is not known. Here we report the identification of the first patient with a defect of ABCD3. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly and severe liver disease, and showed a striking accumulation of peroxisomal C27-bile acid intermediates in plasma. Investigation of peroxisomal parameters in skin fibroblasts revealed a reduced number of enlarged import-competent peroxisomes. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation of C26:0 was normal, but beta-oxidation of pristanic acid was reduced. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion at the DNA level of 1758 bp, predicted to result in a truncated ABCD3 protein lacking the C-terminal 24 amino acids (p.Y635NfsX1). Liver disease progressed and the patient required liver transplantation at 4 years of age, but expired shortly after transplantation. To corroborate our findings in the patient, we studied a previously generated Abcd3 knockout mouse model. Abcd3-/- mice accumulated the branched chain fatty acid phytanic acid after phytol loading. In addition, analysis of bile acids revealed a reduction of C24-bile acids, whereas C27-bile acid intermediates were significantly increased in liver, bile and intestine of Abcd3-/- mice. Thus, both in the patient and in Abcd3-/- mice there was evidence of a bile acid biosynthesis defect. In conclusion, our studies show that ABCD3 is involved in transport of branched-chain fatty acids and C27-bile acids into the peroxisome and that this is a crucial step in bile acid biosynthesis.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ABC half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo or heterodimers. For further structure function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to EGFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very-long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. VLCFA levels were partially restored in transfected X-ALD fibroblasts whatever the chimeric construct used demonstrating functionality of both homo and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functional. The role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ABC transporters.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In oilseed plants, peroxisomal β-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of β-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 μM IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant for fatty acid β-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 06/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidation. Free fatty acids (FFA) can enter peroxisomes through passive diffusion or by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including HsABCD1 (ALDP, adrenoleukodystrophy protein), HsABCD2 (ALDRP) and HsABCD3 (PMP70). The physiological functions of the different peroxisomal half-ABCD transporters have not been fully determined yet, but there are clear indications that both HsABCD1 and HsABCD2 are required for the breakdown of fatty acids in peroxisomes. Here we report that the phenotype of the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant, i.e. impaired oxidation of oleic acid, can not only be partially rescued by HsABCD1, HsABCD2, but also by HsABCD3, which indicates that each peroxisomal half-transporter can function as homodimer. Fatty acid oxidation measurements using various fatty acids revealed that although the substrate specificities of HsABCD1, HsABCD2 and HsABCD3 are overlapping, they have distinctive preferences. Indeed, most hydrophobic C24:0 and C26:0 fatty acids are preferentially transported by HsABCD1, C22:0 and C22:6 by HsABCD2 and most hydrophilic substrates like long-chain unsaturated-, long branched-chain- and long-chain dicarboxylic fatty acids by HsABCD3. All these fatty acids are most likely transported as CoA esters. We postulate a role for human ABCD3 in the oxidation of dicarboxylic acids and a role in buffering fatty acids that are overflowing from the mitochondrial β-oxidation system.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the chronological lifespan of glucose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to the function of intact peroxisomes. We analyzed four different peroxisome deficient (pex) phenotypes. These included Δpex3 cells that lack peroxisomal membranes and in which all peroxisomal proteins are mislocalized together with Δpex6 in which all matrix proteins are mislocalized to the cytosol, whereas membrane proteins are still correctly sorted to peroxisomal ghosts. In addition we analyzed two mutants in which the peroxisomal location of the β-oxidation machinery is in part disturbed. We analyzed Δpex7 cells that contain virtually normal peroxisomes, except that all matrix proteins which contain a peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 (PTS2, also including thiolase), are mislocalized to the cytosol. In Δpex5 cells peroxisomes only contain matrix proteins with a PTS2 in conjunction with all proteins containing a peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1, including all β-oxidation enzymes except thiolase) are mislocalized to the cytosol. We show that intact peroxisomes are an important factor in yeast chronological ageing because all pex mutants showed a reduced chronological lifespan. The strongest reduction was observed in Δpex5 cells. Our data indicate that this is related to the complete inactivation of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway in these cells due to the mislocalisation of thiolase. Our studies suggest that during chronological aging peroxisomal β-oxidation contributes to energy generation by the oxidation of fatty acids that are released by degradation of storage materials and recycled cellular components during carbon starvation conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Aging cell 06/2013; · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes are organelles that perform diverse metabolic functions in different organisms, but a common function is β-oxidation of a variety of long chain aliphatic, branched, and aromatic carboxylic acids. Import of substrates into peroxisomes for β-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins of subfamily D, which includes the human adrenoleukodystropy protein (ALDP) defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Whether substrates are transported as CoA esters or free acids has been a matter of debate. Using COMATOSE (CTS), a plant representative of the ABCD family, we demonstrate that there is a functional and physical interaction between the ABC transporter and the peroxisomal long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS)6 and -7. We expressed recombinant CTS in insect cells and showed that membranes from infected cells possess fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity, which is stimulated by ATP. A mutant, in which Serine 810 is replaced by asparagine (S810N) is defective in fatty acid degradation in vivo, retains ATPase activity but has strongly reduced thioesterase activity, providing strong evidence for the biological relevance of this activity. Thus, CTS, and most likely the other ABCD family members, represent rare examples of polytopic membrane proteins with an intrinsic additional enzymatic function that may regulate the entry of substrates into the β-oxidation pathway. The cleavage of CoA raises questions about the side of the membrane where this occurs and this is discussed in the context of the peroxisomal coenzyme A (CoA) budget.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteins are subject to continuous quality control for optimal proteostasis. The knowledge of peroxisome quality control systems is still in its infancy. Here we show that peroxisomes contain a member of the Lon family of proteases (Pln). We show that Pln is a heptameric protein and acts as an ATP-fueled protease and chaperone. Hence, Pln is the first chaperone identified in fungal peroxisomes. In cells of a PLN deletion strain peroxisomes contain protein aggregates, a major component of which is catalase-peroxidase. We show that this enzyme is sensitive to oxidative damage. The oxidatively damaged, but not the native protein, is a substrate of the Pln protease. Cells of the pln strain contain enhanced levels of catalase-peroxidase protein but reduced catalase-peroxidase enzyme activities. Together with the observation that Pln has chaperone activity in vitro, our data suggest that catalase-peroxidase aggregates accumulate in peroxisomes of pln cells due to the combined absence of Pln protease and chaperone activities.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2012; 287(33):27380-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including fatty acid β-oxidation. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, which is caused by mutations in ABCD1. The biochemical hallmark of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) due to impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation. Although this suggests a role of ABCD1 in VLCFA import into peroxisomes, no direct experimental evidence is available to substantiate this. To unravel the mechanism of peroxisomal VLCFA transport, we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Here we provide evidence that in this organism very long chain acyl-CoA esters are hydrolyzed by the Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex prior to the actual transport of their fatty acid moiety into the peroxisomes with the CoA presumably being released into the cytoplasm. The Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex functionally interacts with the acyl-CoA synthetases Faa2p and/or Fat1p on the inner surface of the peroxisomal membrane for subsequent re-esterification of the VLCFAs. Importantly, the Pxa1p-Pxa2p complex shares this molecular mechanism with HsABCD1 and HsABCD2.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(24):20144-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gene mutated in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) codes for the HsABCD1 protein, also named ALDP, which is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and required for fatty acid transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Although a defective HsABCD1 results in the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma of X-ALD patients, there is still no direct biochemical evidence that HsABCD1 actually transports very long-chain fatty acids. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study the transport of fatty acids across the peroxisomal membrane. Our earlier work showed that in yeast the uptake of fatty acids into peroxisomes may occur via two routes, either as (1.) free fatty acid or as (2.) acyl-CoA ester. The latter route involves the two peroxisomal half-ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, which form a heterodimeric complex in the peroxisomal membrane. We here report that the phenotype of the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant, i.e. impaired growth on oleate containing medium and deficient oxidation of oleic acid, cannot only be partially rescued by human ABCD1, but also by human ABCD2 (ALDRP), which indicates that HsABCD1 and HsABCD2 can both function as homodimers. Fatty acid oxidation studies in the pxa1/pxa2Δ mutant transformed with either HsABCD1 or HsABCD2 revealed clear differences suggesting that HsABCD1 and HsABCD2 have distinct substrate specificities. Indeed, full rescue of beta-oxidation activity in cells expressing human ABCD2 was observed with C22:0 and different unsaturated very long-chain fatty acids including C24:6 and especially C22:6 whereas in cells expressing HsABCD1 rescue of beta-oxidation activity was best with C24:0 and C26:0 as substrates.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1811(3):148-52. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis ABC transporter Comatose (CTS; AtABCD1) is required for uptake into the peroxisome of a wide range of substrates for β-oxidation, but it is uncertain whether CTS itself is the transporter or if the transported substrates are free acids or CoA esters. To establish a system for its biochemical analysis, CTS was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plant protein was correctly targeted to yeast peroxisomes, was assembled into the membrane with its nucleotide binding domains in the cytosol, and exhibited basal ATPase activity that was sensitive to aluminum fluoride and abrogated by mutation of a conserved Walker A motif lysine residue. The yeast pxa1 pxa2Δ mutant lacks the homologous peroxisomal ABC transporter and is unable to grow on oleic acid. Consistent with its exhibiting a function in yeast akin to that in the plant, CTS rescued the oleate growth phenotype of the pxa1 pxa2Δ mutant, and restored β-oxidation of fatty acids with a range of chain lengths and varying degrees of desaturation. When expressed in yeast peroxisomal membranes, the basal ATPase activity of CTS could be stimulated by fatty acyl-CoAs but not by fatty acids. The implications of these findings for the function and substrate specificity of CTS are discussed.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2010; 285(39):29892-902. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transport of acetyl-CoA between intracellular compartments is mediated by carnitine acetyltransferases (Cats) that reversibly link acetyl units to the carrier molecule carnitine. The genome of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans encodes several (putative) Cats: the peroxisomal and mitochondrial Cat2 isoenzymes encoded by a single gene and the carnitine acetyltransferase homologs Yat1 and Yat2. To determine the contributions of the individual Cats, various carnitine acetyltransferase mutant strains were constructed and subjected to phenotypic and biochemical analyses on different carbon sources. We show that mitochondrial Cat2 is required for the intramitochondrial conversion of acetylcarnitine to acetyl-CoA, which is essential for a functional tricarboxylic acid cycle during growth on oleate, acetate, ethanol, and citrate. Yat1 is cytosolic and contributes to acetyl-CoA transport from the cytosol during growth on ethanol or acetate, but its activity is not required for growth on oleate. Yat2 is also cytosolic, but we were unable to attribute any function to this enzyme. Surprisingly, peroxisomal Cat2 is essential neither for export of acetyl units during growth on oleate nor for the import of acetyl units during growth on acetate or ethanol. Oxidation of fatty acids still takes place in the absence of peroxisomal Cat2, but biomass formation is absent, and the strain displays a growth delay on acetate and ethanol that can be partially rescued by the addition of carnitine. Based on our results, we present a model for the intracellular flow of acetyl units under various growth conditions and the roles of each of the Cats in this process.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(32):24335-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). X-ALD is characterized by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; > or =C24) in plasma and tissues. In this manuscript we provide insight into the pathway underlying the elevated levels of C26:0 in X-ALD. ALDP transports VLCFacyl-CoA across the peroxisomal membrane. A deficiency in ALDP impairs peroxisomal beta-oxidation of VLCFA but also raises cytosolic levels of VLCFacyl-CoA which are substrate for further elongation. We identify ELOVL1 (elongation of very-long-chain-fatty acids) as the single elongase catalysing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1). ELOVL1 expression is not increased in X-ALD fibroblasts suggesting that increased levels of C26:0 result from increased substrate availability due to the primary deficiency in ALDP. Importantly, ELOVL1 knockdown reduces elongation of C22:0 to C26:0 and lowers C26:0 levels in X-ALD fibroblasts. Given the likely pathogenic effects of high C26:0 levels, our findings highlight the potential of modulating ELOVL1 activity in the treatment of X-ALD.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 02/2010; 2(3):90-7. · 7.80 Impact Factor
  • Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-bioenergetics - BBA-BIOENERGETICS. 01/2010; 1797:46-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Carnitine is an essential metabolite that enables intracellular transport of fatty acids and acetyl units. Here we show that the yeast Candida albicans can synthesize carnitine de novo, and we identify the 4 genes of the pathway. Null mutants of orf19.4316 (trimethyllysine dioxygenase), orf19.6306 (trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase), and orf19.7131 (butyrobetaine dioxygenase) lacked their respective enzymatic activities and were unable to utilize fatty acids, acetate, or ethanol as a sole carbon source, in accordance with the strict requirement for carnitine-mediated transport under these growth conditions. The second enzyme of carnitine biosynthesis, hydroxytrimethyllysine aldolase, is encoded by orf19.6305, a member of the threonine aldolase (TA) family in C. albicans. A strain lacking orf19.6305 showed strongly reduced growth on fatty acids and was unable to utilize either acetate or ethanol, but TA activity was unaffected. Growth of the null mutants on nonfermentable carbon sources is restored only by carnitine biosynthesis intermediates after the predicted enzymatic block in the pathway, which provides independent evidence for a specific defect in carnitine biosynthesis for each of the mutants. In conclusion, we have genetically characterized a complete carnitine biosynthesis pathway in C. albicans and show that a TA family member is mainly involved in the aldolytic cleavage of hydroxytrimethyllysine in vivo.
    The FASEB Journal 04/2009; 23(8):2349-59. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway required for generating C(4) units from C(2) compounds, is an important factor in virulence, in both animal and plant pathogens. Here, we report the localization of the key enzymes of this cycle, isocitrate lyase (Icl1; EC 4.1.3.1) and malate synthase (Mls1; EC 2.3.3.9), in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Immunocytochemistry in combination with subcellular fractionation showed that both Icl1 and Mls1 are localized to peroxisomes, independent of the carbon source used. Although Icl1 and Mls1 lack a consensus type I peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1), their import into peroxisomes was dependent on the PTS1 receptor Pex5p, suggesting the presence of non-canonical targeting signals in both proteins. Peroxisomal compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle is not essential for proper functioning of this metabolic pathway because a pex5Delta/Delta strain, in which Icl1 and Mls1 were localized to the cytosol, grew equally as well as the wild-type strain on acetate and ethanol. Previously, we reported that a fox2Delta/Delta strain that is completely deficient in fatty acid beta-oxidation, but has no peroxisomal protein import defect, displayed strongly reduced growth on non-fermentable carbon sources such as acetate and ethanol. Here, we show that growth of the fox2Delta/Delta strain on these carbon compounds can be restored when Icl1 and Mls1 are relocated to the cytosol by deleting the PEX5 gene. We hypothesize that the fox2Delta/Delta strain is disturbed in the transport of glyoxylate cycle products and/or acetyl-CoA across the peroxisomal membrane and discuss the possible relationship between such a transport defect and the presence of giant peroxisomes in the fox2Delta/Delta mutant.
    Microbiology 11/2008; 154(Pt 10):3061-72. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes play a major role in human cellular lipid metabolism, including the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The most frequent peroxisomal disorder is X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The protein involved, called ABCD1, or alternatively ALDP, is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter family and is located in the peroxisomal membrane. The biochemical hallmark of X-ALD is the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), due to an impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Although this suggests a role of ALDP in VLCFA import, no experimental evidence is available to substantiate this. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomes are the exclusive site of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Earlier work has shown that uptake of fatty acids into peroxisomes may occur via two routes, either as free fatty acids thus requiring intraperoxisomal activation into acyl-CoA esters or as long-chain acyl-CoA esters. The latter route involves the two peroxisomal half ABC transporters Pxa1p and Pxa2p that form a heterodimeric complex in the peroxisomal membrane. Using different strategies, including the analysis of intracellular acyl-CoA esters by tandem-MS, we show that the Pxa1p/Pxa2p heterodimer is involved in the transport of a spectrum of acyl-CoA esters. Interestingly, we found that the mutant phenotype of the pxa1/pxa2Delta mutant can be rescued, at least partially, by the sole expression of the human ABCD1 cDNA coding for ALDP, the protein that is defective in the human disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Our data indicate that ALDP can function as a homodimer and is involved in the transport of acyl-CoA esters across the peroxisomal membrane.
    The FASEB Journal 09/2008; 22(12):4201-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) produced during peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation needs to be transported to mitochondria for further metabolism. Two parallel pathways for acetyl-CoA transport have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; one is dependent on peroxisomal citrate synthase (Cit), while the other requires peroxisomal and mitochondrial carnitine acetyltransferase (Cat) activities. Here we show that the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans lacks peroxisomal Cit, relying exclusively on Cat activity for transport of acetyl units. Deletion of the CAT2 gene encoding the major Cat enzyme in C. albicans resulted in a strain that had lost both peroxisomal and mitochondrion-associated Cat activities, could not grow on fatty acids or C(2) carbon sources (acetate or ethanol), accumulated intracellular acetyl-CoA, and showed greatly reduced fatty acid beta-oxidation activity. The cat2 null mutant was, however, not attenuated in virulence in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. These observations support our previous results showing that peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation activity is not essential for C. albicans virulence. Biofilm formation by the cat2 mutant on glucose was slightly reduced compared to that by the wild type, although both strains grew at the same rate on this carbon source. Our data show that C. albicans has diverged considerably from S. cerevisiae with respect to the mechanism of intracellular acetyl-CoA transport and imply that carnitine dependence may be an important trait of this human fungal pathogen.
    Eukaryotic Cell 05/2008; 7(4):610-8. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation due to a deficiency of straight-chain acyl-CoA oxidase (SCOX). The biochemical hallmark of this disorder is the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. Although some case reports and small series of patients have been published, a comprehensive overview of the clinical, biochemical, and mutational spectrum of this disorder is still lacking. For this reason, we report clinical information for a cohort of 22 patients with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency and the results from biochemical and mutation analyses in fibroblasts of the patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. An intriguing mutation in the alternatively-spliced transcript encoding the isoform SCOX-exon 3II in a patient with normal expression of the transcript encoding the isoform SCOX-exon 3I, prompted us to characterize these two isoforms of human SCOX. The recombinant SCOX-exon 3I displayed activity toward medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and was not active with very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. In contrast, recombinant SCOX-exon 3II was capable of oxidizing a broad range of substrates, including very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. These results explain why this patient with a mutation in exon 3II of the ACOX1 gene, but with normal expression of exon 3I, was indistinguishable from other patients with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency with respect to his clinical presentation and the biochemical abnormalities in his fibroblasts.
    Human Mutation 10/2007; 28(9):904-12. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that peroxisomes play a crucial role in de novo bile acid biosynthesis. The primary bile acids resulting from peroxisomal beta-oxidation are conjugated to either glycine or taurine in the peroxisomal lumen by a bile acid aminotransferase (BAT). These conjugated bile acids are subsequently secreted into the bile. In this paper we show that the export of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids from mammalian peroxisomes proceeds via specific transporter. The transport activity of this protein was detected by reconstitution of peroxisomal membrane proteins in liposomes and measuring the uptake of radiolabeled substrates into these proteoliposomes. The transporter was further characterized using this assay, which led to the identification of DIDS as an inhibitor of the peroxisomal bile-acid transporter, and allowed us to establish some kinetic parameters for the transport activity.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2007; 357(2):335-40. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a newborn girl with microcephaly, abnormal brain development, optic atrophy and hypoplasia, persistent lactic acidemia, and a mildly elevated plasma concentration of very-long-chain fatty acids. We found a defect of the fission of both mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as a heterozygous, dominant-negative mutation in the dynamin-like protein 1 gene (DLP1). The DLP1 protein has previously been implicated, in vitro, in the fission of both these organelles. Overexpression of the mutant DLP1 in control cells reproduced the fission defect. Our findings are representative of a class of disease characterized by defects in both mitochondria and peroxisomes.
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2007; 356(17):1736-41. · 54.42 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
564.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983–2014
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      • • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Biochemistry and Metabolic Diseases
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1987–2006
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1989
    • KU Leuven
      • Division of Geology
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium