[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non--small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is categorized into various histologic subtypes that play an important role in prognosis and treatment outcome. We investigated the antitumor activity of motesanib, a selective antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and Kit, alone and combined with chemotherapy in five human NSCLC xenograft models (A549, Calu-6, NCI-H358, NCI-H1299, and NCI-H1650) containing diverse genetic mutations. RESULTS: Motesanib as a single agent dose-dependently inhibited tumor xenograft growth compared with vehicle in all five of the models (P < 0.05). When combined with cisplatin, motesanib significantly inhibited the growth of Calu-6, NCI-H358, and NCI-H1650 tumor xenografts compared with either single agent alone (P < 0.05). Similarly, the combination of motesanib plus docetaxel significantly inhibited the growth of A549 and Calu-6 tumor xenografts compared with either single agent alone (P < 0.05). In NCI-H358 and NCI-H1650 xenografts, motesanib with and without cisplatin significantly decreased tumor blood vessel area (P < 0.05 vs vehicle) as assessed by anti-CD31 staining. Motesanib alone or in combination with chemotherapy had no effect on tumor cell proliferation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that motesanib had antitumor activity against five different human NSCLC xenograft models containing diverse genetic mutations, and that it had enhanced activity when combined with cisplatin or docetaxel. These effects appeared to be mediated primarily by antiangiogenic mechanisms.
Molecular Cancer 09/2012; 11(1):70. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of solid tumors relies on the ability of drugs to penetrate into the tumor tissue. METHODS: We examined the correlation of panitumumab (an anti-epidermal growth factor [EGFR] antibody) tumor penetration and EGFR saturation, a potential obstacle in large molecule drug delivery, using pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tumor growth rate in an A431 epidermoid carcinoma xenograft model of human cancer. To determine receptor saturation, receptor occupancy, and levels of proliferation markers, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric methods were used. Pharmacokinetic data and modeling were used to calculate growth characteristics of panitumumab-treated tumors. RESULTS: Treatment with panitumumab in vivo inhibited pEGFR, Ki67 and pMAPK levels vs control. Tumor penetration and receptor saturation were dose- and time-dependent, reaching 100% and 78%, respectively. Significant tumor inhibition and eradication (p<0.05) were observed; plasma concentration associated with tumor eradication was estimated to be 0.2 microg/ml. The tumor inhibition model was able to describe the mean tumor growth and death rates. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that the antitumor activity of panitumumab correlates with its ability to penetrate into tumor tissue, occupy and inhibit activation of EGFR, and inhibit markers of proliferation and MAPK signaling.
Molecular Cancer 07/2012; 11(1):47. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa is a common dose-limiting toxicity of several anticancer therapies. Until recently, adequate control of oral mucositis was considered a significant unmet medical need, with most available treatments providing only palliative benefits without protecting the gastrointestinal epithelium from the damaging effects of cancer therapy. In 2005, palifermin [recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)] was approved to decrease the incidence and duration of severe oral mucositis in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving myelotoxic therapy requiring hematopoietic stem cell support. Current trials are investigating the use of palifermin in solid tumor settings. The objective of this study was to determine whether combining palifermin with different chemotherapeutic or biological agents affected the antitumor activity of these agents in human head and neck (FaDu) and colorectal (HT29) carcinoma xenograft models. Nude CD1 mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) of either FaDu or HT29 cells, which express both KGF and epithelial growth factor receptors. Animals were treated with palifermin in various combinations with chemotherapeutic (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) and/or biological (bevacizumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab) agents. Palifermin alone had no effect on either FaDu or HT29 tumor growth. Palifermin did not affect the therapeutic efficacy of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, cetuximab, bevacizumab, or panitumumab in any of the two- or three-way drug combinations tested in either model. The results of this study showed that palifermin did not promote the growth of two carcinoma cell lines that express functional KGF receptors and did not protect these tumor cells from the antitumor effects of several chemotherapeutic and biological agents.
Molecular Cancer Research 09/2008; 6(8):1337-46. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown N-arylnaphthamides can be potent inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). N-Alkyl and N-unsubstituted naphthamides were prepared and found to yield nanomolar inhibitors of VEGFR-2 (KDR) with an improved selectivity profile against a panel of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. The inhibitory activity of this series was retained at the cellular level. Naphthamides 3, 20, and 22 exhibited good pharmacokinetics following oral dosing and showed potent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the rat corneal model. Once-daily oral administration of 22 for 14 days led to 85% inhibition of established HT29 colon cancer and Calu-6 lung cancer xenografts at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2008; 51(6):1668-80. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of naphthyl-based compounds were synthesized as potential inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors. Investigations of structure-activity relationships led to the identification of a series of naphthamides that are potent inhibitors of the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase family. Numerous analogues demonstrated low nanomolar inhibition of VEGF-dependent human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, and of these several compounds possessed favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. In particular, compound 48 demonstrated significant antitumor efficacy against established HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts implanted in athymic mice. A full account of the preparation, structure-activity relationships, pharmacokinetic properties, and pharmacology of analogues within this series is presented.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2008; 51(6):1649-67. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth of solid tumors is dependent on the continued stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation and migration resulting in angiogenesis. The angiogenic process is controlled by a variety of factors of which the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and its receptors play a pivotal role. Small-molecule inhibitors of VEGF receptors (VEGFR) have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical models and in clinical trials. A novel nicotinamide, AMG 706, was identified as a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the VEGFR1/Flt1, VEGFR2/kinase domain receptor/Flk-1, VEGFR3/Flt4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and Kit receptors in preclinical models. AMG 706 inhibited human endothelial cell proliferation induced by VEGF, but not by basic fibroblast growth factor in vitro, as well as vascular permeability induced by VEGF in mice. Oral administration of AMG 706 potently inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the rat corneal model and induced regression of established A431 xenografts. AMG 706 was well tolerated and had no significant effects on body weight or on the general health of the animals. Histologic analysis of tumor xenografts from AMG 706-treated animals revealed an increase in endothelial apoptosis and a reduction in blood vessel area that preceded an increase in tumor cell apoptosis. In summary, AMG 706 is an orally bioavailable, well-tolerated multikinase inhibitor that is presently under clinical investigation for the treatment of human malignancies.
Cancer Research 10/2006; 66(17):8715-21. · 8.65 Impact Factor