Raydel Valdés-Salgado

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

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Publications (27)27.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Tobacco products points of sale (POS) were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006) schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS). In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control legislation in regards to selling to minors and single cigarettes. It is necessary to implement a surveillance system to monitor strategies for tobacco control and the tobacco industry.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2010; 52 Suppl 2:S254-66. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Raydel Valdés-Salgado
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    ABSTRACT: Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be done. If current smoking prevalence among teenagers remains unchanged, there will be a significant increase in the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco consumption in future decades.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2010; 52 Suppl 2:S321-9. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To describe strategies used in the publicity, marketing, and sale, of tobacco products in 12 cities in Mexico. Material and Methods. Tobacco products points of sale (POS) were identified within a 500 m radius of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2005-2006) schools. We used observational surveys and an online Geographic Information System (GIS). Results. In the 257 schools visited, we found, on average, 8.3 stores and 5 street vendors around each of them. Forty-four percent of the stores had interior tobacco publicity, 8.3% had tobacco products at children's eye level, 6.5% had some promotion, 33.6% had a no selling to minors sign, and 44.4% of stores and 58.8% of street vendors sold single cigarettes. Conclusions. Tobacco products are largely publicized and marketed around schools. There is no compliance of tobacco control legislations in regards to selling to minors and single cigarettes. It is necessary to implement a surveillance system to monitor strategies for tobacco control and the tobacco industry.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2009; 52:S254-S266. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Raydel Valdés-Salgado
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    ABSTRACT: Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be done. If current smoking prevalence among teenagers remains unchanged, there will be a significant increase in the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco consumption in future decades.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2009; 52:S321-S329. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking prevention efforts should either prevent target groups from becoming susceptible to smoking or prevent susceptible adolescents from progressing to becoming regular smokers. To describe the prevalence of susceptibility to smoking among never smoker students from cities that applied the GYTS in 2003 and 2006. The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12-15 years enrolled in public, private, and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 399 schools in 9 cities. The GYTS surveyed 33,297 students during the academic years 2003-04 and 2006-07. Among never smokers, about 25% are likely to initiate smoking in the next 12 months. There are no differences in susceptibility to smoking by gender. When comparing results from 2003 and 2006, the susceptibility index has not changed, but for one city. The GYTS results are useful for monitoring susceptibility to smoking among adolescents and provide evidence for strengthening the efforts of tobacco control programs in Mexico.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 04/2009; 6(3):1254-67. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC) promotes the implementation of best-practices tobacco control policies at a global scale. This article describes features of the sociocultural and political-economic context of Mexico that pose challenges and opportunities to the effective translation of WHO-FCTC policies there. It also considers how strategic communication efforts may advance these policies by framing their arguments in ways that resonate with prevalent values, understandings, and concerns. A focus on a smoke-free policy illustrates barriers to policy compliance, including how similar issues have been overcome among Latino populations in California. Overall, this article aims to lay the foundation for comparative research from policy uptake to impact so that the scientific evidence base on tobacco control policies includes examination of how context moderates this process.
    Evaluation &amp the Health Professions 07/2008; 31(2):145-66. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently Mexico passed federal and state-level laws banning smoking in indoor spaces. These actions are totally in accordance with measures proposed in the WHO-FCTCs article 8, ratified by Mexico in 2004. This essay reviews scientific evidence that secondhand smoke causes both chronic and acute diseases among non smokers, children and adults. There is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke, so the only effective intervention to protect Mexican people from such harmful exposure is by promoting 100% smoke free indoor air, as the two new laws do. Total banning of smoking is associated with reduction in smoking prevalence, amount of cigarette smoked per day, and an increase in cessation rates. Reductions in acute respiratory symptoms and hospitalization of acute myocardial infarction have been also reported. Well documented examples show that main tobacco industry arguments against smoke free policy: negative economic impact and lack of support from the public, are unjustified. These two laws strengthen the Mexican tobacco control program. Next steps include their implementation, evaluation, enforcement of compliance and encouragement for similar laws at state level.
    Salud publica de Mexico 02/2008; 50 Suppl 3:S334-42. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently Mexico passed federal and state-level laws banning smoking in indoor spaces. These actions are totally in accordance with measures proposed in the WHO-FCTC’s article 8, ratified by Mexico in 2004. This essay reviews scientific evidence that secondhand smoke causes both chronic and acute diseases among non smokers, children and adults. There is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke, so the only effective intervention to protect Mexican people from such harmful exposure is by promoting 100% smoke free indoor air, as the two new laws do. Total banning of smoking is associated with reduction in smoking prevalence, amount of cigarette smoked per day, and an increase in cessation rates. Reductions in acute respiratory symptoms and hospitalization of acute myocardial infarction have been also reported. Well documented examples show that main tobacco industry arguments against smoke free policy: negative economic impact and lack of support from the public, are unjustified. These two laws strengthen the Mexican tobacco control program. Next steps include their implementation, evaluation, enforcement of compliance and encouragement for similar laws at state level.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2007; 50:334-342. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the impact of exposure to secondhand smoke for subjects who spend time in a discotheque, by comparing within-subject baseline and postexposure urinary cotinine levels. A total of 100 nonsmoking volunteers from a central region of Mexico provided a urine sample before entering a discotheque and another sample an average of 6 hr after the end of exposure. Concentrations of cotinine and its metabolite, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, were measured in the urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In females the average preexposure level of urinary cotinine was 2.2 ng/ml, and the average postexposure level was significantly higher, at 15.7 ng/ml. In males the average preexposure level of cotinine was 3.7 ng/ml, compared with 49.1 ng/ml in the postexposure assessment. The highest postexposure values were found in men younger than 22 years old with a value of 469.5 ng/ml. Exposure to secondhand smoke is a serious health risk. Our findings are important given that many of our subjects were exposed to substantial amounts of secondhand smoke in discotheques, as evidenced by the high urinary cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations. These findings support the need to prohibit smoking in discotheques to protect nonsmokers' health.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 11/2007; 9(10):1021-6. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mexican legislation considers many public places as smoke-free spaces. However, no environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment studies exist to evaluate compliance with governmental regulations and to identify opportunities for tobacco control. The main objective of this study is to quantify airborne nicotine concentrations in public places in Mexico City. During March 2004, nicotine passive monitors were allocated in a hospital, two schools, a public office building, an airport, seven restaurants, and three bars following a common protocol applied in other Latin American countries. Monitors were analyzed at the Johns Hopkins University, extracting the nicotine and quantifying it using nitrogen selective gas chromatography. Median concentrations of environmental nicotine were estimated by type of place and smoking restriction. Airborne nicotine was detected in all public places. The highest concentrations were observed in bars (6.01 microg/m3), restaurants (0.69 microg/m3), airport (0.21 microg/m3), and public offices (0.10 microg/m3). Nicotine exposure concentrations are similar to those previously observed in other capital cities of Latin America. Nicotine levels in the airport and public offices reflect the lack of compliance with mandatory non-smoking official regulations in Mexico. High nicotine concentrations in bars and restaurants provide evidence for the need to advance smoke-free legislative action in these public and work places.
    Salud publica de Mexico 02/2007; 49 Suppl 2:S205-12. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present findings from the GYTS on current cigarette smoking and other tobacco epidemic indicators. The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12 to 15 years enrolled in public, private and technical schools. The survey was undertaken in 2003 and 2006 at 399 schools in nine cities. The GYTS surveyed 33 297 students. Point prevalence, differences of proportions and adjusted odds ratio were estimated. The overall rate for current smoking in 30 days preceding the survey is 24.9% (95% CI, 22.5-27.3). Among never smokers, 28% are likely to initiate smoking next year. As compared to the previous survey in 2003, there is not a reduction in cigarette smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke. Cessation rates have not changed and advertisements and access by minors to tobacco products are still unresolved problems. However, tobacco related materials have significantly been added to school curricula. National estimates are presented, as well as city level estimates. Two years after FCTC ratification, there is no major improvement in critical areas of tobacco control in Mexico; particularly, there is no evidence of reduction in cigarette smoking among students in secondary schools.
    Salud publica de Mexico 02/2007; 49 Suppl 2:S155-69. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. La legislación mexicana considera como espacios libres de humo de tabaco a muchos lugares públicos. Sin embargo, no existen evaluaciones de la exposición a humo de tabaco ambiental que permitan medir el cumplimiento de las leyes ni identificar espacios de oportunidad para el control de la exposición. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo cuantificar los niveles de nicotina ambiental en lugares públicos de la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Utilizando un protocolo común a otros países de América Latina, durante marzo de 2004 se colocaron monitores de difusión pasiva de nicotina en un hospital, dos escuelas, un edificio de oficinas públicas, un aeropuerto, siete restaurantes y tres bares de la Ciudad de México. Los monitores fueron analizados en la Universidad Johns Hopkins, donde la nicotina fue extraída y cuantificada usando cromatografía de gases con detección selectiva de nitrógeno. La concentración mediana de nicotina ambiental fue estimada por tipo de lugar y por área de restricción para fumar. Resultados. Se detectó nicotina ambiental en todos los lugares públicos. Las mayores concentraciones se observaron en bares (6.01 µg/m3), restaurantes (0.69 µg/m3), aeropuerto (0.21 µg/m3) y oficinas públicas (0.10 µg/m3). Los grados de exposición fueron similares a los observados en otras ciudades de América Latina. Conclusiones. Las concentraciones de nicotina en el aeropuerto y las oficinas públicas reflejan la falta de cumplimiento con la legislación vigente en México. Las concentraciones de nicotina registradas en bares y restaurantes evidencian la necesidad de impulsar medidas legislativas que establezcan a estos sitios como lugares públicos y de trabajo libres de humo de tabaco.
    Salud pública de México, ISSN 0036-3634, Vol. 49, Nº. 2, 2007, pags. 205-212. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Analizar la información de la Encuesta sobre tabaquismo en jóvenes (ETJ) sobre consumo de cigarro y otros indicadores propuestos en el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT). Material y métodos. La ETJ usa un diseño de muestreo por conglomerado en dos etapas que genera muestras representativas de estudiantes de 12 a 15 años de las escuelas secundarias públicas, privadas y técnicas. Incluye 33,297 estudiantes de 399 escuelas de nueve ciudades. Se obtuvieron prevalencias puntuales y diferencias de proporciones, así como razones de momios ajustadas por edad. Resultados. La prevalencia de fumadores en el mes anterior a la encuesta es de 24.9% (IC 95% 22.5-27.3). El índice de susceptibilidad de iniciarse en el consumo de cigarros es de 28%. Al comparar con la aplicación en 2003, no se observa una disminución del consumo ni de la exposición al humo de tabaco, ni aumento en las tasas de cesación. En los programas escolares se han incrementado significativamente los contenidos de daños a la salud causados por fumar. No se observan avances en cuanto a reducción de la publicidad del tabaco, ni reducción del acceso de los menores al tabaco. Se presentan estimados nacionales y por ciudad. Conclusión. Dos años después de ratificado el CMCT todavía no hay avances significativos en las principales áreas abordadas por dicho convenio, especialmente no ha disminuido el consumo de tabaco entre los estudiantes de secundaria.
    Salud pública de México, ISSN 0036-3634, Vol. 49, Nº. 2, 2007, pags. 155-169. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco consumption is the principal modifiable risk factor causally associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI has been an increasing and important cause of death in Mexico since 1980. To estimate the direct health care costs of AMI, we carried out a cost of illness (COI) analysis, using data derived from an expert panel consensus and from medical chart review. We used the smoking attributable fraction (SAF) estimates to derive costs of tobacco consumption. We also estimated the benefits of a "Smoke-free Workplace" tobacco control policy in terms of avoidable deaths and health care costs savings. We estimated an annual average costs of 6,420 US dollars and 9,216 US dollars for non-ST segment elevation AMI (NSTEMI) and ST segment elevation AMI (STEMI), respectively. The total annual health care costs estimated for incident AMI for the IMSS state-level division of Morelos reached 2.9 million US dollars, of which 1.6 million US dollars was directly attributed to tobacco consumption. Our results confirm the high costs associated with smoking and show the potential benefits resulting from a tobacco control policy. Our estimates are only applicable to social security in the state-level division of Morelos and more likely represent a lower boundary of the total costs of cardiovascular diseases attributed to tobacco, because we based the costs estimation on incident cases, and we did not take into consideration the costs derived from prevalent cases, indirect costs or other intangibles.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2006; 37(7):871-9. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) regarding current cigarette smoking and other tobacco epidemic indicators. The GYTS used a two-stage cluster sample survey to generate representative samples of students aged 12 to 15 years old enrolled in public, private and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 492 schools in 21 cities. The GYTS surveyed 42,024 students between the years 2003 and 2005. A logistic regression model was applied and crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated. The overall current smoking rate during the 30 days preceding the survey was 19.96% (95% CI 18.1-21.8). Among those who never smoked, 25% were likely to begin smoking in the following year. Sixty percent of current smokers who bought their cigarettes in stores were not refused purchase because of their age. Exposure to advertising in outside areas was 86 and 54% of students reported to have been exposed to smoke in public places. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should prevent access by minors to cigarettes, make it more difficult to smoke, and prohibit all forms of tobacco advertising. In addition, options should be provided for those who wish to quit smoking and adolescents and their families should be educated with respect to the dangers of smoking.
    Salud publica de Mexico 02/2006; 48 Suppl 1:S5-16. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    Mauricio Hernández-Avila, Raydel Valdés-Salgado
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2006; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Analizar la información de la Encuesta sobre Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (ETJ) sobre consumo de cigarrillo y otros indicadores que resulten útiles para una medición inicial de las condiciones en que el país ratificó el Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT). Material y métodos. La ETJ usa un diseño de muestreo por conglomerado en dos etapas que genera muestras representativas de estudiantes de 12 a 15 años de las escuelas secundarias públicas, privadas y técnicas. Incluye 42 024 estudiantes de 492 escuelas en el periodo 2003-2005. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística y se obtuvieron razones de momios crudas y ajustadas. Resultados. La prevalencia de fumadores en el mes anterior a la encuesta fue de 19.96% (IC95% 18.1-21.8). El índice de susceptibilidad de iniciarse en el consumo de cigarrillos fue de 25%. A 60% de los fumadores que compraron cigarrillos no les negaron la venta por ser menores de edad. El 54% de los estudiantes declara que está expuesto al humo de tabaco en lugares públicos y 86% ha visto anuncios de cigarrillos en exteriores en el mes previo a la encuesta. Conclusión. Una intervención integral debe orientarse a impedir el acceso de los menores a los cigarrillos; dificultar el acto de fumar y prohibir toda forma de publicidad del tabaco. Asimismo, se deben ofrecer opciones a quienes deseen dejar de fumar y educar a los adolescentes y sus familias sobre los daños a la salud de los fumadores y no fumadores.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2005; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article is aimed to analyze the current situation of the tobacco epidemic in Mexico as well as progress in the struggle against tobacco. Mexico was the first country in the Americas to ratify the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC). Currently, 36% of men over 18 are smokers and among women there is a prevalence of 13%. Besides this, 26% of the population is exposed to tobacco smoke from other smokers in the home. These figures vary slightly according to the source, and the definition used for smoker. Among adolescents, the initiation of tobacco consumption tends constantly towards an earlier age and no differences exist between men and women. In both cases, 19% had smoked in the month previous to the application of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and 46% cohabit with other smokers. Among the principal challenges faced is the need to limit the access of minors to tobacco, as 37% of adolescent smokers buy cigarettes in the shops and 62% were not denied the purchase, because they were under age. Mortality attributable to tobacco in Mexico is estimated to be in the tens of thousands. Recently, a conservative estimate calculated that 25,383 deaths occur annually among those over 35 years of age, related to causes attributable to tobacco consumption.
    Prevention and Control 12/2005; 1(4):319-327.
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to assess the relationship between level of cigarette smoking and social factors indicating permissiveness of smoking among youth. This was a school-based cross-sectional questionnaire study carried out in a random sample of students (n=13,293, 11-24 years) at public schools in Morelos, Mexico. Chi2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate correlates of level of smoking (> or < or = 5 cigarettes/day). There is a rising trend in smoking among Mexican in-school youth, a tendency towards smoking initiation at increasingly younger ages and a decrease in the gender gap regarding smoking. When young people smoked at home, at school and outside, they were over fives times as likely to smoke >5 cigarettes/day. Prevention of smoking among Mexican adolescents should emphasize smoke-free schools, no smoking policies in the community and parental anti-tobacco education.
    Addictive Behaviors 07/2005; 30(5):1035-41. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Estimar los costos de atención médica en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Delegación Morelos, de las enfermedades mayores atribuibles al consumo de tabaco. Materiales y métodos. Las estimaciones de costos se realizaron desde la perspectiva del proveedor utilizando la metodología de costeo de enfermedad. Un panel de expertos multidisciplinario caracterizó la atención médica, en términos de la frecuencia de utilización de servicios en el primer y segundo niveles de atención, considerando el grado de severidad de la enfermedad. Los costos unitarios se estimaron en pesos mexicanos del 2001. Para estimar los costos atribuibles al tabaquismo se utilizó la fracción atribuible al consumo de tabaco para cada enfermedad (FA). Resultados. Los costos promedio anuales de atención médica en el primer y segundo niveles de atención en la Delegación Morelos corresponden a 79 530 pesos para infarto agudo del miocardio (IAM), 73 303 pesos para enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y 102 215 pesos para cáncer de pulmón (CP). El costo total anual para la Delegación por estas tres enfermedades asciende a 147 millones 390 mil 688 pesos. Los costos atribuibles al consumo de tabaco corresponden a 124 millones de pesos, lo cual equivale a 7.3% del presupuesto anual de la Delegación. Conclusiones. Estos resultados confirman el alto costo de la atención médica en el IMSS correspondiente a las enfermedades atribuibles al consumo de tabaco. Se recomienda realizar este estudio en el plano nacional, de tal manera que los tomadores de decisiones tengan herramientas para fortalecer las políticas de control del tabaquismo en México.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2005; · 0.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

131 Citations
27.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2009
    • Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
      • The Center for Population Health Research
      Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
  • 2008
    • University of South Carolina
      Columbia, South Carolina, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2005
    • Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Craiova
      Croiova, Dolj, Romania
    • National Institute of Public Health
      København, Capital Region, Denmark