Leili Jia

Academy of Military Medical Sciences, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (19)52.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing method has recently been developed and used for typing and subtyping of Salmonella spp., but it is still complicated and labor intensive because it has to analyze all spacers in two CRISPR loci. Here, we developed a more convenient and efficient method, namely CRISPR Loci Spacer-Pair Typing (CLSPT), which only needs to analyze the two newly incorporated spacers adjoining the leader array in the two CRISPR loci. We analyzed the CRISPR array of 82 strains belonging to 21 Salmonella serovars isolated from human in different area of China by using this new method. We also retrieved the newly incorporated spacers in each CRISPR locus of 537 Salmonella isolates which have definite serotypes in the Institut Pasteur CRISPR Database to evaluate this method. Our findings showed that this new CLSPT method presents a high consistency (Kappa = 0.9872, MCC= 0.9712) with traditional serotyping and thus it can also be used for prediction of serotypes of Salmonella spp. Moreover, this new method has a considerable discriminatory power (DI = 0.8145) when compared with multilocus sequence typing (DI = 0.8088) and conventional CRISPR typing (DI = 0.8684). Because CLSPT only costs about $5 to $10 per isolate, it is a much cheaper and more attractive method for subtyping of Salmonella. In conclusion, this new method will provide considerable advantages over other molecular subtyping methods, and it may become a valuable epidemiologic tool for the surveillance of Salmonella infections.
    Journal of clinical microbiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) occurred in China. Epidemiological investigations of this outbreak revealed that the proportion of severe cases (14/43, 33%) was higher than in other outbreaks associated with CVB5 in China. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire VP1 sequences demonstrated that the CVB5 isolates from the severe cases form a distinct lineage belonging to genogroup E with the Shandong isolates of 2009. A substitution of serine (S) to asparagine (N) at amino acid 95 in the VP1 region may be a major virulence determinant for the virus. Our findings suggest that this new lineage of CVB5 is circulating in China. Further genetic studies are needed in order to gain a better insight into the genetic variability of CVB5 isolates and the relationship with pathogenicity.
    International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 04/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and pathogenic molecular characteristics of an hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak caused by enterovirus 71 in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China during November 30 to December 28, 2010. One hundred and seventy three stool specimens and 40 throat samples were collected from 173 hospitalized cases. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Among the 173 cases reported in December 2010, the male-female ratio was 1.88: 1; 23 cases (13.3%) were severe. The majority of patients were children aged < 5 years (95.4%). Some patients developed respiratory symptoms including runny nose (38.2%), cough (20.2%), and sore throat (14.5%). One hundred and thirty eight EV71 positive cases were identified based on real time reverse-transcription PCR detection and 107 isolates were sequenced with the VP1 region. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length VP1 sequences of 107 Linyi EV71 isolates showed that they belonged to the C4a cluster of the C4 subgenotype and were divided into 3 lineages (Lineage I, II and III). The two amino acid substitutions (Gly and Gln for Glu) at position 145 within the VP1 region are more likely to appear in EV71 isolates from severe cases (52.2%) than those recovered from mild cases (8.3%). This outbreak of HMFD was caused by EV71 in an atypical winter. EV71 strains associated with this outbreak represented three separate chains of transmission. Substitution at amino acid position 145 of the VP1 region of EV71 might be an important virulence marker for severe cases. These findings suggest that continued surveillance for EV71 variants has the potential to greatly impact HFMD prevention and control.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2014; 14(1):123. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) occurred in China. Epidemiological investigations of this outbreak revealed that the proportion of severe cases (14/43, 33%) was higher than in other outbreaks associated with CVB5 in China. Phylogenetic analysis of the entire VP1 sequences demonstrated that the CVB5 isolates from the severe cases form a distinct lineage belonging to genogroup E with the Shandong isolates of 2009. A substitution of serine (S) to asparagine (N) at amino acid 95 in the VP1 region may be a major virulence determinant for the virus. Our findings suggest that this new lineage of CVB5 is circulating in China. Further genetic studies are needed in order to gain a better insight into the genetic variability of CVB5 isolates and the relationship with pathogenicity.
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To construct a eukaryotic expression vector containing human complement receptor 2 (CR2)-Fc and express the CR2-Fc fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Methods The extracellular domain of human CR2 and IgG1 Fc were respectively amplified, ligated and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector PCI-neo. After verified by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO K1 cells. The ones with stable expression of the fusion protein were obtained by means of G418 selection. The expression of the CR2-Fc fusion protein was detected and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Results Restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing demonstrated that the recombinant plasmid was valid. SDS-PAGE showed that relative molecular mass (Mr;) of the purified product was consistent with the expected value. Western blotting further proved the single band at the same position. Conclusion We constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of CR2-Fc/PCI-neo successfully. The obtained fusion protein was active and can be used for the further study of the role in HIV control.
    Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology 01/2014; 30(1):1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiviral agents or vaccines, an effective immunosuppressive strategy would be valuable to alleviate the severity of the local inflammation induced by EV71 infection. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: The complement system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system results in a severe inflammatory reaction or numerous pathological injuries. Previous studies have revealed that EV71 infection can induce complement activation and an inflammatory response of the CNS. CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. In this paper, a mouse model is proposed to test whether a recombinant fusion protein consisting of CR2 and a region of Crry (CR2-Crry) is able to specifically inhibit the local complement activation induced by EV71 infection, and to observe whether this treatment strategy can alleviate or even cure the neurogenic inflammation. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. 7-day-old ICR mice are inoculated intracranially with EV71 to duplicate the neurological symptoms. The mice are then divided into two groups, in one of which the mice are treated with CR2-Crry targeted complement inhibitor, and in the other with phosphate-buffered saline. A group of mice deficient in complement C3, the breakdown products of which bind to CR2, are also infected with EV71 virus. The potential bioavailability and efficacy of the targeted complement inhibitor are evaluated by histology, immunofluorescence staining and radiolabeling. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: CR2-Crry-mediated targeting complement inhibition will alleviate the local inflammation and provide an effective treatment for the severe neurological diseases associated with EV71 infection.
    Virology Journal 11/2012; 9(1):285. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eighteen out of 45 children were reported to have a respiratory illness during an outbreak at a temporary dormitory in a nursery school in China in 2011. To study the outbreak and to determine the risk factors for infection, an epidemiological investigation was performed. A standardized questionnaire was completed for a total of 45 children with the help of their guardians and parents. In addition, acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples and throat swabs from the children were taken for laboratory diagnosis. The diagnosis of a Mycoplasma-like illness was based on the following clinical criteria. The criteria were onset of illness after 31 May 2011, characterized by a cough, fever(>37.5 °C), or at least 3 of the following symptoms: fever, sore throat, cough or expectoration, and runny or stuffy nose. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), determination of MICs, and sequencing were performed to determine the genotype, antibiotic resistance, and sequence polymorphisms of the isolated strains, respectively. The paired sera revealed that 15 patients were infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Epidemiology confirmed that this was a point source outbreak, characterized by a short incubation period, a high secondary attack rate, and a long period of hospitalization. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed that the 12 isolated strains of M. pneumoniae shared the same subtype P1 gene, and 23S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains harbored two macrolide-resistant gene-related point mutations at position 2063 and 2617. In this outbreak, the major risk factor was the distance between the bed of the first patient and the beds of close contacts (beds less than three meters apart). The strains isolated in this study were found to harbor two point mutations conferring macrolide resistance, indicating the importance of pathogen and drug resistance surveillance systems.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2012; 56(7):3748-52. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O127a:K63 strain with resistance to quinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins isolated from a 2010 food poisoning outbreak involving 112 adults in China. Two resistance genes [bla(CTX-M-15), aac(6')-Ib-c] and five mutations (two in gyrA, two in parC, one in parE) coexisted in this enteropathogenic E. coli strain.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 05/2012; 50(7):2450-1. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the first isolation of a new Shigella flexneri serotype, designated 4s, in Beijing, China. Genotypic and phenotypic profiling suggests that this isolate is a clone of the S. flexneri serotype X variant reference strain. Of particular concern is the multidrug resistance exhibited by this isolate.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2010; 49(3):1148-50. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, an outbreak of foodborne botulism occurred in Hebei province, China. An epidemiological investigation and laboratory detection studies showed that sausage contaminated by type A Clostridium botulinum caused this outbreak of food poisoning. Its clinical and epidemiological features were different from previous reports of food poisoning.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 51(3):322-5. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The type IV secretion system (T4SS) contributes to Brucella intracellular survival through its effector proteins. Comparative proteomic analysis showed that intracellular survival proteins are expressed differentially in a virB mutant. Interestingly, several outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are also differentially expressed, implying that T4SS might affect the OM properties of Brucella. To further evaluate the impact of T4SS on OM, in the present study, the OM proteomes were isolated and compared. Many more products of OMPs, particularly different products of the Omp25/Omp31 family, were found to be altered in the virB mutant. The transcription profiles of Omp25/Omp31 were different from those of their protein products, implying their regulation by virB at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The virB mutant aggregates at a high cell density and produces exopolysaccharide, a phenotype resembling that of the vjbR mutant. The virB mutant showed increased sensitivity to polymyxin B and decreased survival under oxidative, high-salt and high-osmolarity stresses, indicating drastic membrane alterations. These results indicated that in addition to being an effector protein secretion system, T4SS affects OM properties that might be important for the adaptation of Brucella to both in vitro and in vivo hostile environments.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 02/2010; 303(1):92-100. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza is a respiratory disease that seriously threatens human health. In fact, influenza virus itself does not make critical contribution to mortality induced by influenza, but "cytokine storm" produced by the excessive immune response triggered by the virus can result in inflammatory reaction of lung tissues and fatal lung tissue injury, and thus increase influenza mortality. Therefore, besides antiviral drugs, immunosuppression drugs should also be included in infection treatment. Complement is the center of inflammatory reaction. If complement system is over activated, the body will have strong inflammatory reaction or tissue injury, resulting in pathological process. Many studies have proved that, inflammatory injury of lung tissues caused by influenza virus is closely related to complement activation. Therefore, inhibiting complement activation can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues. As complement is both a physiological defense and pathological damage medium, systematic inhibition may result in side effects including infection. Therefore, we design targeting complement inhibitors for complement activation sites, i.e. with CR2 as targeting vector, complement inhibitors like CD59 and Crry are targeted to inflammatory sites to specially inhibit the complement activation in local injury, thus local inflammatory reaction is inhibited. CR2-CD59 and CR2-Crry targeting complement inhibitors are fusion-expressed, and their biological activity is examined via in vivo and in vitro tests. CR2 targeting complement inhibitors are used to treat mouse influenza viral pneumonia model, with PBS treatment group as the control. The survival and lung tissue injury of the mice is observed and the effect of CR2 targeting complement inhibitors on pneumonia induced by influenza virus is evaluated. CR2 targeting complement inhibitors are expected to be ideal drugs for viral pneumonia.
    Virology Journal 02/2010; 7:30. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complement system is not only a key component of innate immunity but also provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens, especially for viral pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), however, possesses several mechanisms to evade complement-mediated lysis (CoML) and exploit the complement system to enhance viral infectivity. Responsible for this intrinsic resistance against complement-mediated virolysis are complement regulatory membrane proteins derived from the host cell that inherently downregulates complement activation at several stages of the cascade. In addition, HIV is protected from complement-mediated lysis by binding soluble factor H (fH) through the viral envelope proteins, gp120 and gp41. Whereas inhibition of complement activity is the desired outcome in the vast majority of therapeutic approaches, there is a broader potential for complement-mediated inhibition of HIV by complement local stimulation. Our previous studies have proven that the complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infection is mediated by the association of complement receptor type 2 bound to the C3 fragment and deposited on the surface of HIV virions. Thus, we hypothesize that another new activator of complement, consisting of two dsFv (against gp120 and against C3d respectively) linked to a complement-activating human IgG1 Fc domain ((anti-gp120 x anti-C3d)-Fc), can not only target and amplify complement activation on HIV virions for enhancing the efficiency of HIV lysis, but also reduce the infectivity of HIV through blocking the gp120 and C3d on the surface of HIV. Our hypothesis was tested using cell-free HIV-1 virions cultivated in vitro and assessment of virus opsonization was performed by incubating appropriate dilutions of virus with medium containing normal human serum and purified (anti-gp120 x anti-C3d)-Fc proteins. As a control group, viruses were incubated with normal human serum under the same conditions. Virus neutralization assays were used to estimate the degree of (anti-gp120 x anti-C3d)-Fc lysis of HIV compared to untreated virus. The targeted complement activator, (anti-gp120 x anti-C3d)-Fc, can be used as a novel approach to HIV therapy by abrogating the complement-enhanced HIV infection of cells.
    Virology Journal 01/2010; 7:142. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complement system is one of the most potent weapons of innate immunity. It is not only a mechanism for direct protection against invading pathogens but it also interacts with the adaptive immunity to optimize the pathogen-specific humoral and cellular defense cascades in the body. Complement-mediated lysis of HIV is inefficient but the presence of HIV particles results in complement activation by the generation of many C3-fragments, such as C3dg and C3d. It has been demonstrated that activation of complement can enhance HIV infection through the binding of special complement receptor type 2 expression on the surface of mature B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Previous studies have proven that the complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infection is mediated by the association of complement receptor type 2 bound to the C3 fragment and deposited on the surface of HIV virions. Thus, we hypothesize that a new activator of complement, consisting of a target domain (C3-binding region of complement receptor type 2) linked to a complement-activating human IgG1 Fc domain (CR2-Fc), can target and amplify complement deposition on HIV virions and enhance the efficiency of HIV lysis. Our hypothesis was tested using cell-free HIV-1 virions cultivated in vitro and assessment of virus opsonization was performed by incubating appropriate dilutions of virus with medium containing normal human serum and purified CR2-Fc proteins. As a control group, viruses were incubated with normal human serum under the same conditions. Virus neutralization assays were used to estimate the degree of CR2-Fc-enhanced lysis of HIV compared to untreated virus. The targeted complement activator, CR2-Fc, can be used as a novel approach to HIV therapy by abrogating the complement-enhanced HIV infection of cells.
    Virology Journal 09/2009; 6:123. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brucella melitensis is a facultative, intracellular, pathogenic bacterium that replicates within macrophages. The type IV secretion system encoded by the virB operon (virB) is involved in Brucella intracellular survival. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms, especially the target proteins affected by the virB, remain largely unclear. In order to define the proteins affected by virB, the proteomes of wild-type and the virB mutant were compared under in vitro conditions where virB was highly activated. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Forty-four down-regulated and eighteen up-regulated proteins which exhibited a 2-fold or greater change were identified. These proteins included those involved in amino acid transport and metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy production, cell membrane biogenesis, translation, post-translational modifications and protein turnover, as well as unknown proteins. Interestingly, several important virulence related proteins involved in intracellular survival, including VjbR, DnaK, HtrA, Omp25, and GntR, were down-regulated in the virB mutant. Transcription analysis of virB and vjbR at different growth phase showed that virB positively affect transcription of vjbR in a growth phase dependent manner. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that transcription of these genes was also affected by virB during macrophage cell infection, consistent with the observed decreased survival of the virB mutant in macrophage. These data indicated that the virB operon may control the intracellular survival of Brucella by affecting the expression of relevant proteins.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5368. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) heterogeneity accounts for the failure of effective vaccine development and the lack of successful anti-viral therapy in some patients. Little is known about the immune response to HCV peptides and the region or race specific genotypes in China. The objective of this study was to characterize HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides and HCV genotypes in different regions and races of China. A total of 363 serum samples were collected from HCV carriers in 6 regions in China. The immune response to HCV peptides was evaluated by ELISA. HCV genotypes were examined using nested RT-PCR. We found that the anti-HCV antibody neutralization rates were significantly different among the serum samples from different areas or from different races in the same area. For samples from Tibet and Sinkiang, the rates of neutralization by HCV peptides were only 3.2% and 30.8%, respectively. The genotypes of samples from Tibet and Sinkiang were apparently heterogeneic and included type I, II, III and multiple types (I/II/III, I/II, I/III, II/III). One specific sample with multiple-genotype (I/II/III) HCV infection was found to consist of type I, II, III, II/III and an unclassified genotype. These studies indicate that the anti-HCV antibody immune response to HCV peptides varied across regions and among races. The distribution of HCV genotypes among Tibetans in Tibet and Uighurs in Sinkiang was different from that in the inner areas of China. In addition, a "master" genotype, type II, was found to exist in HCV infection with multiple HCV genotypes.
    International journal of biological sciences 02/2009; 5(5):421-7. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a new method to cline large DNA fragment by combining whole genome sequence information and the principle of plasmid rescue. First, we amplified a fragment downstream the region to be cloned and cloned the fragment into a suicide plasmid to construct targeting plasmid, which was then targeted into chromosome by homologous recombination. Then, genomic DNA was isolated, digested with appropriate enzyme, re-ligated and transformed into host bacteria to rescue the plasmid and the large DNA fragment. The rescued DNA fragment was sub-cloned into new plasmids for special purposes. Using this method, we successfully cloned the 11kb virB operon of Brucella and constructed complementary plasmid. The transcription of the disrupted virB operon was restored with the complementary plasmid, validating the feasibility of the strategy. This recombinational cloning strategy provides us a new method to modify large DNA fragment of bacteria.
    ACTA MICROBIOLOGICA SINICA 05/2008; 48(4):532-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to pursue the techniques involving the screening of the human antibody Fab fragment against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and the construction of its disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (dsFv). The phage antibody Fab fragments against HBsAg were screened from the human combinatorial immunoglobulin library. Sequence analysis revealed that its heavy chain gene was complete, but the light chain gene was lost. To improve the affinity of the antibody by chain shuffling, a human antibody light chain gene repertoire was generated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from the human peripheral blood lymphocytes. A phage antibody sub-library was then constructed by inserting the light chain gene repertoire into the phagmid that contained the Fd gene. Five clones with appreciably higher absorbance than that of the original clones were obtained, which indicated that the affinity of the light chain-shuffled phage antibodies was improved. Then, the mutated genes of dsFv against HBsAg were constructed by using PCR-based point mutagenesis method. Purified V(H) and V(L) proteins were folded into a 25-kDa protein, designated as anti-HBsAg dsFv. ELISA and competition ELISA revealed that the dsFv maintained the specificity of the Fab by binding to HBsAg, even through with a lower binding activity. These results have facilitated the undertaking of further functional analyses of the constructed dsFv, and may therefore provide an improved technique for the production and application of dsFvs against HBsAg.
    International journal of biological sciences 02/2008; 4(2):103-10. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of Bifidobacterium longum to the intestinal tract, we utilized a new model for rabbit intestinal culture of B. longum and reported the changes in proteomic profiles after incubation in the in vivo environment. By 2D-PAGE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses, proteomic profiles of B. longum strain NCC2705 grown in the in vivo and in vitro environments were compared. Confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, which exhibited at least a 3-fold change or greater, 19 up-regulated proteins, 14 down-regulated proteins, and 4 proteins with mobility changes were identified during intestinal growth. These identified proteins include key stress proteins, metabolism-related proteins, and proteins related to translation. Our results indicate that some useful proteins are expressed at higher levels in cells during intestinal growth. These proteins reflected the adaptation of B. longum NCC2705 to the intestine, such as EF-Tu which contributes to the retention or attachment as a Bifidobacterium adhesin-like factor, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) which might play an important role in the molecular mechanisms for the initial interaction of probiotic with the intestinal environment, and stress proteins which defend B. longum against the action of bile salts and other harmful ingredients of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The most striking fact of our observation was that four proteins GlnA1, PurC, LuxS, and Pgk exhibit clear post-translational modification. Western blot (WB) analysis and Pro-Q Diamond staining revealed that substances of the GIT trigger Pgk and LuxS phosphorylation at Ser/Thr residues for bacteria grown in vivo. These proteins were identified for the first time as bifidobacterial phosphoproteins. Our data suggest that the phosphorylated autoinducer-2 production protein LuxS of B. longum NCC2705 (LuxS-P) is the active form of LuxS and that LuxS-P may play a key role in the regulation of quorum sensing.
    Journal of Proteome Research 02/2008; 7(1):375-85. · 5.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

88 Citations
52.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Academy of Military Medical Sciences
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2012
    • Chinese PLA General Hospital (301 Hospital)
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009
    • Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Peping, Beijing, China