C. Larroche

French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (118)247.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Primary Sjögren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by mouth and eye dryness, pain, and fatigue. Hydroxychloroquine is the most frequently prescribed immunosuppressant for the syndrome. However, evidence regarding its efficacy is limited.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2014; 312(3):249-58. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a group of acquired myopathies characterized by prominent myofiber necrosis with little or no muscle inflammation. Recently, researchers identified autoantibodies (aAb) against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in patients with NAM, especially in statin-exposed patients. Here we report what is to our knowledge the first European cohort of patients with NAM.The serum of 206 patients with suspicion of NAM was tested for detection of anti-HMGCR aAb using an addressable laser bead immunoassay. Forty-five patients were found to be anti-HMGCR positive. Their mean age was 48.9 ± 21.9 years and the group was predominantly female (73.3%). Statin exposure was recorded in 44.4% of patients. Almost all patients had a muscular deficit (97.7%), frequently severe (Medical Research Council [MRC] 5 ≤3 in 75.5%). Subacute onset (<6 mo) was noted for most of them (64.4%). Nevertheless, 3 patients (6.6%) had a slowly progressive course over more than 10 years. Except for weight loss (20%), no extramuscular sign was observed. The mean CK level was high (6941 ± 8802 IU/L) and correlated with muscle strength evaluated by manual muscle testing (r = -0.37, p = 0.03). Similarly, anti-HMGCR aAb titers were correlated with muscular strength (r = -0.31; p = 0.03) and CK level (r = 0.45; p = 0.01). Mean duration of treatment was 34.1 ± 40.8 months, and by the end of the study no patient had been able to stop treatment.This study confirms the observation and description of anti-HMGCR aAb associated with NAM. The majority of patients were statin naive and needed prolonged treatments. Some patients had a dystrophic-like presentation. Anti-HMGR aAb titers correlated with CK levels and muscle strength, suggesting their pathogenic role.
    Medicine 05/2014; 93(3):150-7. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We studied the clinical phenotypes and tolerance to treatments in a series of patients affected by both inflammatory joint diseases and mastocytosis. Methods This retrospective multicenter study was conducted on behalf of 3 networks, focused on mastocytosis, pediatric and adults’ inflammatory joint diseases respectively. Patients who displayed both mastocytosis and inflammatory joint diseases were included. Results Thirty-one patients were included. They had spondyloarthritis (SpA) (16 patients), rheumatoid arthritis (6 patients), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (2 patients), and undifferentiated arthritis (7 patients). The median ages at diagnosis of arthritis rheumatism and mastocytosis were 44 and 40.5 years respectively. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were required in 22 patients, comprising mostly methotrexate (13 patients), salazopyrine (8 patients), anti-tumor-necrosing-factor agents (7 patients) and corticosteroids (9 patients). They were well tolerated. Adverse events occurred in 2/24 patients receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The prevalence of SpA among the 600 patients included in the mastocytosis cohort was 2.33%, which is significantly higher than the prevalence of SpA in the French population (p< 0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that mastocytosis is associated with a higher prevalence of SpA than expected, and that DMARDs, notably anti-TNFα agents, are well tolerated in patients with mastocytosis. Mast cells might be involved in the development of SpA.
    Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) and the EULAR SS Patient-Reported Index (ESSPRI) were recently developed. We aimed to determine whether patients' symptoms differed between patients with and without systemic involvement and if the disease-specific indices correlated with each other in primary SS. Methods Fifteen French centers included 395 primary SS patients in the Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution in Sjögren's Syndrome Cohort. At enrollment, physicians completed the ESSDAI, the SS Disease Activity Index (SSDAI), and the Sjögren's Systemic Clinical Activity Index (SCAI), and patients completed the ESSPRI, the Sicca Symptoms Inventory, and the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort. All scores were compared between patients with and without systemic involvement. Correlations between scores of systemic activity and patients' symptoms were obtained. ResultsAt enrollment, 120 (30.4%) patients had never experienced systemic complication and 155 (39.2%) patients and 120 (30.4%) patients had, respectively, only past or current systemic manifestations. Past or current systemic patients had higher levels of symptoms, except dryness. The ESSDAI did not correlate with the patient-scored ESSPRI (rho = 0.06, P = 0.30), whereas the SSDAI and the SCAI, which include subjective items, did correlate (rho = 0.28 and 0.25, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both). Conclusion Alterations of common patient-reported outcomes are present in all patients with primary SS, including those with systemic complications. However, patient symptoms and systemic complications are 2 different facets of primary SS. Therefore, the use of both systemic and patients' indices, such as the ESSDAI and ESSPRI, are useful. Since these 2 facets weakly overlap, one should identify which of both components is the main target of the treatment to test, when designing clinical trials in primary SS.
    Arthritis Care & Research. 08/2013; 65(8).
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of adding a 10-week treatment of adalimumab to a standardised treatment with corticosteroids on the ability to taper more rapidly corticosteroid doses in patients with newly diagnosed giant cell arteritis (GCA). Patients included in this double-blind, multicentre controlled trial were randomly assigned to receive a 10-week subcutaneous treatment of adalimumab 40 mg every other week or placebo in addition to a standard prednisone regimen (starting dose 0.7 mg/kg per day). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients in remission on less than 0.1 mg/kg of prednisone at week 26. Analysis was performed by intention to treat (ITT). Among the 70 patients enrolled (adalimumab, n=34; placebo, n=36), 10 patients did not receive the scheduled treatment, seven in the adalimumab and three in the placebo group. By ITT, the number of patients achieving the primary endpoint was 20 (58.9%) and 18 (50.0%) in the adalimumab and placebo arm, respectively (p=0.46). The decrease in prednisone dose and the proportion of patients who were relapse free did not differ between the two groups. Serious adverse events occurred in five (14.7%) patients on adalimumab and 17 (47.2%) on placebo, including serious infections in three patients on adalimumab and five on placebo. Two patients died in the placebo arm (septic shock and cancer) and one in the adalimumab group (pneumonia). In patients with newly diagnosed GCA, adding a 10-week treatment of adalimumab to prednisone did not increase the number of patients in remission on less than 0.1 mg/kg of corticosteroids at 6 months. NCT00305539.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 07/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mastocytosis can lead to organ failure as well as systemic symptoms that can be disabling, with considerable deterioration in quality of life. Beside symptomatic treatments, interferon-α and purine analogues have been shown to be effective but complete or long-term remission is rarely obtained with these drugs. We conducted a phase II, multicentre, study to investigate thalidomide in severely symptomatic indolent and aggressive systemic mastocytosis. Twenty patients were enrolled of whom 16 were analysed for response. The overall response rate was 56%. Responses were observed in the skin in 61% of patients with a significant decrease in the pruritus score. Mast cell mediator-related symptoms responded in 71% of cases and 25% of aggressive systemic mastocytosis patients had a response in terms of B/C findings (borderline/cytoreduction needed). Bone marrow mast cell infiltration decreased in five of the eight evaluable patients. There was no significant improvement in the AFIRMM (Association Française pour les Initiatives de Recherche sur le Mastocyte et Les Mastocytoses), Quality of Life or Hamilton scores. Grade 3-4 toxicities consisted of peripheral neuropathy (11%) and myelosuppression (neutropenia: 5%; thrombocytopenia: 11%). In conclusion, thalidomide might be useful in mastocytosis and in the treatment of mast cell-related symptoms. It might be considered in selected patients, taking into account the benefit/risk balance and the individual patient evaluation.
    British Journal of Haematology 02/2013; · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytosis during Q fever (QF) and Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is rare and only a few cases have been reported. We aimed to investigate the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of QF/MSF-associated hemophagocytosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a diagnosis of QF or MSF and suspected hemophagocytic syndrome (HS), according to Henter's criteria, between 2002 and 2011, and compared the latter to patients without HS or with lymphoma-associated HS. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with HS (median age 42 years, range 5-68 years; five females (29%)) with QF (n=8) and MSF (n=9) were included in this study. When comparing patients with QF- and MSF-associated HS with patients without HS (n=11), HS-associated signs (splenomegaly, ferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and cytopenia) were significantly more frequent in patients with histological HS (p<0.05), along with a greater number of Henter's criteria. Despite the presence of HS-associated signs, treatment was similar in these two subgroups, including the time to recovery and the outcome. When compared to lymphoma-associated HS (n=10), the outcome in QF/MSF-associated HS was significantly different, with mortality in 70% of lymphoma patients versus none in QF- and MSF-associated HS (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Hemophagocytosis is a rare occurrence during the course of QF and MSF. The presence of profound cytopenia is quite unusual in QF and MSF and should bring to mind the presence of associated HS. Nevertheless, hemophagocytic syndrome is associated with a good outcome in this condition.
    International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 02/2013; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the clinical and immunological characteristics at enrollment in a large prospective cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and to investigate the association between serum BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins and systemic disease activity at enrollment. Three hundred and ninety five patients with pSS according to American-European Consensus Criteria were included from fifteen centers of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine in the "Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution of Sjögren's Syndrome" (ASSESS) 5-year prospective cohort. At enrollment, serum markers were assessed as well as activity of the disease measured with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI). Patient median age was 58 (25(th)-75(th): 51-67) and median disease duration was 5 (2-9) years. Median ESSDAI at enrollment was 2 (0-7) with 30.9% of patients having features of systemic involvement. Patients with elevated BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and kappa, lambda FLCS had higher ESSDAI scores at enrollment (4 [2]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P = 0.03; 4 [1]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P< 0.0001); 4 [2]-[10] vs 2 [0-6.6], P< 0.0001 and 4 [2-8.2] vs 2 [0-7.0], P = 0.02, respectively). In multivariate analysis, increased beta2-microglobulin, kappa and lambda FLCs were associated with a higher ESSDAI score. Median BAFF and beta2-microglobulin were higher in the 16 patients with history of lymphoma (1173.3(873.1-3665.5) vs 898.9 (715.9-1187.2) pg/ml, P = 0.01 and 2.6 (2.2-2.9) vs 2.1 (1.8-2.6) mg/l, P = 0.04, respectively). In pSS, higher levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with increased systemic disease activity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e59868. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: The AutoImmune and Rituximab registry has included 86 patients with pSS treated with rituximab, prospectivey followed up every 6 months for 5 years. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients with pSS (11 men, 67 women), who already had at least one follow-up visit, were analysed. Median age was 59.8 years (29-83), median duration of disease was 11.9 years (3-32). Indications for treatment were systemic involvement for 74 patients and only severe glandular involvement in four patients. The median European Sjögren's Syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) was 11 (2-31). 17 patients were concomitantly treated with another immunosuppressant agent. Median follow-up was 34.9 months (6-81.4) (226 patient-years). Overall efficacy according to the treating physician was observed in 47 patients (60%) after the first cycle of rituximab. Median ESSDAI decreased from 11 (2-31) to 7.5 (0-26) (p<0.0001). Median dosage of corticosteroid decreased from 17.6 mg/day (3-60) to 10.8 mg/day (p=0.1). Forty-one patients were retreated with rituximab. Four infusion reactions and one delayed serum sickness-like disease resulted in rituximab discontinuation. Three serious infections (1.3/100 patient-years) and two cancer-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In common practice, the use of rituximab in pSS is mostly restricted to patients with systemic involvement. This prospective study shows good efficacy and tolerance of rituximab in patients with pSS and systemic involvement.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 12/2012; · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of rituximab in central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Prospective data from patients with pSS and CNS involvement included in the French AutoImmunity and Rituximab registry were analysed. All patients had diffuse white matter T2-weigted hypersignals. Neurological response was defined as improvement or disappearance of neurological signs. Eleven patients (mean age 55 years [38-77]) were treated with rituximab for their neurological involvement. The mean duration of pSS was 9 years (4-24). Mean baseline ESSDAI score was 17 (5-25). Neurological features were progressive multiple sclerosis-like manifestations (n=6), transverse myelitis (n=1), anxiety and depression disorder (n=1) and cognitive dysfunction (n=3). Mean Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) before rituximab was 4 (3-5.5). The mean follow-up was of 13 months (6-58). No neurological change occurred in all 6 patients with multiple sclerosis-like symptoms, in 2/3 patients with cognitive dysfunction or in the patient with anxiety-depression. One patient with depression and cognitive dysfunction disclosed subjective improvement. One patient with transverse myelitis, refractory to cyclophosphamide had an improvement of his walk perimeter (160 meters vs. 116). Mean EDSS score and ESSDAI remained stable. Rituximab does not seem to be effective in progressive multiple sclerosis-like manifestations of patients with pSS-related CNS involvement.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 02/2012; 30(2):208-12. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a case series of patients investigated in internal medicine for an inflammation of the orbit and to clarify the clinical and pathological features of patients with idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS). Forty patients were consecutively referred by a specialized center where an orbital biopsy was performed in case of accessible lesion. Eleven patients were excluded because of missing data or diagnosis of lymphomas, periorbital xanthogranulomas, or Graves' disease. Patients with systemic disease (SD) or auto-immune disorder (AID) that validated the international criteria, or those having an IOIS in the absence of local or systemic etiology, were included. The clinicopathologic and immunologic characteristics of IOIS patients, their treatment and their evolutionary profiles are reported according to the histological types described by Mombaerts. Of the 29 patients enrolled, eight had a dacryoadenitis revealing a SD/AID, mainly a necrotizing vasculitis, seven patients had a presumed IOIS and 14 an IOIS histologically documented. The presentation of IOIS was dominated by a diffuse involvement of the orbit. Corticosteroids were administered alone or with an immunosuppressant in 57 and 24% of IOIS patients, respectively. The incidence of relapse/resistance was higher than that of remission, particularly in case of presumed IOIS or in its classical form. All four patients with a stage III-IV of Chisholm were relapsing or resistant. A dacryoadenitis may reveal some types of SD/AID. Unlike the severe sialadenitis, the form of sclerosing IOIS may not be a factor associated with relapse or resistance.
    La Revue de Médecine Interne 01/2012; 33(2):69-75. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular manifestations of Cogan's syndrome are rarely reported. We report the case of a young woman followed for typical Cogan's disease. Serious vascular involvement was found only during work-up for arterial hypertension. This case highlights potentially asymptomatic nature of extensive vasculitis affecting large and medium-sized vessels in Cogan's disease. Careful screening is required to prevent life-threatening complications.
    Journal des Maladies Vasculaires 12/2011; 37(1):19-21. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) in patients with refractory idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). RTX efficacy was based on improvement in three criteria: creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level, daily CS dose and physicians' opinion. A decrease in CPK level or CS dose was significant if it was >25%. Thirty patients were studied (21 women; age 52.5 years, disease duration 6.1 years). All had previously received immunosuppressors (ISs). Twenty-five patients received 1 g of RTX twice 2 weeks apart and five received 4 weekly RTX infusions (375 mg/m(2)). RTX was given in association with IS in 21 patients. Twenty-eight patients received CS (mean dose 21.2 mg/day). Mean follow-up was 17.2 months. Thirteen adverse events were reported, including seven infections and one serious infection (pyelonephritis). RTX was effective in 16 patients. Duration of efficacy was 15.5 months. Of the 20 patients with baseline CPK level ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN), 11 (55%) improved. The main level fell from 20.7 to 11 × ULN. CS decreased in 15 patients, stopped in 4, remained stable in 8 and increased in the remaining 3. The CS dose decreased from 21.2 to 9.9 mg/day. The physicians' opinion was favourable in 21 patients. Manual muscle testing was performed in only five patients: it increased from 87 to 91/100 at 6 months. RTX was well tolerated and had some beneficial effects on patients with IIM, the main limitation of this study resulted in a lack of manual muscle testing.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 12/2011; 50(12):2283-9. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) are at high risk of developing immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and/or autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA). Given their underlying immunodeficiency, immunosuppressive treatment of these manifestations may increase the risk of infection. To assess efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with CVID-associated ITP/AHA, a multicentre retrospective study was performed. Thirty-three patients, 29 adults and four children, were included. Patients received an average of 2·6 treatments prior to rituximab including steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and splenectomy (21%). The median ITP/AHA duration at time of first rituximab administration was 12 months [range 1-324] and the indication for using rituximab was ITP (22 cases), AHA (n = 5) or both (n = 7); 1 patient was treated sequentially for ITP and then AHA. The overall initial response rate to rituximab was 85% including 74% complete responses. After a mean follow-up of 39 ± 30 months after rituximab first administration, 10 of the initial responders relapsed and re-treatment with rituximab was successful in 7/9. Severe infections occurred after rituximab in eight adults (24%), four of whom were not on immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In conclusion, rituximab appears to be highly effective and relatively safe for the management of CVID-associated severe immune cytopenias.
    British Journal of Haematology 11/2011; 155(4):498-508. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this present study were to: 1) assess the characteristics of hematological malignancies in polymyositis/polymyositis (PM/DM) patients; and 2) determine predictive variables of hematological malignancies in PM/DM patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 32 patients (14 PM, 18 DM) associated with hematological malignancies. In our 32 PM/DM patients, hematological malignancy was concurrently identified (18.8%) or occurred during the course of PM/DM (31.2%); although, PM/DM more often preceded hematological malignancy onset (50%). We observed that the types of hematological malignancies varied, consisting of: B-cell lymphoma (n=20), T-cell lymphoma (n=4), Hodgkin's disease (n=2), multiple myeloma (n=1), myelodysplastic syndrome without excess of blasts (n=3), hairy cell (n=1) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (n=1). In 21 patients of our 32 patients with PM/DM-associated hematological malignancy (65.6% of cases), PM/DM paralleled the course of hematological malignancy. Finally, we observed that patients with PM/DM-associated hematological malignancies had a poor prognosis, the survival status ranging from 96.9%, 78.1% and 51.4% at 1, 3 and 5years, respectively. Interestingly, we found that patients with hematological malignancies, compared with those without were older and more frequently had DM; on the other hand, these patients less commonly exhibited: joint involvement (p=0.017), interstitial lung disease (p=0.06) and anti-Jo1 antibody (p=0.001). Taken together, our study underscores that the association between PM/DM and hematological malignancy, especially lymphoma, should not be ignored. Our findings also suggest that antisynthetase syndrome may be a protective factor of hematological malignancy in PM/DM patients.
    Autoimmunity reviews 10/2011; 11(9):615-20. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate rituximab (RTX) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) with peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement. Patients with pSS and PNS involvement who were included in the French AIR registry were analysed. 17 patients (age 60 years (44-78 years); 14 were female) were analysed. Neurological improvement was noted in 11 patients (65%) at 3 months. Rankin scale decreased from 3 (1-5) to 2 (1-5), 2 (1-5) and 2 (1-6) after 3, 6 and 9 months (p=0.02). European Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index decreased from 18 (10-44) to 11 (5-20), 11 (5-29) and 12 (5-30) after 3, 6 and 9 months (p<0.05). RTX was effective in neurological involvement in 9/10 patients with vasculitis or cryoglobulinaemia (90%) (group 1) at 3 months and in 2/7 cases (29%) without cryoglobulinaemia and vasculitis (p=0.03). Rankin and European Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index scales decreased significantly in group 1. RTX seems effective in cryoglobulinaemia or vasculitis-related PNS involvement in pSS.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2011; 71(1):84-7. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a rare life-threatening condition due to uncontrolled macrophagic activation. Liver involvement is constant in HS, characterized by Küpffer cell hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis. Conversely, the specificity, frequency, and clinical significance of this histologic lesion remain poorly investigated. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of this elementary lesion in liver biopsies (LB) to attempt to identify its clinical significance and to investigate its potential association with perforin expression deficiency. Küpffer cell hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis has been systematically searched for in consecutive LBs in a 6-year period. In positive cases, clinical, biological, and outcome characteristics have been retrospectively recorded. The ratio of perforin to CD3(+) lymphocytes was assessed on immunostained LB sections. This histologic lesion was detected in LB of 69 of 5194 patients (1.3%). It was not associated with hepatotropic viral infection, alcohol-related chronic liver disease, or autoimmune chronic liver disease. Although only 36% of patients with this histologic lesion had a complete HS (association of fever, splenomegaly, bicytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, and/or hypofibrinogenemia), almost all patients had similar underlying diseases (human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignant hemopathy, and autoimmune disease) and/or acute ongoing infections (tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus). A decrease of the perforin to CD3(+) lymphocytes ratio was specifically associated with this lesion. Küpffer cell hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis in LB is a rare finding; although it does not necessarily denote a complete HS, it is associated with the same underlying disease and/or infection, with a decrease in intrahepatic perforin-positive lymphocytes.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 03/2011; 35(3):337-45. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of nonviral cryoglobulinemia vasculitis has yet to be defined. Rituximab has emerged as a novel and promising therapeutic alternative, but data are scarce. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rituximab in nonviral cryoglobulinemia vasculitis in off-trial real-life patients. Prospective data from the French AutoImmunity and Rituximab (AIR) registry, which includes data on patients with autoimmune disorders treated with rituximab in off-label conditions, were analyzed. Twenty-three patients received treatment with rituximab for cryoglobulinemia vasculitis. Tolerance was marked by the occurrence of side effects in almost half of the patients, including severe infections in 6 (26%) of 23, with a rate of 14.1 per 100 patient-years. These infections occurred in a particular subset of patients ages>70 years, with essential type II mixed cryoglobulinemia and renal failure with a glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/minute, and receiving high-dose corticosteroids. Three of these patients died. In contrast, clinical and immunologic efficacy was noted in all evaluable patients. Clinical relapses occurred in half of the patients after a median time of 13.5 months following rituximab administration, and were more frequent in patients refractory to previous immunosuppressive therapy than in previously untreated patients. Data from the AIR registry show a dramatic efficacy and a steroid-sparing effect of rituximab, but also show the occurrence of severe infections in elderly patients with renal failure and high-dose steroids. The role of rituximab in nonviral cryoglobulinemia vasculitis remains to be defined in well-designed randomized controlled trials.
    Arthritis care & research. 12/2010; 62(12):1787-95.
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    ABSTRACT: A number of open-label studies have suggested the potential benefit of rituximab (RTX) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, in 2 recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of RTX, the primary end points were not met. We undertook this study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RTX in off-trial patients with SLE seen in regular clinical practice. We analyzed prospective data from the French AutoImmunity and Rituximab (AIR) registry, which includes data on patients with autoimmune disorders treated with RTX. One hundred thirty-six patients received treatment for SLE. The mean +/- SD score on the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was 11.3 +/- 8.9 at baseline. Severe infections were noted in 12 patients (9%), corresponding to a rate of 6.6/100 patient-years. Most severe infections occurred within the first 3 months after the last RTX infusion. Five patients died, due to severe infection (n = 3) or refractory autoimmune disease (n = 2). Overall response was observed in 80 of 113 patients (71%) by the SELENA-SLEDAI assessment. Efficacy did not differ significantly between patients receiving RTX monotherapy and those receiving concomitant immunosuppressive agents (who had higher baseline disease activity). Articular, cutaneous, renal, and hematologic improvements were noted in 72%, 70%, 74%, and 88% of patients, respectively. Among responders, 41% experienced a relapse of disease, with a response in 91% after retreatment with RTX. Data from the AIR registry show a satisfactory tolerance profile and clinical efficacy of RTX in patients with SLE. The contrasting results with those from recent RCTs leave open the question of the therapeutic use of RTX in SLE. Additional controlled studies with new designs are needed to define the place of RTX in the therapeutic arsenal for SLE.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 08/2010; 62(8):2458-66. · 7.48 Impact Factor
  • Revue De Medecine Interne - REV MED INTERNE. 01/2010; 31.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
247.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008–2013
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2011
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rouen
      Rouen, Upper Normandy, France
  • 2000–2010
    • Université Paris 13 Nord
      Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Hôpital Avicenne – Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Seine-Saint-Denis
      Bobigny, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • Centre Médico Chirurgical Paris V
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002–2004
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2003
    • Hôpital Foch
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      • Service de Médecine Interne 1
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France