Fernanda Miori Pascon

University of Campinas, Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (26)25.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of chemical agents on the physical properties and structure of primary pulp chamber dentin using surface roughness, microhardness tests, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty-five primary teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and were divided into five groups (n = 5): NT, no treatment; SH1, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); SH1U, 1% NaOCl + Endo-PTC®; SH1E, 1% NaOCl + 17% EDTA; and E, 17% EDTA. After dentin treatment, the specimens were submitted to roughness, microhardness testing, and SEM analysis. Roughness and microhardness data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The SH1E group showed the highest roughness, followed by the E group (P < 0.05) when compared with the NT, SH1, and SH1U groups. Microhardness values of SH1 and SH1U showed no significant difference as compared to the NT (control) group (P > 0.05). Microhardness values could not be obtained in the EDTA groups (SH1E and E). The presence of intertubular dentin with opened dentin tubules was observed in the NT, SH1, and SH1U groups. SH1E showed eroded and disorganized dentin with few opened tubules and the intertubular/peritubular dentin was partially removed. Considering the physical and structural approaches and the chemical agents studied, it can be concluded that NaOCl and NaOCl associated with Endo-PTC® were the agents that promoted the smallest changes in surface roughness, microhardness, and structure of the pulp chamber dentin of primary teeth.
    Microscopy Research and Technique 01/2014; 77(1):52-6. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated structural and molecular issues of dentin caries-like lesions produced by different artificial models (ACL) compared with natural caries lesions (NCL). One hundred twenty-four sound occlusal dentin blocks and 47 carious blocks were obtained and surface hardness was analyzed (SH1). They were assigned to groups according to ACL: GB: Biological; GC: Chemical; GIS: In situ; GNC: natural caries (control). Blocks from groups 1, 2 and 3 were submitted to caries lesion induction. NCL and ACL blocks were submitted to surface hardness (SH 2), FT-Raman and µEDXRF analysis. All blocks were longitudinally sectioned and one of the halves was submitted to cross-sectional hardness (CSH) and the other to SEM analysis. SH1 and SH2 data were submitted to t test (unpaired and paired, respectively), CSH and SEM data to two-way and one-way ANOVA respectively, and Tukey and t tests, respectively (p<0.05). Data from FT-Raman/µEDXRF were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Dunnett multiple-comparisons test (a=0.05). GB and GNC showed lowest SH2 values that were significantly different from GC and GIS. Regarding CSH, GB and GNC showed no significant difference between them. SEM showed similar caries lesion depth for GB and GNC, being significantly higher than for GC and GIS. µEDXRF showed similar values of calcium and phosphate for GB and GNC; GNC values were significantly different from GIS. No significant difference was found among the groups concerning phosphate, carbonate and CH bonds values. For collagen type I, GC values were significantly different compared to other groups. It may be concluded that caries-like lesions produced by GB were the closest model to NCL.
    Brazilian dental journal 12/2013; 24(6):610-8.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of fluoride and non-fluoride sealants on hardness decrease (HD) and marginal adaptation (MA) on enamel substrates after cariogenic challenge. METHODS: Occlusal enamel blocks, from human third molars, were randomly divided into six groups (n=12), according to occlusal fissures condition (S - sound; C - caries-like lesion; CF - caries-like lesion+topical fluoride) and sealants (F - FluroShield; H - Helioseal Clear Chroma). Lesion depths were 79.3±33.9 and 61.3±23.9 for C and CF groups, respectively. Sealants were placed on occlusal surface and stored at 100% humidity (37°C; 24h/d). HD was measured by cross-sectional microhardness analysis at the sealant margin distances: -1 (under sealant), 0 (sealant margin), 1, 2 (outer sealant). Sealant MA was observed by polarized light microscopy and scored according to: 0 - failure (no sealant MA or total sealant loss); 1 - success (sealant MA present). MA and HD were analysed by ANOVA-R and mixed model analysis, respectively. RESULTS: For HD (ΔS), F values (6900.5±3686.6) were significantly lower than H values (8534.6±5375.3) regardless of enamel substrates and sealant margin distances. Significant differences were observed among sealant margin distances: -1 (5934.0±3282.6)<0 (8701.5±6175.7)=1 (8473.2±4299.4)=2 (7761.5±4035.1), regardless of sealant and substrate. MA was similar for all groups (p≥0.05). CONCLUSION: MA was not affected by sealant type or substrate condition, whereas enamel HD was favourably impacted by fluoride in the sealant. In addition, sealants were more effective as a physical barrier than as its chemical potency in reducing enamel HD. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Sealing with a fluoride material is a recommended procedure to prevent caries of occlusal permanent molars in high-caries-risk patients, even though those exhibiting white spot lesions, since the enamel hardness decrease when fluoride sealant was used in vitro.
    Journal of dentistry 10/2012; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μEDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA; E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. μEDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Differences were observed among groups for the 960 cm(-1) peak. Ca and P content differences were significant (SH5>NT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The SEM images in the EDTA-treated groups had the highest number of open tubules. Erosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 07/2012; 17(7):075008. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chemical agents on the permeability and removal of the smear layer in the primary root dentin. Fifty roots were distributed into 6 groups: (1) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (SH); (2) 5.25% SH+17% ethylenedia-minetetraacetic acid (SHE); (3) 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); (4) 2% CHX+17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CHXE); (5) 17% EDTA (E); and (6) saline solution (SS). The canals were instrumented and irrigated. The roots were dyed, washed, and sectioned, and the permeability index was measured. The amount of smear layer was scored. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, Student-Newman-Keuls and t tests (P<.05). Significant differences were observed in the cervical and apical thirds for the CHX (P=.03), CHXE (P=.027), SS (P=.038), and SH (P<.001) groups. The SS group showed a heavy smear layer in all thirds. Root canals treated with SHE showed great cleaning in the cervical, middle, and apical thirds. Sodium hypochlorite associated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid produces the best root canal cleaning and the highest permeability in all thirds.
    Pediatric dentistry. 01/2012; 34(4):e81-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess Knoop hardness at different depths of a dual-cured self-adhesive resin cement through different thicknesses of Empress Esthetic® ceramic.Flattened bovine dentin was embedded in resin. The cement was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 x 5 mm) that was placed between two polyvinyl chloride plastic films and placed over the flat dentin and light cured by Elipar Trilight-QTH (800 mW/cm2) or Ultra-Lumelight-emitting diode (LED 5; 1585 mW/cm2) over ceramic disks 1.4 or 2 mm thick. The specimens(n=6) were stored for 24 hours before Knoop hardness (KHN) was measured. The data were submitted to analysis of variance in a factorial split-plot design and Tukey's test (a=0.05).There was significant interaction among the study factors. In the groups cured by the QTHunit, an increase in ceramic thickness resulted in reduced cement hardness values at all depths, with the highest values always being found in the center (1.4 mm, 58.1; 2 mm, 50.1)and the lowest values at the bottom (1.4 mm,23.8; 2 mm, 20.2). When using the LED unit, the hardness values diminished with increased ceramic thickness only on the top (1.4 mm,51.5; 2 mm, 42.3). In the group with the 1.4-mm-thick disk, the LED curing unit resulted in similar values on the top (51.5) and center(51.9) and lower values on the bottom (24.2).However, when the cement was light cured through the 2-mm disk, the highest hardness value was obtained in the center (51.8), followed by the top (42.3) and bottom (19.9),results similar to those obtained with the QTH curing unit (center > top > bottom). The hardness values of the studied cement at different depths were dependent on the ceramic thickness but not on the light curing units used.
    Operative Dentistry 12/2011; 37(2):188-94. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the marginal adaptation of composite resin onlays in primary teeth previously treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (pulp irrigant) using two different resin luting agents. Forty extracted sound primary molars had their crowns prepared in a standardized machine and were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): G1 (1% NaOCl irrigation+EnForce); G2 (EnForce); G3 (1% NaOCl irrigation+Rely X); G4 (Rely X). The onlays were made with Z250 composite resin on plaster models. After luting, the tooth/restoration set was stored in 100% relative humidity at 37ºC for 24 h and finished with Soflex discs. Caries Detector solution was applied at the tooth/restoration interface for 5 s. The specimens were washed and four digital photos of each tooth were then taken. The extents of the gaps were measured with Image Tool 3.0 software. The percentage data were submitted to a Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). The Relative Risk test analyzed the chance of a gap presence correlated to each group. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among the groups. The relative risk test revealed that some groups were more apt to have a presence of gaps than others. Neither the 1% NaOCl treatment nor the resin luting agents caused any alterations in the dental substrate that could have influenced the marginal adaptation of composite onlays in primary teeth.
    Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 10/2011; 19(5):455-61. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of resin sealer on enamel substrates after cariogenic challenge. Enamel blocks were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10) according to enamel substrates (S: sound, CL: caries-like lesion, or CLTF: caries-like lesion + topical fluoride application) and sealant material (F: FluroShield, or H: Helioseal Clear Chroma). Sealants were placed on enamel surfaces, stored in 100% humidity (24 h, 37°C), and longitudinally sectioned into hourglass shapes. According to the groups, pH cycling was applied and the μTBS test was performed. The fracture patterns were assessed by SEM. Regarding substrates, the highest μTBS values in MPa were observed for CLTF enamel (26.0 ± 7.6), followed by S (22.0 ± 7.4) and CL (15.5 ± 4.9). A significant interaction was found between material and pH cycling (p = 0.0395). F (23.9 ± 7.6) showed higher μTBS values than H (18.3 ± 7.5) when submitted to pH cycling. The majority of samples presented mixed failure. Enamel substrate significantly affected μTBS, with the highest values for remineralized caries-like enamel lesions. Furthermore, μTBS values were dependent on both materials and pH cycling.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 04/2011; 13(2):131-7. · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • Dental Materials - DENT MATER. 01/2011; 27.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influence of NaOCl irrigation and water storage on the degradation and microstructure of the resin/dentin interface of primary teeth bonded with three different adhesive systems using the microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ninety sound primary molars were used. Eighteen groups were formed according to different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2, SB; Clearfil Protect Bond, CP; Adper Prompt L-Pop, APL) with or without 0.5% NaOCl irrigation and water-storage time (24 h, 45 days, 90 days). The middle dentin was exposed. In the NaOCl group, NaOCl irrigation was performed for 30 min, and all groups were restored with composite (Charisma). Sticks with a 1-mm2 cross-sectional area were prepared for the μTBS test. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The failure modes, presence or absence of resin tags, and the resin/ dentin interface were evaluated by SEM, and data were analyzed using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics (p < 0.05). The μTBS of APL was significantly lower than the other groups regardless of treatment and storage time. A significant decrease of μTBS values after 90 days of water storage occurred only in the non-NaOCl irrigation groups. After 90 days of storage, resin tags partially disappeared in APL and CP, and in SB, 100% of the resin tags remained. The choice of adhesive system is one of the factors when bonding to primary dentin is considered. In this study, the etch-and-rinse and the two-bottle self-etching adhesive system produced the highest μTBS values irrespective of prior NaOCl irrigation even up to 90 days of water storage.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 09/2010; 13(3):213-20. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to perform a review of the effects of infiltrants and sealers on the inhibition of enamel demineralisation. The authors searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science (ISI) for papers published between January 1970 and September 2008. The main search terms were 'artificial caries' or 'caries treatment' or 'caries-like lesion' or 'white spot lesion' or 'enamel demineralisation' or 'natural caries' and 'enamel' and 'sealant' or 'resin infiltration'. The inclusion criteria were studies that produced artificial non-cavitated enamel lesions before the application of sealant in in vivo or in vitro studies. Studies excluded were those that had not produced artificial non-cavitated enamel lesions before the application of sealant; had evaluated the inhibition of enamel demineralisation around restorations, sealant and orthodontic bracket/bands; had not evaluated the inhibition of enamel demineralisation after the sealant application; and had not applied sealant materials. Selected papers were given scores, from A to C, according to predetermined criteria. Eighteen studies were identified and included in the project critical appraisal. Two papers were classified as Grade A, nine as Grade B and seven as Grade C. It can be concluded that while fissure sealing acts as a diffusion barrier on the top of the lesion surface, the infiltration technique creates a barrier inside the lesion by replacing the mineral lost with a low-viscosity light-curing resin.
    Oral health & preventive dentistry 01/2010; 8(3):295-305. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental conditions on the degradation of ionomeric and resin sealant materials. FluroShield, Vitremer, and Ketac Molar disc-shaped specimens (n=18/material) were prepared, polished, subjected to initial hardness and roughness readings. Six discs of each material were randomly assigned to one of three different storage solutions: 0.3% citric acid (CA), demineralization solution (DE), and remineralization solution (RE). The specimens were individually immersed in 3 mL of the test solutions, which were daily changed. After 15 days of storage, new surface roughness and hardness readings were done. Fluoride release in the solutions was measured within 15 days. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's and Contrast tests (alpha=0.05). The storage in CA increased the roughness of Vitremer and Ketac Molar. A significant reduction in hardness was observed for all materials after storage in all solutions. For all materials, the greatest amounts of fluoride release occurred during the 1st day. FluroShield presented the same patterns of fluoride release in all solutions. Ketac Molar and Vitremer released the highest amounts of fluoride in the CA solution. Ionomeric materials are more susceptible to degradation than resin-based materials under acidic conditions. Acidic conditions lead to a higher fluoride release from ionomeric materials.
    Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 09/2009; 17(4):294-300. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to carry out a review on the effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the mechanical properties of root dentine. DATA/SOURCES: The authors searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and the Web of Science for papers published from 1984 to 2008. The main search terms used were: dentine, root canal dentine, sodium hypochlorite, mechanical analysis, elastic modulus, hardness, roughness, flexural strength, compressive strength. The inclusion criteria were studies that evaluated the effect of NaOCl solution, used as an irrigant in endodontics, on the mechanical properties of root dentine. Those studies that were considered to be unrelated to the question addressed, that had investigated NaOCl as a deproteinizing agent, had not evaluated the effect of NaOCl on the mechanical properties of dentine, and that indirectly verified the effect of NaOCl on endodontically treated teeth were excluded. The selected papers were assigned to a score (A-C), according to predetermined criteria. A total of 16 papers were selected, and nine papers were included in the critical appraisal. Five papers were classified as grade A, 4 as grade B, and no paper was classified as grade C. Based on this review, the authors suggest that there is strong evidence showing that sodium hypochlorite adversely alters the mechanical properties of root dentine, when used as an endodontic irrigant.
    Journal of dentistry 08/2009; 37(12):903-8. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the quality of primary and permanent dentin by Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The middle dentin of crowns was reached by carbide bur abrading providing a uniform smear layer. Self-etching primers were applied in order to simulate the etching of self-etching adhesive systems. The groups were (n = 6): G1 (primary dentin smear layer); G2 (primary dentin etched by primer of Clearfil Protect Bond); G3 (primary dentin etched by Adper Prompt); G4 (permanent dentin smear layer); G5 (permanent dentin etched by primer of Clearfil Protect Bond); G6 (permanent dentin etched by Adper Prompt). SEM/EDS were made in order to obtain additional elemental data to complement FT-Raman. FT-Raman data were submitted to cluster analysis. Overall, FT-Raman showed differences between primary and permanent dentin concerning organic content, but not for inorganic content. FT-Raman showed differences in the organic content between primary and permanent dentin after self-etching primer use. HEMA usage caused molecular changes in the organic content, while phosphoric acidic ester caused molecular changes in the inorganic content of primary and permanent dentin. The SEM/EDS identified C, O, P, and Ca, which could not replace ions to change mineral molecular arrangement. Both organic and mineral content arrangements were similar after self-etching primers action. The organic content of dentin was modified by both Clearfil PB primer and Adper Prompt for primary dentin but only by Clearfil PB for permanent dentin. The inorganic content of primary middle dentin was similar to the inorganic content of permanent middle dentin, even when Adper Prompt is used.
    American journal of dentistry 03/2009; 22(1):30-6. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm(2) area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 degrees C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials.
    Brazilian dental journal 01/2009; 20(2):122-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of the tooth structure due to destruction by extensive caries lesions is a challenge to Pediatric Dentistry. The dentist must reestablish shape, function and aesthetics using an easy technique, short clinical time, and long-lasting material. The use of intracanal fiber core and composite resin restorations appears to be viable technique that achieves a satisfactory clinical result. The aim of this study was to describe a case report using an intracanal fiber core and composite resin restorations in the anterior primary teeth in a 3-year-old child. The clinicalprocedures performed were the endodontic treatment, placing of intracanal fiber core and coronal reconstruction. The results were clinically satisfactory. This technique for the restoration of carious primary incisors using direct resin composite and intracanal fiber core provides good shape and esthetics, as well as reduced chair time for the child.
    Perspectives in Oral Sciences. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the in vitro marginal adaptation (gap formation) in the fissure of different sealer materials (resin sealant, glass-ionomer cement, resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, and adhesive system) submitted to thermal and chemical stress, using scanning electron microscopy evaluation (SEM). 80 impacted human third molars were randomly assigned to the following experimental groups (n = 10): FluroShield (F), Helioseal Clear Chroma (H), Vitremer (V), Fuji II-LC (FII), Ketac-Molar (KM), Fuji IX (FIX), Single Bond (SB), and Clearfil Protect Bond (CF). All groups were subjected to thermocycling and 14 days of pH cycling. A blinded and calibrated examiner performed SEM analysis. Gap formation was scored according to: 0 = no sealant marginal gaps; 1 = sealant marginal gaps present or total sealant loss. The score 0 was considered a success, while score 1 represented failure. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests (P < 0.05). The success rates of SB (100%) and V (90%) were similar, but statistically superior to F (30%), H (20%), FIX (20%), and CF (0%) (P < 0.05). A tendency for similar behaviors of FII and KM to SB and V was observed and for similar behaviors of F, FIX and H to CF. The worst results were obtained for CF.
    American journal of dentistry 12/2008; 21(6):377-82. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dentin quality of primary and permanent pulp chamber was inspected by Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fragments of pulp chamber dentin were obtained from 20 human molar crowns (primary and permanent). The fragments were assigned to 8 groups (n=5)-Primary teeth: G1, pulp chamber dentin; G2, pulp chamber dentin irrigated with NaOCl 1% (30 min); G3, pulp chamber dentin irrigated with NaOCl 1% (30 min) and etched by 35% phosphoric acid; G4, pulp chamber dentin etched by 35% phosphoric acid. Permanent teeth: G5, pulp chamber dentin; G6, pulp chamber dentin irrigated with NaOCl 1% (30 min); G7, pulp chamber dentin irrigated with NaOCl 1% (30 min) and etched by 35% phosphoric acid; G8, pulp chamber dentin etched by 35% phosphoric acid. The spectra were subjected to the Cluster analysis. The SEM images were scored. Inorganic content: There was a difference between primary and permanent dentin. The groups treated with NaOCl were statistically similar between them, but differed from the groups not treated. Organic content: There was no difference between primary and permanent dentin. The groups became similar after NaOCl and phosphoric acid treatments. The microscopic images showed the presence of calcospherites on permanent dentin and their absence on primary dentin. The NaOCl changed the inorganic content in both dentitions; regardless of the following phosphoric acid etching. However, the chemical changes caused by NaOCl were not detected by SEM when it was followed by etching.
    Journal of Dentistry 07/2008; 36(9):745-53. · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Dentistry. 12/2007; 35(12):954.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to correlate the dye permeability to the morphological aspect (presence or absence of a smear layer) of the primary root dentin wall, using scanning electron microscopy, regarding the endodontic preparation and irrigation methods. The hypothesis evaluated was that there was a correlation between the dye permeability and the morphological aspect of the primary root dentin. A total of 112 extracted primary roots were distributed into the following groups: Dakin's liquid, Dakin+hydrogen peroxide; 2% chlorhexidine gel; and saline solution. Manual (MI) or Ultrasonic irrigation (UI) was performed. The roots were made impermeable, filled with dye (2% methylene blue), and longitudinally sectioned. The halves were divided in cervical, middle, and apical thirds for dye penetration measurement. The samples were observed under a scanning electron microscope. The data were submitted to linear regression analysis with a dummy variable (P<.05). The data revealed a relationship between decreasing permeability and the presence of a smear layer on root canal dentin walls for MI in the middle third (P=.0147). Regarding UI, no statistically significant relation was observed (P>.05). The presence of a smear layer on root canal dentin walls was not a limiting factor to dye penetration in all groups except the middle third for manual irrigation.
    Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.) 01/2007; 74(3):182-8.