[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins bind to and repress genes in embryonic stem cells through lineage commitment to the terminal differentiated state. PcG repressed genes are commonly characterized by the presence of the epigenetic histone mark H3K27me3, catalyzed by the Polycomb repressive complex 2. Here, we present in vivo evidence for a previously unrecognized plasticity of PcG-repressed genes in terminally differentiated brain neurons of parkisonian mice. We show that acute administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, induces a remarkable increase in H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation. The induction of the H3K27me3S28p histone mark specifically occurs in medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors and is dependent on Msk1 kinase activity and DARPP-32-mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that increased H3K27me3S28p was accompanied by reduced PcG binding to regulatory regions of genes. An analysis of the genome wide distribution of L-DOPA-induced H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation by ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) in combination with expression analysis by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that the induction of H3K27me3S28p correlated with increased expression of a subset of PcG repressed genes. We found that induction of H3K27me3S28p persisted during chronic L-DOPA administration to parkisonian mice and correlated with aberrant gene expression. We propose that dopaminergic transmission can activate PcG repressed genes in the adult brain and thereby contribute to long-term maladaptive responses including the motor complications, or dyskinesia, caused by prolonged administration of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The origin of aberrant DNA methylation in cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we elucidated the DNA methylome in primary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) and the role of PML-RARα in establishing these patterns. APL patients showed increased genome-wide DNA methylation with higher variability than healthy CD34+ cells, promyelocytes and remission bone marrow. A core set of differentially methylated regions in APL was identified. Age at diagnosis, Sanz score and Flt3-mutation status characterized methylation subtypes. Transcription factor binding sites, e.g. c-myc binding sites were associated with low methylation. SUZ12 and REST binding sites identified in embryonic stem cells were, however, preferentially DNA hypermethylated in APL. Unexpectedly, PML-RARα binding sites were also protected from aberrant DNA methylation in APL. In line, myeloid cells from pre-leukemic PML-RARα knock-in mice did not show altered DNA methylation and expression of PML-RARα in hematopoietic progenitor cells prevented differentiation without affecting DNA methylation. ATRA treatment of APL blasts did also not result in immediate DNA methylation changes. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is associated with leukemia phenotype but not required for PML-RARα-mediated initiation of leukemogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 and PRC2 regulate genes involved in differentiation and development. However, the mechanism for how PRC1 and PRC2 are recruited to genes in mammalian cells is unclear. Here we present evidence for an interaction between the transcription factor REST, PRC1, and PRC2 and show that RNF2 and REST co-regulate a number of neuronal genes in human teratocarcinoma cells (NT2-D1). Using NT2-D1 cells as a model of neuronal differentiation, we furthermore showed that retinoic-acid stimulation led to displacement of PRC1 at REST binding sites, reduced H3K27Me3, and increased gene expression. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb binding in Rest⁻/⁻ and Eed⁻/⁻ mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells showed that Rest was required for PRC1 recruitment to a subset of Polycomb regulated neuronal genes. Furthermore, we found that PRC1 can be recruited to Rest binding sites independently of CpG islands and the H3K27Me3 mark. Surprisingly, PRC2 was frequently increased around Rest binding sites located in CpG-rich regions in the Rest⁻/⁻ mES cells, indicating a more complex interplay where Rest also can limit PRC2 recruitment. Therefore, we propose that Rest has context-dependent functions for PRC1- and PRC2- recruitment, which allows this transcription factor to act both as a recruiter of Polycomb as well as a limiting factor for PRC2 recruitment at CpG islands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytic downregulation is a pivotal mechanism turning off signalling from the EGF receptor (EGFR). It is well established that whereas EGF binding leads to lysosomal degradation of EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha causes receptor recycling. TGF-alpha therefore leads to continuous signalling and is a more potent mitogen than EGF. In addition to EGF and TGF-alpha, five EGFR ligands have been identified. Although many of these ligands are upregulated in cancers, very little is known about their effect on EGFR trafficking. We have compared the effect of six different ligands on endocytic trafficking of EGFR. We find that, whereas they all stimulate receptor internalization, they have very diverse effects on endocytic sorting. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and Betacellulin target all EGFRs for lysosomal degradation. In contrast, TGF-alpha and epiregulin lead to complete receptor recycling. EGF leads to lysosomal degradation of the majority but not all EGFRs. Amphiregulin does not target EGFR for lysosomal degradation but causes fast as well as slow EGFR recycling. The Cbl ubiquitin ligases, especially c-Cbl, are responsible for EGFR ubiquitination after stimulation with all ligands, and persistent EGFR phosphorylation and ubiquitination largely correlate with receptor degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organization of chromatin by epigenetic mechanisms is essential for establishing and maintaining cellular identity in developing and adult organisms. A key question that remains unresolved about this process is how epigenetic marks are transmitted to the next cell generation during cell division. Here we provide a model to explain how trimethylated Lys 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3), which is catalysed by the EZH2-containing Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), is maintained in proliferating cells. We show that the PRC2 complex binds to the H3K27me3 mark and colocalizes with this mark in G1 phase and with sites of ongoing DNA replication. Efficient binding requires an intact trimeric PRC2 complex containing EZH2, EED and SUZ12, but is independent of the catalytic SET domain of EZH2. Using a heterologous reporter system, we show that transient recruitment of the PRC2 complex to chromatin, upstream of the transcriptional start site, is sufficient to maintain repression through endogenous PRC2 during subsequent cell divisions. Thus, we suggest that once the H3K27me3 is established, it recruits the PRC2 complex to maintain the mark at sites of DNA replication, leading to methylation of H3K27 on the daughter strands during incorporation of newly synthesized histones. This mechanism ensures maintenance of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark in proliferating cells, not only during DNA replication when histones synthesized de novo are incorporated, but also outside S phase, thereby preserving chromatin structure and transcriptional programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ErbB receptors (EGFR (ErbB1), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4) are important regulators of normal growth and differentiation, and they are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Following ligand binding and receptor activation, EGFR is endocytosed and transported to lysosomes where the receptor is degraded. This downregulation of EGFR is a complex and tightly regulated process. The functions of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 are also regulated by endocytosis to some extent, although the current knowledge of these processes is sparse. Impaired endocytic downregulation of signaling receptors is frequently associated with cancer, since it can lead to increased and uncontrolled receptor signaling. In this review we describe the current knowledge of ErbB receptor endocytic downregulation. In addition, we outline how ErbB receptors can escape endocytic downregulation in cancer, and we discuss how targeted anti-cancer therapy may induce endocytic downregulation of ErbB receptors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in several types of cancer. Ligand induced EGFR downregulation is tightly controlled, but so far only the effects of two of the ligands (Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)) have been thouroughly investigated.Activated EGFR recruits intracellular proteins, which in turn lead to ubiquitination, internalization, and downregulation of the receptor, and here we have investigated the effects of six different EGFR ligands on these events. We show that EGF stimulates degradation to a moderate degree, whereas betacellulin (BTC) and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) cause a high level of receptor degradation. TGF-α, amphiregulin (AR), and epiregulin (EPI) do not stimulate receptor degradation. The lack of EGFR degradation after TGF-α and EPI stimulation is due to complete recycling to the surface, whereas the most potent ligands HB-EGF and BTC caused no receptor recycling. In case of EGF, the receptor was partially recycled. Interestingly, after stimulation with AR the receptor was not fully recycled, even though there was no detectable degradation. Furthermore, we examined the ubiquitination pattern of EGFR after stimulation with the different ligands. For five of the examined ligands, there was a tight correlation between receptor ubiquitination and degradation. Interestingly, AR caused ubiqitination of EGFR in levels similar to EGF even though it had little effect on receptor degradation. This implies that ubiquitination is not the sole determinant of whether internalized EGFR is degraded or recycled. Altogether, this suggests that the various EGFR ligands have very different consequences for EGFR trafficking and degradation, and that the mechanisms involved are more diverse than previously anticipated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High ErbB2 levels are associated with cancer, and impaired endocytosis of ErbB2 could contribute to its overexpression. Therefore, knowledge about the mechanisms underlying endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is warranted. The C-terminus of ErbB2 can be cleaved after various stimuli, and after inhibition of HSP90 with geldanamycin this cleavage is accompanied by proteasome-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2. However, it is unknown whether C-terminal cleavage is linked to endocytosis. To study ErbB2 cleavage and endocytic trafficking, we fused yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to the N- and C-terminus of ErbB2, respectively (YFP-ErbB2-CFP). After geldanamycin stimulation YFP-ErbB2-CFP became cleaved in nonapoptotic cells in a proteasome-dependent manner, and a markedly larger relative amount of cleaved YFP-ErbB2-CFP was observed in early endosomes than in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, cleavage took place at the plasma membrane, and cleaved ErbB2 was internalized and degraded far more efficiently than full-length ErbB2. Concordantly, a C-terminally truncated ErbB2 was also readily endocytosed and degraded in lysosomes compared with full-length ErbB2. Altogether, we suggest that geldanamycin leads to C-terminal cleavage of ErbB2, which releases the receptor from a retention mechanism and causes endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of ErbB2.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 10/2007; 18(9):3656-66. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potent oncoprotein and receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 is remarkable because it resists efficient downregulation. However, ErbB2 can be downregulated by the HSP-90 inhibitor geldanamycin, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are uncertain. Apparently, delivery of ErbB2 to lysosomes, cleavage of the ErbB2 kinase domain and proteasomal activity are all processes that are involved. Using a non-invasive confocal microscopical assay allowing quantitative analysis of ErbB2 internalization in cell populations, we show that whereas ErbB2 is resistant to internalization in untreated SK-BR-3 cells, geldanamycin stimulates internalization and subsequent degradation in lysosomes. This process depends on proteasomal activity, which is a regulatory upstream event in ErbB2 internalization rather than the actual mechanism of degradation. ErbB2 can be internalized as a full-length protein, thus cleavage of the ErbB2 kinase domain is not a requirement for geldanamycin-stimulated internalization. Moreover, as shown by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and electron microscopy, geldanamycin induces an increase in the amount of mobile ErbB2 and a redistribution of ErbB2 in the plasma membrane making the receptor accessible to endocytosis. Cells with most ErbB2 endocytosis also have the highest fraction of mobile ErbB2. It is concluded that geldanamycin stimulates internalization of full-length ErbB2 in a proteasome-dependent manner leading to lysosomal degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JDP2 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that efficiently represses the activity of the transcription factor AP-1. Thus far, all studies of JDP2 function have relied on the ectopic expression of the protein. In this study, we use a different approach: depletion of JDP2 from cells. Specific depletion of JDP2 resulted in p53-independent cell death that resembles apoptosis and was evident at 72 h. The death mechanism was caspase dependent as the cells could be rescued by treatment with caspase inhibitor zVAD. Our studies suggest that JDP2 functions as a general survival protein, not only following UV-irradiation, as reported earlier, but also under normal culture conditions. Thus, our data support that JDP2 is a cellular survival protein whose presence is necessary for normal cellular function.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2005; 1745(1):29-37. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, ErbB2 is known to remain at the plasma membrane after ligand binding and dimerization. However, why ErbB2 is not efficiently down-regulated has remained elusive. Basically, two possibilities exist: ErbB2 is internalization resistant or it is efficiently recycled after internalization. By a combination of confocal microscopy, immunogold labeling electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques we show that ErbB2 is preferentially associated with membrane protrusions. Moreover, it is efficiently excluded from clathrin-coated pits and is not seen in transferrin receptor-containing endosomes. This pattern is not changed after binding of EGF, heregulin, or herceptin. The exclusion from coated pits is so pronounced that it cannot just be explained by lack of an internalization signal. Although ErbB2 is a raft-associated protein, the localization of ErbB2 to protrusions is not a result of raft binding. Also, an intact actin cytoskeleton is not required for keeping ErbB2 away from coated pits. However, after efficient cross-linking, ErbB2 is removed from protrusions to occur on the bulk membrane, in coated pits, and in endosomes. These data show that ErbB2 is a remarkably internalization-resistant receptor and suggest that the mechanism underlying the firm association of ErbB2 with protrusions also is the reason for this resistance.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2004; 15(4):1557-67. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies strongly suggest an active involvement of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis. The direct evidence for the role of JNK and its isoforms has been missing and the mechanism of how JNK actually could facilitate this process has remained unclear. In this study, we show that Jnk2-/- primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (pMEFs) exhibit resistance towards TNF-induced apoptosis as compared to corresponding wild-type and Jnk1-/- pMEFs. JNK2-deficient pMEFs could be resensitized to TNF via retroviral transduction of any of the four different JNK2 splicing variants. Jnk2-/- pMEFs displayed deficient and delayed effector caspase activation as well as impaired cytosolic cystein cathepsin activity: processes that both were needed for efficient TNF-induced apoptosis in pMEFs. Our work demonstrates that JNK has a central role in the promotion of TNF-induced apoptosis in pMEFs, and that the JNK2 isoform can regulate both mitochondrial and lysosomal death pathways in these cells.
Cell Death and Differentiation 04/2004; 11(3):301-13. · 8.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate here a novel role for the I kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) in the regulation of activation of the mammalian stress response via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling pathway. We cloned IKAP as a JNK-associating protein using the Ras recruitment yeast two-hybrid system. IKAP efficiently and specifically enhanced JNK activation induced by ectopic expression of MEKK1 and ASK1, upstream activators of JNK. Importantly, IKAP also enhanced JNK activation induced by ultraviolet light irradiation as well as treatments with tumor necrosis factor or epidermal growth factor. The JNK association site in IKAP was mapped to the C-terminal part of IKAP. Interestingly, this region is deleted from IKAP expressed in the autonomous nervous system of the patients affected by familial dysautonomia. Ectopic expression of this C-terminal fragment of IKAP was sufficient to support JNK activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for IKAP in the regulation of the JNK-mediated stress signaling. Additionally, our results point to a role of JNK signaling in familial dysautonomia and, thus, further support the involvement of JNK signaling in the development, survival, and degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2002; 277(35):31918-28. · 4.65 Impact Factor