[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytic downregulation is a pivotal mechanism turning off signalling from the EGF receptor (EGFR). It is well established that whereas EGF binding leads to lysosomal degradation of EGFR, transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha causes receptor recycling. TGF-alpha therefore leads to continuous signalling and is a more potent mitogen than EGF. In addition to EGF and TGF-alpha, five EGFR ligands have been identified. Although many of these ligands are upregulated in cancers, very little is known about their effect on EGFR trafficking. We have compared the effect of six different ligands on endocytic trafficking of EGFR. We find that, whereas they all stimulate receptor internalization, they have very diverse effects on endocytic sorting. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and Betacellulin target all EGFRs for lysosomal degradation. In contrast, TGF-alpha and epiregulin lead to complete receptor recycling. EGF leads to lysosomal degradation of the majority but not all EGFRs. Amphiregulin does not target EGFR for lysosomal degradation but causes fast as well as slow EGFR recycling. The Cbl ubiquitin ligases, especially c-Cbl, are responsible for EGFR ubiquitination after stimulation with all ligands, and persistent EGFR phosphorylation and ubiquitination largely correlate with receptor degradation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ErbB receptors (EGFR (ErbB1), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4) are important regulators of normal growth and differentiation, and they are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Following ligand binding and receptor activation, EGFR is endocytosed and transported to lysosomes where the receptor is degraded. This downregulation of EGFR is a complex and tightly regulated process. The functions of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 are also regulated by endocytosis to some extent, although the current knowledge of these processes is sparse. Impaired endocytic downregulation of signaling receptors is frequently associated with cancer, since it can lead to increased and uncontrolled receptor signaling. In this review we describe the current knowledge of ErbB receptor endocytic downregulation. In addition, we outline how ErbB receptors can escape endocytic downregulation in cancer, and we discuss how targeted anti-cancer therapy may induce endocytic downregulation of ErbB receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High ErbB2 levels are associated with cancer, and impaired endocytosis of ErbB2 could contribute to its overexpression. Therefore, knowledge about the mechanisms underlying endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is warranted. The C-terminus of ErbB2 can be cleaved after various stimuli, and after inhibition of HSP90 with geldanamycin this cleavage is accompanied by proteasome-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2. However, it is unknown whether C-terminal cleavage is linked to endocytosis. To study ErbB2 cleavage and endocytic trafficking, we fused yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to the N- and C-terminus of ErbB2, respectively (YFP-ErbB2-CFP). After geldanamycin stimulation YFP-ErbB2-CFP became cleaved in nonapoptotic cells in a proteasome-dependent manner, and a markedly larger relative amount of cleaved YFP-ErbB2-CFP was observed in early endosomes than in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, cleavage took place at the plasma membrane, and cleaved ErbB2 was internalized and degraded far more efficiently than full-length ErbB2. Concordantly, a C-terminally truncated ErbB2 was also readily endocytosed and degraded in lysosomes compared with full-length ErbB2. Altogether, we suggest that geldanamycin leads to C-terminal cleavage of ErbB2, which releases the receptor from a retention mechanism and causes endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of ErbB2.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 10/2007; 18(9):3656-66. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potent oncoprotein and receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 is remarkable because it resists efficient downregulation. However, ErbB2 can be downregulated by the HSP-90 inhibitor geldanamycin, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are uncertain. Apparently, delivery of ErbB2 to lysosomes, cleavage of the ErbB2 kinase domain and proteasomal activity are all processes that are involved. Using a non-invasive confocal microscopical assay allowing quantitative analysis of ErbB2 internalization in cell populations, we show that whereas ErbB2 is resistant to internalization in untreated SK-BR-3 cells, geldanamycin stimulates internalization and subsequent degradation in lysosomes. This process depends on proteasomal activity, which is a regulatory upstream event in ErbB2 internalization rather than the actual mechanism of degradation. ErbB2 can be internalized as a full-length protein, thus cleavage of the ErbB2 kinase domain is not a requirement for geldanamycin-stimulated internalization. Moreover, as shown by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and electron microscopy, geldanamycin induces an increase in the amount of mobile ErbB2 and a redistribution of ErbB2 in the plasma membrane making the receptor accessible to endocytosis. Cells with most ErbB2 endocytosis also have the highest fraction of mobile ErbB2. It is concluded that geldanamycin stimulates internalization of full-length ErbB2 in a proteasome-dependent manner leading to lysosomal degradation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JDP2 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that efficiently represses the activity of the transcription factor AP-1. Thus far, all studies of JDP2 function have relied on the ectopic expression of the protein. In this study, we use a different approach: depletion of JDP2 from cells. Specific depletion of JDP2 resulted in p53-independent cell death that resembles apoptosis and was evident at 72 h. The death mechanism was caspase dependent as the cells could be rescued by treatment with caspase inhibitor zVAD. Our studies suggest that JDP2 functions as a general survival protein, not only following UV-irradiation, as reported earlier, but also under normal culture conditions. Thus, our data support that JDP2 is a cellular survival protein whose presence is necessary for normal cellular function.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2005; 1745(1):29-37. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, ErbB2 is known to remain at the plasma membrane after ligand binding and dimerization. However, why ErbB2 is not efficiently down-regulated has remained elusive. Basically, two possibilities exist: ErbB2 is internalization resistant or it is efficiently recycled after internalization. By a combination of confocal microscopy, immunogold labeling electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques we show that ErbB2 is preferentially associated with membrane protrusions. Moreover, it is efficiently excluded from clathrin-coated pits and is not seen in transferrin receptor-containing endosomes. This pattern is not changed after binding of EGF, heregulin, or herceptin. The exclusion from coated pits is so pronounced that it cannot just be explained by lack of an internalization signal. Although ErbB2 is a raft-associated protein, the localization of ErbB2 to protrusions is not a result of raft binding. Also, an intact actin cytoskeleton is not required for keeping ErbB2 away from coated pits. However, after efficient cross-linking, ErbB2 is removed from protrusions to occur on the bulk membrane, in coated pits, and in endosomes. These data show that ErbB2 is a remarkably internalization-resistant receptor and suggest that the mechanism underlying the firm association of ErbB2 with protrusions also is the reason for this resistance.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2004; 15(4):1557-67. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies strongly suggest an active involvement of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis. The direct evidence for the role of JNK and its isoforms has been missing and the mechanism of how JNK actually could facilitate this process has remained unclear. In this study, we show that Jnk2-/- primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (pMEFs) exhibit resistance towards TNF-induced apoptosis as compared to corresponding wild-type and Jnk1-/- pMEFs. JNK2-deficient pMEFs could be resensitized to TNF via retroviral transduction of any of the four different JNK2 splicing variants. Jnk2-/- pMEFs displayed deficient and delayed effector caspase activation as well as impaired cytosolic cystein cathepsin activity: processes that both were needed for efficient TNF-induced apoptosis in pMEFs. Our work demonstrates that JNK has a central role in the promotion of TNF-induced apoptosis in pMEFs, and that the JNK2 isoform can regulate both mitochondrial and lysosomal death pathways in these cells.
Cell Death and Differentiation 04/2004; 11(3):301-13. · 8.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate here a novel role for the I kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) in the regulation of activation of the mammalian stress response via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling pathway. We cloned IKAP as a JNK-associating protein using the Ras recruitment yeast two-hybrid system. IKAP efficiently and specifically enhanced JNK activation induced by ectopic expression of MEKK1 and ASK1, upstream activators of JNK. Importantly, IKAP also enhanced JNK activation induced by ultraviolet light irradiation as well as treatments with tumor necrosis factor or epidermal growth factor. The JNK association site in IKAP was mapped to the C-terminal part of IKAP. Interestingly, this region is deleted from IKAP expressed in the autonomous nervous system of the patients affected by familial dysautonomia. Ectopic expression of this C-terminal fragment of IKAP was sufficient to support JNK activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for IKAP in the regulation of the JNK-mediated stress signaling. Additionally, our results point to a role of JNK signaling in familial dysautonomia and, thus, further support the involvement of JNK signaling in the development, survival, and degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2002; 277(35):31918-28. · 4.65 Impact Factor