[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, we have examined the molecular basis of the photoprotective effect of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PL) in vitro, using a solar simulator as the source of UV radiation (SSR). We found that pretreatment of human keratinocytes with PL inhibited SSR-mediated increase of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and also abrogated nitric oxide (NO) production. Consistent with this, PL blocked the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) elicited by SSR. In addition, PL inhibited the SSR-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB and AP1. Finally, we demonstrated that pretreatment with PL exerted a cytoprotective effect against SSR-induced damage, resulting in increased cell survival. Together, these data postulate a multifactor mechanism of protection not exclusively reliant on the antioxidant capability of PL, and strengthen the basic knowledge on the photoprotective effect of this botanical agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes multifaceted damage to the skin and adjacent tissue layers, and is one of the leading causes of premature skin aging, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. Photoprotection can be achieved by the use of sunscreens and also by systemically administered compounds that fight the deleterious biological effects of UV exposure, or preferably both. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the tissue, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effect of Polypodium leucotomos fern extract. P. leucotomos blocked the deleterious effect of UV irradiation both in vivo and in vitro. The molecular basis of photoprotection relies on its ability to inhibit free radical generation, prevent photodecomposition of both endogenous photoprotective molecules and DNA, and prevent UV-induced cell death. Its complete loss of toxicity combined with its multifactor protection makes it a valuable tool not only for direct photoprotection, but also as an efficacious adjuvant to phototherapy of various skin diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AM3 (Inmunoferon) is an orally effective immunomodulator that influences the regulatory and effector functions of the immune system whose molecular mechanisms of action are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 (IF-S) might affect immune responses by modulating the lectin-dependent pathogen recognition abilities of human dendritic cells. IF-S inhibited binding of viral, fungal, and parasite pathogens by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner. IF-S specifically impaired the pathogen recognition capabilities of DC-SIGN, as it reduced the attachment of Candida, Aspergillus, and Leishmania to DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S also inhibited the interaction of DC-SIGN with both its cellular counterreceptor (intercellular adhesion molecule 3) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 protein and blocked the DC-SIGN-dependent capture of HIV virions and the HIV trans-infection capability of DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S promoted DC-SIGN internalization in DCs without affecting mannose receptor expression, and (1)D saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated that IF-S directly interacts with DC-SIGN on the cell surface. Therefore, the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 directly influences pathogen recognition by dendritic cells by interacting with DC-SIGN. Our results indicate that DC-SIGN is the target for an immunomodulator and imply that the adjuvant and immunomodulatory actions of AM3 are mediated, at least in part, by alteration of the DC-SIGN functional activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light induces immunosuppression. Different evidences indicate that this phenomenon is mainly a consequence of the effect of UV light on skin dendritic cells (DC). To investigate the cellular and molecular basis of this type of immunosuppression, we assessed in vitro the effect of solar-simulated UV radiation on the phenotypic and functional characteristics of human monocyte-derived DC and Langerhans-like DC. UV radiation induced a decreased expression of molecules involved in antigen capture as DC-SIGN and the mannose receptor. This effect was accompanied by a diminished endocytic capacity, an enhanced expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation such as major histocompatibility complex-II and CD86, and a significant increase in their capability to stimulate T cells. Furthermore, irradiated DC failed to acquire a full mature phenotype upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, solar-simulated radiation induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-10 by DC, but no IL-12. Interestingly, solar-simulated UV radiation also caused an altered migratory phenotype, with an increased expression of CXCR4, and a lack of induction of CCR7, thus correlating with a high chemotactic response to stromal cell-derived factor 1(SDF-1) (CXCL12), but not to secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC) (CCL21). These data indicate that solar-simulated UV radiation induces a defective maturation and an anomalous migratory phenotype of DC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the effect of a patented glycoconjugate of natural origin, AM3 (commercially available under the name Inmunoferon) in the expression of iNOS induced by administration of LPS in mice. We have observed that oral treatment with the drug daily for 6 days reduced the levels of expression of iNOS induced by an intravenous pulse of LPS. This effect was significant in the lungs and kidneys, but it was much more marked in the liver. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide in serum were clearly decreased upon treatment with AM3. Together, these results suggest that AM3 modulates the nitric oxide response and points to a possible role for AM3 in the control of the inflammatory response.
International Immunopharmacology 08/2005; 5(7-8):1165-70. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2005.02.009 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, we have analyzed the effect of AM3, a glycoconjugate of natural origin with immunomodulatory properties, which is available under the commercial name of Inmunoferon, on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in HBV-transfected cells. We found that AM3 inhibited HBV RNA expression as well as DNA synthesis and viral antigen expression by an indirect mechanism. We found that AM3 lacked intrinsic antiviral properties, and that the antiviral effect of the glycoconjugate was due to stimulation of secretion of molecules with antiviral properties by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data indicate that the employment of AM3 as an adjuvant administered simultaneously with conventional antiviral drugs may potentiate the endogenous response against viral infection.
International Immunopharmacology 08/2004; 4(7):921-7. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2004.04.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunological synapse initiates the clustering and stabilization of the T cell receptor by the formation of a large lipid microdomain that accumulates (e.g. CD4/CD8) and segregates (e.g. CD45 and LFA-1) some proteins of the T cell plasma membrane. This work shows that a fraction of transmembrane glycoproteins CD26 and CD45 (the R0 isoform in particular) is present in the rafts of fresh and activated human T lymphocytes. CD26 is proposed as the costimulator of TCR-dependent activation, and CD45 is essential to the T cell activation process because it dephosphorylates at least the inhibitory site of Src kinases. These findings support a more complex model of compartmentation, depending on the stage of T cell maturation and post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. In addition, interleukin 12 (IL-12; inducer of TH1 responses) drives CD26 and CD45R0 to particular microdomains, thereby involving interleukins in the rules governing raft inclusion or exclusion. The physical association of CD26 and CD45R0 has long been reported. The results presented in this work fit a model in which IL-12 up-regulates a certain type of CD26 expression that interacts on the cell surface with CD45R0, near but outside of the raft core. The use of antisense oligonucleotides for the CD26 mRNAs demonstrated that both events (enhanced by IL-12), CD26-CD45R0 association and membrane compartment redistribution, are related. Thus, CD26 could be part of a shuttling mechanism for CD45 that regulates membrane tyrosine-phosphatase activities, e.g. to control IL-12 receptor-dependent signal transduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PLE) has been investigated in terms of photoprotection against UV-induced cell damage. PLE efficiently preserved human fibroblast survival and restored their proliferative capability when the cells were exposed to UVA light. This effect was specific and dose-dependent. Photoprotection was not restricted to fibroblasts, as demonstrated by its effect on survival and proliferation of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCat. Finally, treatment of the cells with PLE prevented UV-induced morphological changes in human fibroblasts, namely disorganisation of F-actin-based cytoskeletal structures, coalescence of the tubulin cytoskeleton and mislocalization of adhesion molecules such as cadherins and integrins. Our in vitro results demonstrate the photoprotective effect of PLE on human cells and support its use in the preventive treatment of sunburning and skin pathologies associated with UV-mediated damage.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 05/2003; 70(1):31-7. DOI:10.1016/S1011-1344(03)00051-4 · 2.96 Impact Factor