Steve Maton

Novartis, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (7)21.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivastigmine were compared in Japanese and white healthy participants who were given ascending single doses of the novel rivastigmine transdermal patch. Rivastigmine patch strengths were 4.6 mg/24 h (5 cm2, 9 mg rivastigmine loaded dose), 9.5 mg/24 h (10 cm2, 18 mg), and 13.3 mg/24 h (15 cm2, 27 mg) (per label) or 7.0 mg/24 h (7.5 cm2, 13.5 mg) as a fall-back dose. No relevant ethnic differences in the noncompartmental pharmacokinetics (parent and metabolite NAP226-90) and pharmacodynamics (plasma BuChE activity) of the rivastigmine patch were observed between Japanese and whites. However, drug exposure was slightly higher and inhibition of BuChE slightly more pronounced in Japanese participants than in whites, which was attributed to the lower body weight (ca. 11% less on average) of Japanese participants. Treatments were similarly well tolerated in both ethnic groups. In conclusion, no relevant ethnic differences in the intrinsic disposition or effects of rivastigmine delivered via transdermal route are expected between Japanese and white patients. The possible effect of body weight on drug exposure suggests that special attention should be paid to patients with very low body weight during up-titration.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2009; 49(4):430-43. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod is predominantly hydroxylated by cytochrome CYP4F2. In vitro experiments showed that ketoconazole significantly inhibited the oxidative metabolism of fingolimod by human liver microsomes and by recombinant CYP4F2. The authors used ketoconazole as a putative CYP4F2 inhibitor to quantify its influence on fingolimod pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. In a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study, 22 healthy subjects received a single 5-mg dose of fingolimod in period 1. In period 2, subjects received ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 9 days and a single 5-mg dose of fingolimod coadministered on the 4th day of ketoconazole treatment. Ketoconazole did not affect fingolimod t(max) or half-life, but there was a weak average increase in C(max) of 1.22-fold (90% confidence interval, 1.15-1.30). The AUC over the 5 days of ketoconazole coadministration increased 1.40-fold (1.31-1.50), and the full AUC to infinity increased 1.71-fold (1.53-1.91). The AUC of the active metabolite fingolimod-phosphate was increased to a similar extent by 1.67-fold (1.50-1.85). Ketoconazole predose plasma levels were not altered by fingolimod. The magnitude of this interaction suggests that a proactive dose reduction of fingolimod is not necessary when adding ketoconazole to a fingolimod regimen. The clinician, however, should be aware of this interaction and bear in mind the possibility of a fingolimod dose reduction based on clinical monitoring.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2009; 49(2):212-8. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors determined whether intravenous atropine can prevent or counteract the negative chronotropic effect of the immunomodulator fingolimod. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period, crossover study, 12 healthy subjects received 5 mg fingolimod orally concurrently with intravenous atropine (titrated to a heart rate of 110-120 beats min(-1)) or intravenous placebo. A second group of 12 subjects received atropine/placebo 4 h after the fingolimod dose. Continuous telemetry measurements were made for 24 h after each fingolimod dose. Fingolimod administration alone yielded a heart rate nadir of 51 +/- 5 beats min(-1) at a median 4 h postdose with heart rate remaining depressed at 51-64 beats min(-1) over the rest of the day. Concurrent administration of fingolimod and atropine yielded a nadir of 66 +/- 6 beats min(-1) resulting in an atropine: placebo ratio (90% confidence interval) of 1.30 (1.22, 1.36). When atropine was administered at the time of the nadir, it was able to reverse the negative chronotropic effect of fingolimod from a heart rate of 56 +/- 9 beats min(-1) (placebo) to 64 +/- 8 beats min(-1) (atropine) resulting in an atropine: placebo ratio of 1.15 (1.04, 1.26). Atropine had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of fingolimod. Atropine administered concurrently with fingolimod prevented the heart rate nadir that typically occurs 4 h postdose. Atropine administered at the time of the heart rate nadir was able to reverse the negative chronotropic effect of fingolimod.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2008; 66(2):199-206. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod (FTY720) is known to elicit a negative chronotropic effect at treatment initiation that attenuates over time with continued dosing. The authors determined the effect of combining a single dose of fingolimod with steady-state atenolol or diltiazem on heart rate and mean arterial pressure. In a partially randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period, crossover study, 25 healthy subjects received (1) a single oral 5-mg dose of fingolimod, (2) either 50 mg atenolol or 240 mg diltiazem once daily for 5 days, and (3) the antihypertensive for 5 days and a single dose of fingolimod on day 5. Telemetry and pharmacokinetic data were collected. The daytime mean heart rate nadir was 15% lower when fingolimod was combined with atenolol (42 +/- 7 bpm) compared with fingolimod alone (51 +/- 9 bpm) yielding a combination/monotherapy ratio of 0.85 (90%CI, 0.79-0.92). The daytime mean heart rate nadir from fingolimod alone (55 +/- 5 bpm) was not altered when combined with diltiazem (56 +/- 8 bpm) yielding a ratio of 0.99 (0.94-1.05). There was no clinically relevant change in mean arterial pressure when fingolimod was administered with atenolol or diltiazem compared with administration of the drugs alone in normotensive subjects. The pharmacokinetics of the drugs were not altered during coadministration. Adding fingolimod to a beta-blocker such as atenolol resulted in a moderately lower mean heart rate nadir compared with fingolimod alone. However, subjects who had a stronger negative chronotropic response to fingolimod alone (nadir < 50 bpm) had minimal or no further reduction in heart rate with the drug combination. Adding fingolimod to a calcium channel blocker such as diltiazem did not further lower the heart rate compared to fingolimod alone.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/2008; 64(5):457-63. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod (FTY720) elicits a negative chronotropic effect at treatment initiation that attenuates thereafter. The authors determined whether isoproterenol can counteract this effect. In this randomized, crossover study, 14 healthy subjects received 5 infusions of isoproterenol (titrated to increase heart rate to 100-120 bpm) or intravenous placebo. The first infusion was 2 hours before and the other 4 infusions were between 3 and 6 hours after a 5-mg oral dose of fingolimod. Telemetry and pharmacokinetic data were collected for 24 hours. During isoproterenol infusion 1 (before fingolimod administration), heart rate was increased 80% from preinfusion 68 +/- 9 bpm to a maximum 122 +/- 15 bpm. Administration of fingolimod decreased heart rate from 73 +/- 11 bpm predose to a nadir of 57 +/- 8 bpm. The subsequent isoproterenol infusion 2 in the presence of fingolimod increased mean heart rate by 85% to a maximum 105 +/- 21 bpm. A 41% higher total isoproterenol dose was needed to increase heart rate to the target range with fingolimod (97 +/- 6 mcg) compared with isoproterenol alone (69 +/- 27 mcg). Isoproterenol infusions 3 to 5 had similar effects on heart rate as infusion 2. Fingolimod had no significant influence on blood pressure responses to isoproterenol. Isoproterenol did not alter the pharmacokinetics of fingolimod. The pure beta-agonist isoproterenol can reverse the heart rate reduction that occurs transiently after initiating fingolimod treatment.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2008; 48(3):303-10. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A transdermal patch has been developed for the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivastigmine and NAP226-90, and compared drug exposure between patch and capsule administrations. This was an open-label, parallel-group study in Alzheimer's disease patients randomized to receive either capsule (1.5-6 mg Q12H, i.e., 3-12 mg/day) or patch (5-20 cm2) in ascending doses through four 14-day periods. The patch showed lower Cmax (ca. 30% lower at 20 cm2, 19.5 versus 29.3 ng/ml), longer tmax (8.0 versus 1.0 h), and greater AUC (ca. 1.8-fold at 20 cm2, 345 versus 191 ng x h/ml) compared with the 6 mg Q12H capsule dose, with markedly less fluctuation between peak and trough plasma levels (80% at 20 cm2 versus 620% at 1.5 mg Q12H). Plasma butyrylcholinesterase inhibition rose slowly after patch administration, whereas two distinct peaks were seen after capsule administration. Average exposure with the 10 cm2 patch was comparable to the highest capsule dose (6 mg Q12H, i.e., 12 mg/day).
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 02/2008; 83(1):106-14. · 6.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A transdermal patch has been developed for the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivastigmine and NAP226-90, and compared drug exposure between patch and capsule administrations. This was an open-label, parallel-group study in Alzheimer's disease patients randomized to receive either capsule (1.5-6 mg Q12H, i.e., 3-12 mg/day) or patch (5-20 cm2) in ascending doses through four 14-day periods. The patch showed lower Cmax (ca. 30% lower at 20 cm2, 19.5 versus 29.3 ng/ml), longer tmax (8.0 versus 1.0 h), and greater AUC (ca. 1.8-fold at 20 cm2, 345 versus 191 ng x h/ml) compared with the 6 mg Q12H capsule dose, with markedly less fluctuation between peak and trough plasma levels (80% at 20 cm2 versus 620% at 1.5 mg Q12H). Plasma butyrylcholinesterase inhibition rose slowly after patch administration, whereas two distinct peaks were seen after capsule administration. Average exposure with the 10 cm2 patch was comparable to the highest capsule dose (6 mg Q12H, i.e., 12 mg/day).
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 01/2008;