Case Reports 01/2009; 2009:bcr2007120147.
Heart (British Cardiac Society) 03/2008; 94(2):130. · 4.22 Impact Factor
Circulation 01/2008; 118(16). · 14.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The classical Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) paper demonstrates the normal stages of development of the chick embryo that have been extensively used as the basis of understanding normal and abnormal development of the chick embryo heart. Careful examination of the series of images published in this seminal paper indicates that the cardiac images of stage 16 embryo shown in this article may reflect an abnormally developed heart. In this article, the argument is presented that the embryo depicted in the HH paper is not normal, but instead inflicted with a conotruncal heart defect.
Pediatric Cardiology 07/2007; 28(4):263-6. · 1.30 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate whether augmented chamber performance in children with a concentric hypertrophied left ventricle is due to increased myocardial shortening or a geometric effect of the thickened ventricular wall.
Chamber performance in terms of fractional area change and myocardial shortening--that is, circumferential midwall shortening--were measured by cross sectional echocardiography in young people with normal left ventricles and those with concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle.
52 healthy infants, children, and young people (age range 3 1/2 weeks to 26 years; body weight 1.8-89 kg (mean 23.6 kg)) and 29 infants, children, and adolescents with ventricular hypertrophy (mean body weight 31.4 kg, age range 4 weeks to 18.7 years).
Chamber areas, fractional area change, midwall circumferential shortening normalised to body weight.
In the controls normalised reference values were: end diastolic cavity area, 1.47 (0.25) cm2/kg0.65; fractional area change, 0.56 (0.03); end diastolic myocardial area, 1.62 (0.25) cm2/kg0.55; midwall circumferential shortening, 0.21 (0.03). By comparison, the patients had normal chamber areas (end diastolic myocardial area, 1.57 (0.42) cm2/kg0.65), increased fractional area change, 0.68 (0.05) (P < 0.001), and normal midwall circumferential shortening, 0.21 (0.03). There was a significant relation between the degree of hypertrophy (in terms of end diastolic myocardial area) and pump function while midwall shortening remained constant: 0.08 x end diastolic myocardial area + 0.44 (r = 0.74, P < 0.001).
The relation between myocardial shortening, wall thickness, and fractional area change emphasises that the augmentation of pump function variables in left ventricular hypertrophy in young people is an effect of the thickened wall and not necessarily due to increased myocardial shortening. This relation offers the possibility of assessing the adequacy of chamber performance with respect to the degree of hypertrophy.
Heart 09/1994; 72(2):182-5.