[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attraction of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to a volatile pheromone was demonstrated in three field experiments using baited green sticky traps. A dose-response curve was generated for male A. planipennis to increasing release rates of (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide ((3Z)-lactone) in combination with the green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol. Only the lowest release rate (<2.50 μg/d) of (3Z)-lactone significantly increased captures of male A. planipennis, as compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. Effect of trap height, (3Z)-lactone, and (3Z)-hexenol and their interactions on the trap capture of A. planipennis was determined in a factorial experiment. Number of males per trap was significantly and positively affected by (3Z)-lactone, (3Z)-hexenol, and trap height whereas number of females per trap was affected by trap height only; none of the interactions were significant. As predicted, the greatest mean catch of males was in traps baited with (3Z)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol placed high in the canopy. Electroantennogram tests on the bark volatile, 7-epi-sesquithujene, demonstrated the ability of male and female A. planipennis antennae to detect and respond to this compound, particularly the (+)-7-epi-sesquithujene isomer. Results from an olfactometer bioassay and field testing did not demonstrate attraction of either males or females to (+)-7-epi-sesquithujene. These data increase our understanding of the pheromone ecology of the invasive emerald ash borer, provide further confirmation of the behavioral activity of the female-produced lactone pheromone, and should increase the ability to detect A. planipennis infestations where they are present.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.
Journal of Economic Entomology 04/2012; 105(2):429-37. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An unsaturated hydroxy-ester pheromone was isolated from the headspace and feces of male Diaprepes abbreviatus, identified, and synthesized. The pheromone, methyl (E)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate, was discovered by gas chromatography-coupled electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD), and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The synthesis yielded an 86:14 mixture of methyl (E)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate (active) and methyl (Z)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-pentenoate (inactive), along with a lactone breakdown product. The activity of the synthetic E-isomer was confirmed by GC-EAD, GC-MS, NMR, and bioassays. No antennal response was observed to the Z-isomer or the lactone. In a two-choice olfactometer bioassay, female D. abbreviatus moved upwind towards the synthetic pheromone or natural pheromone more often compared with clean air. Males showed no clear preference for the synthetic pheromone. This pheromone, alone or in combination with plant volatiles, may play a role in the location of males by female D. abbreviatus.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 03/2012; 38(4):408-17. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The banana-spotting bug, Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from visual damage assessment, there are currently no reliable methods for monitoring bug activity to aid management decisions. An attractant pheromone for this species that could be used as a trap lure could potentially fill this void. Earlier, two male-specific compounds were identified in airborne extracts from A. lutescens lutescens, (E,E)-α-farnesene and (R,E)-nerolidol; an unknown compound with a molecular weight 220 was also detected. We now report the identification of this hitherto unknown compound as (R,E,E)-α-farnesene-10,11-oxide. Synthesis of this epoxide was conducted using a regioselective asymmetric dihydroxylation of a sulfolene. A blend mimicking the natural proportions of (E,E)-α-farnesene, (R,E)-nerolidol, and (R,E,E)-α-farnesene-10,11-oxide attracted male and female A. lutescens lutescens as well as nymphs in the field, verifying that the aggregation pheromone comprises or is contained within this group of compounds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood), is adapted to various leguminous crops and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce several short-chain esters and acids, and their antennae showed electrophysiological responses to five of these compounds, three common to both sexes (hexyl butanoate, 4-methylhexyl butanoate, and hexyl hexanoate), and two female-specific compounds (4-methylhexyl pentanoate and hexyl pentanoate). Both aeration extracts of females and a solution containing five synthetic compounds mimicking the natural blend were attractive to males and females N. parvus in a laboratory bioassay. Aspects of the chemical ecology of the broad-headed bugs and the possibility to use pheromone-baited traps in the field for monitoring are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 7-epi-sesquithujene (1) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene isolated from phoebe oil, an essential oil of the Brazilian walnut tree, Phoebe porosa. It is also produced by stressed ash trees and has been shown to elicit strong electrophysiological responses on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, antennae. In the course of the development of a synthetic 7-epi-sesquithujene lure for field testing against the emerald ash borer, we found that the absolute configuration of this compound had not been determined. We isolated >95% pure 7-epi-sesquithujene from phoebe oil via successive fractionation and conventional and argentation (HPLC) chromatographies. The specific optical rotation of this compound matched that of a synthetic product of known configuration. We also synthesized two other stereoisomers of sesquithujene and developed a chiral GC method to separate all four. Based on the specific rotation, stereoselective syntheses, and chiral GC analyses, 7-epi-sesquithujene present in phoebe oil and white ash was found to have the 2S,6S,7R absolute configuration.
Journal of Natural Products 06/2011; 74(6):1414-20. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They feed compulsively on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstrated that mono-fluorination at the terminal carbon of the ME side-chain significantly reduced metabolic side-chain hydroxylation, while mono-fluorination of ME at position 4 of the aromatic ring blocked ring-hydroxylation but surprisingly enhanced side-chain hydroxylation. Here, we demonstrated that the introduction of fluorine atoms on both the ring and side-chain of ME blocks both positions that undergo enzymatic hydroxylation and, in particular, completely inhibits oxidative biotransformation of the allyl group. In laboratory experiments, B. dorsalis males initially were more attracted to both 1-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxy-2-(3,3-difluoro-2-propenyl)benzene (I) and 1-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxy-2-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene (II) than to ME. However, both I and II were taken up by flies at rates significantly less than that of ME. Flies fed with difluoroanalog II partially metabolized it to 5-fluoro-4-(3-fluoroprop-2-en-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenol (III), and flies fed with trifluoroanalog I produced 4-(3,3-difluoroprop-2-en-1-yl)-5-fluoro-2-methoxyphenol (V), but the rates of metabolism relative to rates of intakes were much lower compared to those of ME. Flies that consumed either the tri- or difluorinated analog showed higher post-feeding mortality than those that fed on methyl eugenol. In field trials, trifluoroanalog I was ∼90% less attractive to male B. dorsalis than ME, while difluoroanalog II was ∼50% less attractive. These results suggest that increasing fluorination can contribute to fly mortality, but the trade off with attractancy makes it unlikely that either a di or trifluorinated ME would be an improvement over ME for detection and/or eradication of this species.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 06/2011; 37(6):553-64. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.
Journal of Economic Entomology 04/2011; 104(2):494-500. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a field test to examine attractancy of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), relative to release rates, equal moles of racemic ceralure B1 and trimedlure isomer C were compared on cotton wicks. Data were collected at 2, 4, and 7 d. The substrates were analyzed for longevity and overall persistence in the field. Ceralure B1 was equally attractive as trimedlure C for the first 2 d and significantly more so at 4 and 7 d based on trap counts of captured male Mediterranean fruit flies. Residue analysis of weathered wicks showed that the trimedlure C lasted for just 2 d in our field evaluations, whereas ceralure B1 had measurable material present after 7 d. Thus, based on the amounts of chemicals released, ceralure B1 was more active even in the first 2 d. Ceralure B1 also was formulated in a plastic matrix (ceralure coin) at three different dosages and tested for attractancy in the field against a 2-g trimedlure plug. A 150-mg ceralure B1 coin was equally attractive as a commercial 2-g trimedlure plug, whereas a 300-mg coin was significantly more attractive during a 6-8-wk deployment. Although our results clearly show that ceralure B1 is a superior attractant to trimedlure, costs of synthesis need to be considered as part of an overall program management strategy.
Journal of Economic Entomology 10/2010; 103(5):1586-93. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used pheromone-baited traps to survey the distribution of winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a new invasive defoliator from Europe in eastern New England. The traps also attracted Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), native to North America. We distinguished between the two species by examining male genitalia and sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, the DNA barcoding region. In 2005, we recovered winter moths at sites stretching from eastern Long Island, southeastern Connecticut, all of Rhode Island, eastern Massachusetts, coastal New Hampshire, and southern coastal Maine. At sites further west and north we captured only Bruce spanworm. In 2006, we confirmed that both winter moth and Bruce spanworm are present in Nova Scotia and in coastal Maine, but only Bruce spanworm was recovered in coastal New Brunswick, Canada; Pennsylvania; Vermont; or Quebec City, Canada. In 2007, we collected Bruce spanworm, but no winter moths, in New Brunswick and the interior areas of Maine, New Hampshire, and New York. Winter moth and Brace spanworm differed in the COI sequence by 7.45% of their nucleotides. The prevalence of intermediate genitalia in the zone of overlap suggested that hybridization between the two species may be occurring. To confirm the presence of hybrids, we sequenced the nuclear gene, glucose-6phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). We identified six nucleotides that routinely distinguished winter moth and Bruce spanworm, of which three were always diagnostic. We showed that eggs produced by hybridizing the two species in the laboratory contained copies of both species at these six sites. We found that most of the moths collected in the field with intermediate genitalia had winter moth CO1 and G6PD sequences and thus were not hybrids (or at least F1 hybrids). We found three hybrids out of 158 moths with intermediate genitalia in the region where both species were caught. We conclude that hybrids occur in nature, but are not as common as previously reported. Introgression of genes between the two species may still be significant.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 03/2010; · 1.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is an early-season defoliator that attacks a wide variety of hardwoods and, in some cases, conifers. The insect is native to Europe but has become established in at least three areas of North America including southeastern New England. The female-produced sex attractant pheromone of the winter moth was identified as (3Z,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene (1), which also attracts a native congener, the Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata . Dissection, or (for certainty) DNA molecular testing, is required to differentiate between males of the two species. Thus, a trapping method that is selective for winter moth would be desirable. A geometric isomer of the pheromone, (3E,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene (2), can reportedly inhibit attraction of Bruce spanworm to traps without affecting winter moth catch, but use of the pheromone and inhibitor together has not been optimized, nor has the synthesis of the inhibitor. This paper presents two new syntheses of the inhibitor (3E,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene based on the intermediate (3Z,6Z)-3,6-hexadecadien-1-ol (4), which has also been utilized in the synthesis of the pheromone. The syntheses combine traditional acetylenic chemistry and Wittig olefination reactions. In one approach, 2 was synthesized in 80% purity (20% being pheromone 1), and in the second, tetraene 2 of 96% purity (and free of 1) was produced in 25% overall yield from dienol 4. The last method benefitted from a refined TEMPO-mediated PhI(OAc)(2) oxidation of 4 and a two-carbon homologation of the corresponding aldehyde 7.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2010; 58(3):1828-33. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic activation of ME leading to (E)-coniferyl alcohol has long been recognized as a primary reason for hepatocarcinogenicity of this compound in rodents. Earlier, we demonstrated that introduction of a fluorine atom at the terminal carbon of the ME side chain significantly depressed metabolism and specifically reduced formation of coniferyl alcohol but had little effect on field attractiveness to B. dorsalis. In the current paper, we demonstrate that fluorination of ME at the 4 position of the aromatic ring blocks metabolic ring-hydroxylation but overall enhances side-chain metabolism by increasing production of fluorinated (E)-coniferyl alcohol. In laboratory experiments, oriental fruit fly males were attracted to and readily consumed 1,2-dimethoxy-4-fluoro-5-(2-propenyl)benzene (I) at rates similar to ME but metabolized it faster. Flies that consumed the fluorine analog were as healthy post feeding as ones fed on methyl eugenol. In field trials, the fluorine analog I was approximately 50% less attractive to male B. dorsalis than ME.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 03/2009; 35(2):209-18. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bark volatiles from green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica were tested for electrophysiological activity by Agrilus planipennis using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and for behavioral activity using baited purple traps in Michigan. GC-EAD analysis of the headspace volatiles of bark tissue samples from 0- and 24-h-old fully girdled (stressed) ash trees showed that the latter had elevated sesquiterpene levels. Six of the elevated compounds consistently elicited antennal responses by both male and female A. planipennis. Five of the antennally active compounds were identified as alpha-cubebene, alpha-copaene, 7-epi-sesquithujene, trans-beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene (alpha-caryophyllene). The sixth EAD-active compound remains unidentified. We monitored capture of adult A. planipennis on traps baited with several combinations of ash tree volatiles. Treatments included two natural oil distillates (Manuka and Phoebe oil) that were found to contain, respectively, high concentrations of four and five of the six antennally active ash bark volatiles. A four-component leaf lure developed by the USDA Forest Service and Canadian Forest Service was also tested. In three separate field studies, Manuka oil-baited traps caught significantly more adult beetles than unbaited traps. Lures designed to release 5, 50, and 500 mg of Manuka oil per day all caught more insects than unbaited traps. In a field test comparing and combining Phoebe oil with Manuka oil, Phoebe oil-baited traps caught significantly more beetles than either Manuka oil-baited traps or unbaited traps. We hypothesize that the improved attractancy of Phoebe oil to A. planipennis over Manuka oil is caused by the presence of the antennally active sesquiterpene, 7-epi-sesquithujene.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.), is native to Eurasia, where periodic outbreaks result in defoliation of forest, shade, and ornamental trees. In addition to the damage caused by defoliation, human contact with larval urticating hairs often results in severe dermatitis. Hence, tools for monitoring and controlling the moth populations are desirable. The female-produced sex pheromone of the browntail moth was identified previously, but the synthesis had not been published. This paper reports the synthesis of the pheromone of the browntail moth, (7Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosatetraenyl isobutyrate, using in a key step a Wittig olefination of (6Z)-13-(tetrahydo-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)tridecenal. Field trapping studies were conducted with rubber septa and string formulations of the pheromone and included dose-response, pheromone purity, and dispenser-aging trials. It was found that traps baited with 250 microg of pheromone of 91-94% isomeric purity (main impurity presumably being the 13E isomer) on rubber septa are suitable for monitoring moth populations during the entire flight season.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2008; 56(7):2452-6. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is a polyphagous pest indigenous to northeastern Asia where it damages various trees, vegetables, and leguminous crops. The bug was recently introduced into the U.S. and could potentially become a pest. In its native range, H. halys was reportedly attracted to the aggregation pheromone of the brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali, methyl (2 E,4 E,6 Z)-decatrienoate. We also observed that traps baited with this compound are attractive to H. halys. We additionally found that methyl (2 E,4 E,6 Z)-decatrienoate (as well as other isomeric methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates) exposed to daylight in solutions and/or on dispensers used for field trapping can readily isomerize to form complex mixtures of isomers, thus causing a concern about lure stability and longevity. However, our studies demonstrated that preventing isomerization of methyl (2 E,4 E,6 Z)-decatrienoate in dispensers was not essential for field trapping of H. halys males, females, and nymphs. We also present evidence that traps baited with methyl (2 Z,4 E,6 Z)-decatrienoate and methyl (2 E,4 Z,6 Z)-decatrienoate (pheromone of Thyanta spp. pentatomids), as well as the mixtures of geometric isomers, attract H. halys. The ZEZ isomer, unknown in nature, as well as the EEZ isomer, elicited electrophysiological responses from antennae of H. halys males. The field data suggest that the presence of the EEZ but not ZEZ isomer in the lure is essential for attraction of H. halys, and that other isomers are not antagonistic and may even be needed for maximum attraction. Because the pheromone of H. halys is unknown at present, lures containing methyl (2 E,4 E,6 Z)-decatrienoate without protection from daylight are suitable for monitoring populations of H. halys late in the season.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2008; 56(1):197-203. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Pentatomidae), called the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a newly invasive species in the eastern USA that is rapidly spreading from the original point of establishment in Allentown, PA. In its native range, the BMSB is reportedly attracted to methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, the male-produced pheromone of another pentatomid common in eastern Asia, Plautia stali Scott. In North America, Thyanta spp. are the only pentatomids known to produce methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoate [the (E,Z,Z)-isomer] as part of their pheromones. Methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates were field-tested in Maryland to monitor the spread of the BMSB and to explore the possibility that Thyanta spp. are an alternate host for parasitic tachinid flies that use stink bug pheromones as host-finding kairomones. Here we report the first captures of adult and nymph BMSBs in traps baited with methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate in central Maryland and present data verifying that the tachinid, Euclytia flava (Townsend), exploits methyl (E,Z,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate as a kairomone. We also report the unexpected finding that various isomers of methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoate attract Acrosternum hilare (Say), although this bug apparently does not produce methyl decatrienoates. Other stink bugs and tachinids native to North America were also attracted to methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates. These data indicate there are Heteroptera in North America in addition to Thyanta spp. that probably use methyl 2,4,6-decatrienoates as pheromones. The evidence that some pentatomids exploit the pheromones of other true bugs as kairomones to find food or to congregate as a passive defense against tachinid parasitism is discussed.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 05/2007; 33(4):801-15. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An earlier in vitro screening of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) and N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) analogs showed that two DEPA analogs, N,N-diethyl(3-bromophenyl) acetamide and N,N-diethyl[(alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl)]acetamide, and one Deet analog, N,N,diethyl[3-(trifluoromethyl)]benzamide, had biting-deterrent activities that were superior to Deet against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi Liston. In the current study, the three analogs and (1S,2'S)-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220) were applied topically to the skin of human volunteers at 24 nmol compound/cm2 skin and compared with the activity of Deet at the same dose against biting by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli females. SS220 proved to be as effective as Deet against Ae. aegypti and P. papatasi but more effective than Deet against An. stephensi. Contrary to the earlier in vitro tests, results with humans (in vivo testing) showed that neither of the DEPA analogs nor the Deet analog performed more effectively than Deet against the insects. The in vivo results showed that the analogs were not sufficiently effective to warrant further development. Notably, in vivo and in vitro methods used in discovery of personal protection chemicals for human use against blood-feeding flies can both be effective discriminating tools, but results obtained with the respective methods may not always agree. Ultimately, we surmise that in vivo testing methods with humans must be used to discriminate among compounds that superficially seem effective when screened using an in vitro method.
Journal of Medical Entomology 12/2006; 43(6):1248-51. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methyl eugenol (ME) is a natural phenylpropanoid highly attractive to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) males. The flies eagerly feed on ME and produce hydroxylated metabolites with both pheromonal and allomonal functions. Side-chain metabolic activation of ME has long been recognized as a primary reason for hepatocarcinogenicity of this compound on rodents. In an attempt to develop a safer alternative to ME for fruit fly management, we developed a fluorine analog 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)benzene (I), which, in earlier field tests, was as active to the oriental fruit fly as ME. Now we report that B. dorsalis males are not only attracted to, but also eagerly consume (up to approximately 1 mg/insect) compound I, thus recognizing this fluorinated benzene as a close kin of the natural ME. The flies metabolized the fluorine analog I in a similar fashion producing mostly two hydroxylated products, 2-(3-fluoro-2-propenyl)-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (II) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (III), which they stored in rectal glands. However, the introduction of the fluorine atom at the terminal carbon atom of the double bond favors the ring hydroxylation over a side-chain metabolic oxidation pathway, by which coniferyl alcohol is produced. It also appears that fluorination overall impedes the metabolism: at high feed rate (10 mul per 10 males), the flies consumed in total more fluorine analog I than ME but were unable to metabolize it as efficiently as ME.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 08/2006; 32(7):1513-26. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of behavioral tests with Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston, mosquitoes, and the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli in the presence of Deet, SS220, and Picaridin topically applied to the skin of human volunteers showed that the insects were deterred from feeding on and repelled from surfaces emanating the compounds. When offered a 12- or 24-cm2 area of skin, one-half treated with compound and one-half untreated, the insects fed almost exclusively on untreated skin. The sand flies and mosquitoes did not at any time physically contact chemically treated surfaces. When treated and untreated skin areas were covered with cloth, insects contacted, landed, and bit only through cloth covering untreated skin. These observations provided evidence that the compounds deterred feeding and repelled insects from treated surfaces primarily as a result of olfactory sensing. When cloth, one-half untreated and one-half treated with chemical, was placed over untreated skin, insects only touched and specifically bit through the untreated cloth. This showed that the activity of the chemicals does not involve a chemical x skin interaction. In the presence of any of the three chemicals, no matter how they were presented to the insects, overall population biting activity was reduced by about one-half relative to controls. This reduction showed a true repellent effect for the compounds. Results clearly showed that Deet, SS220, and Picaridin exert repellent and deterrent effects upon the behavior of mosquitoes and sand flies. Heretofore, the combined behavioral effects of these compounds upon mosquito and sand fly behavior were unknown. Moreover, protection afforded by Deet, SS220, and Picaridin against the feeding of these three disease vectors on humans is mechanistically a consequence of the two chemical effects.
Journal of Medical Entomology 02/2006; 43(1):34-9. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (-)-Ceralure B1 (ethyl-cis-5-iodo-trans-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate), a male attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is significantly more attractive than trimedlure (tert-butyl esters of 4(5)-chloro-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate), the current standard male attractant used in detection programs. This article reports studies that compare the effectiveness of racemic ceralure B1, mixtures of racemic ceralure B1 and pure (-)-ceralure B1, and trimedlure in field tests conducted in Hawaii, Africa, and Spain with wild Mediterranean fruit flies and in Florida with sterile released Mediterranean fruit fly. Trapping results showed that doses of (-)-ceralure B1 of 87.5 and 75% are just as effective as the 98% (-)-ceralure B1 and the racemic form to be almost as attractive. In nearly all studies, the racemic ceralure B1 was significantly better than trimedlure. These studies suggest that the racemic ceralure B1 could be a viable replacement for trimedlure in areawide detection programs for Mediterranean fruit fly. Synthesizing racemic ceralure B1 instead of a specific stereoselective enantiomer of ceralure B1 would likely be more cost-effective to produce and also might be useful in control as well as detection of this pest.
Journal of Economic Entomology 09/2005; 98(4):1139-43. · 1.60 Impact Factor