Marlene Rabinovitch

Stanford Medicine, Stanford, California, United States

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Publications (274)1789.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by endothelial dysregulation, but global changes in gene expression have not been related to perturbations in function. RNA sequencing was utilized to discriminate changes in transcriptomes of endothelial cells cultured from lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension vs. controls and to assess the functional significance of major differentially expressed transcripts. The endothelial transcriptomes from seven control and six idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients' lungs were analyzed. Differentially expressed genes were related to BMPR2 signaling. Those downregulated were assessed for function in cultured cells, and in a transgenic mouse. Fold-differences in ten genes were significant (p<0.05), four increased and six decreased in patients vs. No patient was mutant for BMPR2. However, knockdown of BMPR2 by siRNA in control pulmonary arterial endothelial cells recapitulated six/ten patient-related gene changes, including decreased collagen IV (COL4A1, COL4A2) and ephrinA1 (EFNA1). Reduction of BMPR2 regulated transcripts was related to decreased β-catenin. Reducing COL4A1, COL4A2 and EFNA1 by siRNA inhibited pulmonary endothelial adhesion, migration and tube formation. In mice null for the EFNA1 receptor, EphA2, vs. controls, VEGF receptor blockade and hypoxia caused more severe pulmonary hypertension, judged by elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and loss of small arteries. The novel relationship between BMPR2 dysfunction and reduced expression of endothelial COL4 and EFNA1 may underlie vulnerability to injury in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1164/rccm.201408-1528OC · 11.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by endothelial cell dysfunction, impaired BMPR2 signaling, and increased elastase activity. Synthetic elastase inhibitors reverse experimental pulmonary hypertension but cause hepatotoxicity in clinical studies. The endogenous elastase inhibitor elafin attenuates the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in mice, but its potential to improve endothelial cell function and BMPR2 signaling, and to reverse severe experimental pulmonary hypertension or vascular pathology in the human disease was unknown. To assess elafin-mediated regression of pulmonary vascular pathology in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by VEGF receptor blockade and hypoxia (Sugen/Hypoxia), and in lung explants from pulmonary hypertension patients. To determine if elafin amplifies BMPR2 signaling in pulmonary artery endothelial cells from controls and patients, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods, Measurements and Main Results: In Sugen/Hypoxia rats, elafin reduced elastase activity and reversed pulmonary hypertension, judged by regression of right ventricular systolic pressure and hypertrophy and pulmonary artery occlusive changes. Elafin improved endothelial function by increasing apelin, a product of BMPR2 signaling. Elafin induced apoptosis in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and in lung organ culture elafin decreased neointimal lesions. In normal and patient pulmonary artery endothelial cells, elafin enhanced survival and promoted angiogenesis by increasing pSMAD dependent and independent BMPR2 signaling. This was linked mechanistically to augmented interaction of BMPR2 with caveolin-1 via elafin-mediated stabilization of caveolin-1 on endothelial surfaces. Elafin reverses obliterative changes in rat and human pulmonary arteries via elastase inhibition and caveolin-1 dependent amplification of BMPR2 signaling.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2015; 191(11). DOI:10.1164/rccm.201412-2291OC · 11.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and mutant bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) are associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), an incurable disease characterized by pulmonary arterial (PA) endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis, decreased microvessels, and occlusive vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that reduced BMPR2 induces PAEC mitochondrial dysfunction, promoting a pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic state. Mice with EC deletion of BMPR2 develop hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that, in contrast to non-transgenic littermates, does not reverse upon reoxygenation and is associated with reduced PA microvessels and lung EC p53, PGC1α and TFAM, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial DNA. Decreasing PAEC BMPR2 by siRNA during reoxygenation represses p53, PGC1α, NRF2, TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP and induces mitochondrial DNA deletion and apoptosis. Reducing PAEC BMPR2 in normoxia increases p53, PGC1α, TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and glycolysis, and induces mitochondrial fission and a pro-inflammatory state. These features are recapitulated in PAECs from PAH patients with mutant BMPR2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell metabolism 04/2015; 21(4):596-608. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.03.010 · 16.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of a functional microvascular bed in rejecting solid organ transplants is correlated with fibrotic remodeling and chronic rejection; in lung allografts, this pathology is predicted by bronchoalveolar fluid neutrophilia which suggests a role for polymorphonuclear cells in microcirculatory injury. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant model, cyclosporine, which primarily inhibits T cells, failed as a monotherapy for preventing microvessel rejection and graft ischemia. To target neutrophil action that may be contributing to vascular injury, we examined the effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, elafin, on the microvascular health of transplant tissue. We showed that elafin monotherapy prolonged microvascular perfusion and enhanced tissue oxygenation while diminishing the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and decreasing tissue deposition of complement C3 and the membrane attack complex, C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway but was insufficient as a single agent to completely prevent tissue ischemia during acute rejection episodes. However, when combined with cyclosporine, elafin effectively preserved airway microvascular perfusion and oxygenation. The therapeutic strategy of targeting neutrophil elastase activity alongside standard immunosuppression during acute rejection episodes may be an effective approach for preventing the development of irreversible fibrotic remodeling. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
    American Journal of Transplantation 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/ajt.13189 · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The loss of a functional microvascular bed in rejecting solid organ transplants is correlated with fibrotic remodeling and chronic rejection; in lung allografts, this pathology is predicted by bronchoalveolar fluid neutrophilia which suggests a role for polymorphonuclear cells in microcirculatory injury. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant model, cyclosporine, which primarily inhibits T cells, failed as a monotherapy for preventing microvessel rejection and graft ischemia. To target neutrophil action that may be contributing to vascular injury, we examined the effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, elafin, on the microvascular health of transplant tissue. We showed that elafin monotherapy prolonged microvascular perfusion and enhanced tissue oxygenation while diminishing the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and decreasing tissue deposition of complement C3 and the membrane attack complex, C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway but was insufficient as a single agent to completely prevent tissue ischemia during acute rejection episodes. However, when combined with cyclosporine, elafin effectively preserved airway microvascular perfusion and oxygenation. The therapeutic strategy of targeting neutrophil elastase activity alongside standard immunosuppression during acute rejection episodes may be an effective approach for preventing the development of irreversible fibrotic remodeling.
    American Journal of Transplantation 02/2015; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haplo-insufficient newborn mice (Eln(+/-)) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. As mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haplo-insufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5d-old wild-type (Eln(+/+)) and Eln(+/-) littermates at baseline, and after MV with air for 8-24h. Lungs of unventilated Eln(+/-) mice contained ~50% less elastin and ~100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared to Eln(+/+) pups. Eln(+/-) lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln(+/+) lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln(+/+) neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln(+/-) mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln(+/-) than in Eln(+/+) pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln(+/-) compared to Eln(+/+) mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haplo-insufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis, and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln(+/+) and Eln(+/-) mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln(+/-) newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln(+/-) mice. Copyright © 2014, American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 12/2014; 308(5):ajplung.00278.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00278.2014 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • AHA Scientific Sessions; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Rupture and dissection of aortic root aneurysms remain the leading causes of death in patients with the Marfan syndrome, a hereditary connective tissue disorder that affects 1 in 5000 individuals worldwide. In the present study, we use a Marfan mouse model (Fbn1(C1039G/+)) to investigate the biological importance of apoptosis during aneurysm development in Marfan syndrome.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304364 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder that is associated with elevated pulmonary pressures and right heart failure resulting from progressive loss and thickening of small pulmonary arteries. Despite their ability to improve symptoms, current therapies fail to prevent disease progression, leaving lung transplantation as the only therapy in end-stage PAH. To overcome the limitations of current therapies, there is an active search for disease-modifying agents capable of altering the natural history of, and improving clinical outcomes in, PAH. The Wnt signaling pathways have emerged as attractive treatment targets in PAH given their role in the preservation of pulmonary vascular homeostasis and the recent development of Wnt-specific compounds and biological therapies capable of modulating pathway activity. In this review, we summarize the literature describing the role of Wnt signaling in the pulmonary circulation and discuss promising advances in the field of Wnt therapeutics that could lead to novel clinical therapies capable of preventing and/or reversing pulmonary vascular pathology in patients with this devastating disease.
    Drug Discovery Today 06/2014; 19(8). DOI:10.1016/j.drudis.2014.06.014 · 5.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes an expanding body of knowledge indicating that failure to resolve inflammation and altered immune processes underlie the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The chemokines and cytokines implicated in pulmonary arterial hypertension that could form a biomarker platform are discussed. Pre-clinical studies that provide the basis for dysregulated immunity in animal models of the disease are reviewed. In addition, we present therapies that target inflammatory/immune mechanisms that are currently enrolling patients, and discuss others in development. We show how genetic and metabolic abnormalities are inextricably linked to dysregulated immunity and adverse remodeling in the pulmonary arteries.
    Circulation Research 06/2014; 115(1):165-75. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301141 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a Leader of the Congenital Heart Disease Task Force, PVRI; b In memoriam; c Leader of the Pediatric Task Force, PVRI Abstract: Standardization of the diagnostic routine for children with congenital heart disease associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-CHD) is crucial, in particular since inappropriate assignment to repair of the cardiac lesions (e.g., surgical repair in patients with elevated pulmonary vascular resis-tance) may be detrimental and associated with poor outcomes. Thus, members of the Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Task Forces of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute decided to conduct a survey aimed at collecting expert opinion from different institutions in several countries, covering many aspects of the management of PAH-CHD, from clinical recognition to noninvasive and invasive diagnostic procedures and immediate postoperative support. In privileged communities, the vast majority of children with congenital cardiac shunts are now treated early in life, on the basis of noninvasive diagnostic eval-uation, and have an uneventful postoperative course, with no residual PAH. However, a small percentage of patients (older at presentation, with extracardiac syndromes or absence of clinical features of increased pulmonary blood flow, thus suggesting elevated pulmonary vascular resistance) remain at a higher risk of complications and unfavorable outcomes. These patients need a more sophisticated diagnostic approach, including invasive procedures. The authors emphasize that decision making regarding operability is based not only on cardiac catheterization data but also on the complete diagnostic picture, which includes the clinical history, physical examination, and all aspects of noninvasive evaluation.
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH [IPAH]) is an insidious and potentially fatal disease linked to a mutation or reduced expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2). Because intravascular inflammatory cells are recruited in IPAH pathogenesis, we hypothesized that reduced BMPR2 enhances production of the potent chemokine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in response to an inflammatory perturbation. When human pulmonary artery (PA) endothelial cells deficient in BMPR2 were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a twofold increase in GM-CSF was observed and related to enhanced messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. The mechanism was associated with disruption of stress granule formation. Specifically, loss of BMPR2 induced prolonged phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to TNF, and this increased GADD34-PP1 phosphatase activity, dephosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF2α), and derepressing GM-CSF mRNA translation. Lungs from IPAH patients versus unused donor controls revealed heightened PA expression of GM-CSF co-distributing with increased TNF and expanded populations of hematopoietic and endothelial GM-CSF receptor α (GM-CSFRα)-positive cells. Moreover, a 3-wk infusion of GM-CSF in mice increased hypoxia-induced PAH, in association with increased perivascular macrophages and muscularized distal arteries, whereas blockade of GM-CSF repressed these features. Thus, reduced BMPR2 can subvert a stress granule response, heighten GM-CSF mRNA translation, increase inflammatory cell recruitment, and exacerbate PAH.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2014; DOI:10.1084/jem.20111741 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH) continues to accelerate. However, fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying pathological changes in pulmonary arteries and veins in the different forms of this syndrome. Although PH primarily affects the arteries, venous disease is increasingly recognized as an important entity. Moreover, prognosis in PH is determined largely by the status of the right ventricle, rather than the levels of pulmonary artery pressures. It is increasingly clear that although vasospasm plays a role, PH is an obstructive lung panvasculopathy. Disordered metabolism and mitochondrial structure, inflammation, and dysregulation of growth factors lead to a proliferative, apoptosis-resistant state. These abnormalities may be acquired, genetically mediated as a result of mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 or activin-like kinase-1, or epigenetically inherited (as a result of epigenetic silencing of genes such as superoxide dismutase-2). There is a pressing need to better understand how the pathobiology leads to severe disease in some patients versus mild PH in others. Recent recognition of a potential role of acquired abnormalities of mitochondrial metabolism in the right ventricular myocytes and pulmonary vascular cells suggests new therapeutic approaches, diagnostic modalities, and biomarkers. Finally, dissection of the role of pulmonary inflammation in the initiation and promotion of PH has revealed a complex yet fascinating interplay with pulmonary vascular remodeling, promising to lead to novel therapeutics and diagnostics. Emerging concepts are also relevant to the pathobiology of PH, including a role for bone marrow and circulating progenitor cells and microribonucleic acids. Continued interest in the interface of the genetic basis of PH and cellular and molecular pathogenetic links should further expand our understanding of the disease.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2013; 62(25 Suppl):D4-D12. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.025 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious condition that affects mainly young and middle-aged women, and its etiology is poorly understood. A prominent pathological feature of PH is accumulation of macrophages near the arterioles of the lung. In both clinical tissue and the SU5416 (SU)/athymic rat model of severe PH, we found that the accumulated macrophages expressed high levels of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), the biosynthetic enzyme for leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Moreover, macrophage-derived LTB4 directly induced apoptosis in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Further, LTB4 induced proliferation and hypertrophy of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. We found that LTB4 acted through its receptor, BLT1, to induce PAEC apoptosis by inhibiting the protective endothelial sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1)-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Blocking LTA4H decreased in vivo LTB4 levels, prevented PAEC apoptosis, restored Sphk1-eNOS signaling, and reversed fulminant PH in the SU/athymic rat model of PH. Antagonizing BLT1 similarly reversed established PH. Inhibition of LTB4 biosynthesis or signal transduction in SU-treated athymic rats with established disease also improved cardiac function and reopened obstructed arterioles; this approach was also effective in the monocrotaline model of severe PH. Human plexiform lesions, one hallmark of PH, showed increased numbers of macrophages, which expressed LTA4H, and patients with connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension exhibited significantly higher LTB4 concentrations in the systemic circulation than did healthy subjects. These results uncover a possible role for macrophage-derived LTB4 in PH pathogenesis and identify a pathway that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting.
    Science translational medicine 08/2013; 5(200):200ra117. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006674 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 (BMPR2) signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We used a transcriptional high-throughput luciferase reporter assay to screen 3,756 FDA-approved drugs and bioactive compounds for induction of BMPR2 signaling. The best response was achieved with FK506 (tacrolimus), via a dual mechanism of action as a calcineurin inhibitor that also binds FK-binding protein-12 (FKBP12), a repressor of BMP signaling. FK506 released FKBP12 from type I receptors activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), ALK2, and ALK3 and activated downstream SMAD1/5 and MAPK signaling and ID1 gene regulation in a manner superior to the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine and the FKBP12 ligand rapamycin. In pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) from patients with idiopathic PAH, low-dose FK506 reversed dysfunctional BMPR2 signaling. In mice with conditional Bmpr2 deletion in ECs, low-dose FK506 prevented exaggerated chronic hypoxic PAH associated with induction of EC targets of BMP signaling, such as apelin. Low-dose FK506 also reversed severe PAH in rats with medial hypertrophy following monocrotaline and in rats with neointima formation following VEGF receptor blockade and chronic hypoxia. Our studies indicate that low-dose FK506 could be useful in the treatment of PAH.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 07/2013; DOI:10.1172/JCI65592 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of the pulmonary system is essential for terrestrial life. The molecular pathways that regulate this complex process are beginning to be defined, and such knowledge is critical to our understanding of congenital and acquired lung diseases. A recent workshop was convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to discuss the developmental principles that regulate the formation of the pulmonary system. Emerging evidence suggests that key developmental pathways not only regulate proper formation of the pulmonary system but are also reactivated upon postnatal injury and repair and in the pathogenesis of human lung diseases. Molecular understanding of early lung development has also led to new advances in areas such as generation of lung epithelium from pluripotent stem cells. The workshop was organized into four different topics, including early lung cell fate and morphogenesis, mechanisms of lung cell differentiation, tissue interactions in lung development, and environmental impact on early lung development. Critical points were raised, including the importance of epigenetic regulation of lung gene expression, the dearth of knowledge on important mesenchymal lineages within the lung, and the interaction between the developing pulmonary and cardiovascular system. This manuscript describes the summary of the discussion along with general recommendations to overcome the gaps in knowledge in lung developmental biology.
    04/2013; 10(2):S12-6. DOI:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201207-036OT
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    Marlene Rabinovitch
    01/2013; 3(1):153-5. DOI:10.4103/2045-8932.109963
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a life-limiting condition with a major impact on the ability to lead a normal life. Although existing therapies may improve the outlook in some patients there remains a major unmet need to develop more effective therapies in this condition. There have been significant advances in our understanding of the genetic, cell and molecular basis of PAH over the last few years. This research has identified important new targets that could be explored as potential therapies for PAH. In this review we discuss whether further exploitation of vasoactive agents could bring additional benefits over existing approaches. Approaches to enhance smooth muscle cell apotosis and the potential of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition are summarised. We evaluate the role of inflammation, epigenetic changes and altered glycolytic metabolism as potential targets for therapy, and whether inherited genetic mutations in PAH have revealed druggable targets. The potential of cell based therapies and gene therapy are also discussed. Potential candidate pathways that could be explored in the context of experimental medicine are identified.
    01/2013; 3(1):226-44. DOI:10.4103/2045-8932.109940
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis is a difficult obstructive defect to manage as clinicians cannot know a priori which obstructions to treat and when. Prognosis of PA stenosis and its chronic effects on lung development are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the hemodynamic and structural effects of PA stenosis during development. Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left pulmonary artery (LPA) banding at age 21 days and thirteen underwent sham-operation. Hemodynamic and structural impacts were studied longitudinally at 20, 36, 52, 100 and 160 days. Chronic LPA banding resulted in a significant reduction in LPA flow (p<0.0001) and size of both proximal LPA (p<0.0001) and distal LPA (p<0.01), as well as a significant increase in flow and size of the right pulmonary artery (p<0.05) throughout development. Flows and sizes adapted such that normal levels of wall shear were restored after banding. At 160 days, LPA banding resulted in a significant decrease in left lung volume and an increase in right lung volume but no significant differences in total lung volume. There was an elevation of proximal LPA pressure as well as right ventricular hypertrophy in the banded animals. The banded lung exhibited arterial disorganization, loss of vessels and enlargement of its bronchial arteries, while the contralateral lung showed signs of vascular pathology. There are consequences on development of both lungs in the presence of an LPA stenosis at young age. These results suggest that early intervention may be necessary to optimize left lung growth and minimize right lung vascular pathology.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 10/2012; 304(1). DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00412.2011 · 4.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,789.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Stanford Medicine
      • • Vera Moulton Wall Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease
      • • Division of Pediatric Cardiology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2004–2014
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Pediatric Cardiology
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany
  • 1984–2011
    • University of Toronto
      • • Hospital for Sick Children
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Rotman Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1985–2005
    • SickKids
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Division of Neonatology
      • • Division of Pathology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1976–1999
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994
    • Cardiovascular Research Foundation
      New York, New York, United States
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1977–1982
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1981
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States