Roelof Mol

University of Liège, Liège, WAL, Belgium

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Publications (18)53.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The influence of the BGE composition, including the addition of a single-isomer sulfated beta-CD derivative, on the ionization performance of the model compound carvedilol in NACE-ESI-MS was studied using an alternative infusion method. This approach employs voltage-induced infusion of the BGE containing the analyte, and takes into account the effects of variations in EOF and effective analyte mobility on the ESI-MS intensity. First, the optimal composition of the sheath liquid for CE-MS in terms of signal abundance and stability was determined. The BGE ammonium formate, acetate, and camphorsulfonate were found to have similar effects on analyte ionization. Addition of single-isomer sulfated beta-CD derivatives (available as sodium salt) to the BGE revealed that the anionic CD derivatives did not give rise to the same ionization suppression effect. This result can be attributed to differences in the dissociation state of these sodium salts. Finally, it is shown that information about chiral selectivity can also be obtained with the applied infusion method.
    Electrophoresis 03/2010; 31(7):1157-61. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis provides powerful separation systems of high efficiency, selectivity and flexibility. Such electrokinetic chromatographic (EKC) systems are particularly useful for chiral analysis or for the analysis of samples containing a broad range of compounds. As the availability of mass and/or structural data on (unknown) sample constituents is increasingly important, the on-line coupling of EKC and mass spectrometry (MS) has gained attention. However, commonly used PSPs, such as micelles and cyclodextrines, may strongly interfere with electrospray ionization (ESI), making on-line EKC-MS quite a challenging task. This review covers the various approaches that have been proposed and developed to combine EKC and MS. A distinction is made between methodologies that prevent the PSP from entering the MS system, and methodologies that allow introduction of PSPs into the ion source. Various approaches such as partial filling of the separation capillary with PSP, use of reverse-migrating PSPs, employment of volatile PSPs, and alternative ionization modes, are outlined. Specific applications are described and overview tables are provided. It is concluded that there is no general solution for EKC-MS available yet, but new ionization techniques like atmospheric pressure photoionization may offer attractive perspectives for achieving full compatibility.
    Journal of chromatography. A 02/2010; 1217(25):3978-91. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of nonaqueous electrokinetic chromatography (NAEKC) using cyclodextrins (CD) for the analysis of basic drugs and related compounds was evaluated. Both UV absorbance and mass spectrometric (MS) detection were employed. Addition of neutral CD to the NA background electrolyte did not significantly enhance the separation of a test mixture of basic drugs, and no change in selectivity was observed. In contrast, anionic single-isomer-sulfated CD strongly added to the selectivity of the NAEKC system inducing an improved resolution among the test compounds and increasing the migration time window. The applicability of the NAEKC system using anionic CD is demonstrated by the profiling of a sample of the drug amiodarone that had been stored for 1 year at room temperature. Amiodarone is poorly soluble in water. NAEKC-UV analysis indicated the presence of at least seven impurities in the amiodarone sample. In order to identify these compounds, the NAEKC system was coupled directly to electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap MS. The total of detected impurities increased to 12 due to the added sensitivity and selectivity of MS detection. Based on the acquired MS/MS data, three sample constituents could be identified as 'known' impurities (British Pharmacopoeia), whereas for three unknown impurities molecular structures could be proposed. Estimated limits of detection for amiodarone using the NAEKC method were 1 microg/mL with UV detection and 15 ng/mL with ESI-MS detection (full-scan). Based on relative responses, the impurity content of the stored drug substance was estimated to be 0.33 and 0.47% using NAEKC-UV and NAEKC-ESI-MS, respectively.
    Electrophoresis 10/2008; 29(17):3575-81. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-aqueous electrokinetic chromatography (NAEKC) using cationic cyclodextrins (CDs) was coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). A methanolic background electrolyte (BGE) was used which contained the hydrochloride salts of the single-isomer derivative cyclodextrins 6-monodeoxy-6-mono(2-hydroxy)propylamino-beta-cyclodextrin (IPA-beta-CD) or 6-monodeoxy-6-mono(3-hydroxy)propylamino-beta-cyclodextrin (PA-beta-CD). Applying a reversed capillary electrophoresis (CE) polarity (-30 kV), efficient separation of negatively charged compounds was achieved with plate numbers of up to 190,000. PA-beta-CD appeared to be the most suitable for the separation of various acidic drugs while also providing a high chiral selectivity. Analyte detection was achieved by ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode using a sheath-liquid interface. In order to prevent current drops caused by the cathodic electroosmotic flow, a pressure of 15 mbar was applied on the inlet vial during NAEKC/MS analysis. The effect of the cationic CDs on the MS signal intensities of acidic test drugs was thoroughly studied. When a voltage is applied across the CE capillary, the overall mobility of the cationic CDs is towards the inlet vial so that no CD molecules enter the ion source. The chloride counter ions of the CDs, which migrated towards the capillary outlet, were found to cause ionization suppression, although significant analyte signals could still be detected. Depending on the CD concentration in the BGE, limits of detection for acidic drugs were in the 50-400 ng/mL range in full-scan mode.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2008; 22(6):790-6. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    09/2007: pages 307 - 336; , ISBN: 9780470871041
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    ABSTRACT: The set-up of an on-line method for coupling nonaqueous electrokinetic chromatography (NAEKC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is presented. It allows the use of the single-isomer derivative anionic cyclodextrins heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDMS-beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDAS-beta-CD) for chiral and achiral separations of positively charged analytes. The effect of the cyclodextrins (CDs) on the MS signal intensities of model compounds was studied. When a voltage is applied over the CE capillary, the overall mobility of the CDs is towards the inlet vial preventing CDs from entering the ion source. However, the sodium counter ions of the CDs still enter the ion source and appeared to cause ionization suppression. Nevertheless, significant analyte signals could still be detected with detection limits in the sub-microg/ml. System parameters such as sheath liquid composition and flow rate, nebulizing gas pressure, capillary position in the sprayer and the drying gas flow and temperature were studied and optimized. The selection of a relatively low nebulizing gas pressure appeared to be important to achieve optimum sensitivity. The chiral selectivity of the NAEKC-ESI-MS system could be improved by addition of camphorsulfonate to the background electrolyte. Using mixtures of drugs and drug-related compounds, the NAEKC-ESI-MS system is shown to offer potential for (chiral) drug profiling.
    Journal of Chromatography 09/2007; 1159(1-2):51-7. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have presented a system hyphenating continuous micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Here we evaluate this technique for its applicability in impurity profiling of drugs using galantamine and ipratropium as test samples. A background electrolyte (BGE) of 10mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.5), 12.5-15% acetonitrile and 20mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was used for the MEKC-MS analysis of a galantamine sample containing a number of related impurities, and a heat-treated solution of ipratropium containing a number of unknown degradation products. MEKC provided efficient separation of all sample constituents. Despite the presence of non-volatile BGEs, all impurities in the galantamine sample could be detected by ESI-MS in their respective extracted ion traces (XICs) with a detection sensitivity in the sub-microg/ml range (full-scan mode). MS/MS detection provided useful product spectra allowing the structural characterization of the respective galantamine impurities. With the MEKC-MS/MS system, two degradation products could be revealed and identified in the heat-stressed ipratropium sample. The presented method shows good potential for the detection and structure elucidation of minor impurities in drug substances.
    Journal of Chromatography B 12/2006; 843(2):283-8. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses of statistical variance were applied to evaluate the precision and practicality of a CD-based NACE assay for R-timolol after enantiomeric separation of R- and S-timolol. Data were collected in an interlaboratory study by 11 participating laboratories located in Europe and North America. General qualitative method performance was examined using suitability descriptors (i.e. resolution, selectivity, migration times and S/N), while precision was determined by quantification of variances in the determination of R-timolol at four different impurity levels in S-timolol maleate samples. The interlaboratory trials were designed in accordance with the ISO guideline 5725-2. This allowed estimating for each sample, the different variances, i.e. between-laboratory (s2(Laboratories)), between-day (s2(Days)) and between-replicate (s2(Replicates)). The variances of repeatability (s2r) and reproducibility (s2R) were then calculated. The estimated uncertainty, derived from the precision estimates, seems to be concentration-dependent above a given threshold. This example of R-timolol illustrates how a laboratory can evaluate uncertainty in general.
    Electrophoresis 07/2006; 27(12):2386-99. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The usefulness of the on-line coupling of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) using heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDAS-beta-CD) was demonstrated for the enantioselective determination of low concentrations of salbutamol in human urine. After optimization of several parameters, such as sheath-liquid composition and flow rate, nebulizing gas pressure, CE counter-pressure and position of the CE capillary outlet, a limit of quantification of 18 and 20 ng/ml was obtained for salbutamol enantiomers. Moreover, the relative standard deviation values for repeatability at a concentration of 30 ng/ml were below 7% for both enantiomers. Typical regression lines obtained after application of a simple linear regression model revealed a good relationship between peak area and analyte concentration (with 0.9988 and 0.9966 as coefficients of determination). This paper proposes an easy to use and sensitive NACE-MS method to determine enantiomers of a basic chiral drug in biological fluids preceded by solid-phase extraction as sample cleanup.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 03/2006; 40(3):752-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2006; 384(1):31-3. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is presented as a novel means for the combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line coupling is achieved using an adapted sheath flow interface installed on an orthogonal APPI source. Acetone or toluene is added as dopant to the sheath liquid to enhance analyte photoionization. It is demonstrated that with APPI signal suppression and interferences by the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nonvolatile buffers can be circumvented. This implies that MEKC conditions can be selected independently from MS detection. Moreover, it is shown that both polar and apolar compounds can be photoionized, thereby also facilitating the analysis of compounds that are not amenable to electrospray ionization. Consequently, the MEKC-APPI-MS system can provide effective separation and detection of compounds of diverse character in one run using background electrolytes containing up to 50 mM SDS. Concentration limits of detection derived from extracted-ion traces (full scan mode) of test compounds were approximately 1 microg/mL, and the detection sensitivity remained unaffected during 1 day of continuous use. Overall, the system features are very favorable for applications such as drug impurity profiling as is illustrated by the analysis of mebeverine and related compounds (both charged and neutral) at the 0.25% (w/w) level.
    Analytical Chemistry 09/2005; 77(16):5277-82. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) via atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is demonstrated. To achieve CE-APPI-MS, an adapted coaxial sheath-flow interface was combined with an ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with an APPI source originally designed for liquid chromatography-MS. Effective photoionization of test compounds was accomplished after optimization of several interface and MS parameters, and of the composition and flow rate of the sheath liquid. Further enhancement of the ionization efficiency could be achieved by adding a dopant, such as acetone or toluene, to the sheath liquid to aid indirect ionization. Acetone significantly increased the ionization of the polar test compounds by proton transfer, while toluene was more useful for the enhanced formation of molecular ions from nonpolar compounds. The effect of several common CE background electrolytes (BGEs) on the APPI-MS response of the analytes was also studied. It appeared that in contrast with electrospray ionization, nonvolatile BGEs do not cause suppression of analyte signals using APPI. Therefore, in CE-APPI-MS, a variety of buffers can be chosen, which obviously is a great advantage during method development. Remarkably, also sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) did not affect the photoionization of the test compounds, indicating a strong potential of APPI for the on-line coupling of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and MS.
    Electrophoresis 02/2005; 26(1):146-54. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) via a triaxial interface was studied as a potential means for the characterization of intact proteins. To evaluate the possibility to use a nonvolatile electrolyte for CE, the effect of sodium phosphate and ammonium borate on the MS signal of the proteins insulin, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by employing infusion experiments, and compared to the effect of ammonium formate and formic acid. The study shows that with formic acid (50 mM, pH 2.4) the most intense protein signals were obtained, while the use of sodium phosphate buffer (5 and 10 mM, pH 7.5) almost completely diminished the MS response. Ammonium formate and ammonium borate (up to 100 mM, pH 8.5) also caused protein ion suppression, but especially with the borate buffer significant MS intensity remained. MS analysis of myoglobin revealed the loss of the heme group when an acidic CE electrolyte was used. Using a background electrolyte containing 25 mM ammonium borate (pH 8.5), it is demonstrated that a CE separation of a protein test mixture can be monitored with ESI-MS without degrading the MS performance allowing molecular weight determinations of the separated compounds. In the presence of borate, detection limits were estimated to be 5-10 microM (ca. 100 fmol injected). The usefulness of the CE-MS system employing a borate buffer is indicated by the analysis of a stored sample of BSA revealing several degradation products. A sample of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), a potential therapeutic agent, was also analyzed by CE-MS indicating the presence of a protein impurity. Probably due to insufficient ionization of the PLAP (a complex glycoprotein), no MS signals of the intact protein were observed.
    Electrophoresis 02/2004; 25(1):43-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An on-line method for the coupling of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and mass spectrometry (MS) is presented which allows conventional MEKC conditions to be employed without further modification. The MEKC system is coupled directly to electrospray ionization (ESI) MS using a triaxial interface. A systematic study of the influence of the surfactant concentration, the nature and concentration of buffer salts and presence of organic modifier on the interface performance indicated the feasibility of the MEKC-MS approach. Effective interfacing of MEKC was achieved with both single quadrupole and ion-trap MS instruments. Using a background electrolyte containing 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, it is demonstrated that full MEKC runs of test mixtures of mebeverine and related compounds can be monitored by ESI-MS with satisfactory sensitivity. Sub-microg/ml levels of the analytes can still be detected in full scan mode, while detection limits are in the 10-50 ng/ml range when selected ion monitoring is applied. It is shown that such sensitivity would allow full-scan MS detection of 0.1% (w/w) levels of potential impurities in mebeverine. With the ion-trap instrument successful MEKC-MS/MS experiments were carried out providing information-rich MS spectra of the related compounds. Repeated MEKC-MS analyses proved that in the course of 1 day the migration time of mebeverine remained fairly constant while the MS-signal intensity only gradually decreased to approximately 65% of its original value. Once-a-day cleaning of the first part of the ion source, which takes only 5 min, suffices to preserve an optimal interface performance for a prolonged period of time.
    Journal of Chromatography 07/2003; 1000(1-2):953-61. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spherical molecularly imprinted polymer particles obtained via precipitation polymerization, were introduced as a pseudostationary phase in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to study molecular recognition. Analyses were performed via a partial filling technique using (+)-ephedrine-imprinted microspheres (100-200 nm) which were polymerized from methacrylic acid and 1,1,1-Tris(hydroxymethyl)propanetrimethacrylate using acetonitrile as the solvent. The influence of pH and the modifier content on the separation was investigated. A 0.1% w/v suspension in an aqueous 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5 with 40% acetonitrile) was hydrodynamically injected into the CE system (80% of the effective capillary length) and led to full baseline separation of racemic ephedrine within 10 min.
    Electrophoresis 06/2002; 23(9):1296-300. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A method was developed for the enantioseparation of ofloxacin, a member of the fluoroquinolones, using an anionic cyclodextrin-derivative with or without combination with a neutral cyclodextrin-derivative, as the chiral selector (s) in an electrokinetic chromatography system. The best results were obtained with 0.35 mM sulfated beta-cyclodextrin dissolved in a 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, and at 15 degrees C. Under these conditions, a resolution of 2 was readily achieved. Furthermore, under adequate separation conditions, studies were performed in order to assess possible in vitro and in vivo enantioconversion of levofloxacin. The current method allows detection of 2 microg R-(+)-ofloxacine/mL diluted urine without the necessity of sample cleanup.
    Electrophoresis 05/2001; 22(7):1413-8. · 3.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

286 Citations
53.54 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • University of Liège
      • Unit of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      Liège, WAL, Belgium
  • 2003–2010
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Division of Biomedical Analysis
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Philipps-Universität Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2004
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands