[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is a rodenticide commonly used worldwide. It inhibits coagulation of blood by inhibiting vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity. An inadequate supply of vitamin K blocks the production of prothrombin and causes hemorrhage. Recently, warfarin-resistant brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) were found around the Aomori area of Japan. There is no significant difference in the metabolic activity of warfarin in sensitive and resistant brown rats. To clarify the mechanism underlying warfarin resistance, we cloned the VKORC1 gene from rats and identified a novel substitution of arginine to proline at position 33 of the VKORC1 amino acid sequence. Then, we determined the differences in kinetics of VKOR activity between warfarin-resistant and sensitive rats. Hepatic microsomal VKOR-dependent activity was measured over a range of vitamin K epoxide concentrations from 6.25 to 150 μM. The V(max) values of resistant rats (0.0029 ± 0.020 nmol/min/mg) were about one tenth of those of sensitive rats (0.29 ± 0.12 nmol/min/mg). The K(m) values of resistant rats (47 ± 32 μM) were similar to those of sensitive rats (59 ± 18 μM). Warfarin-sensitive rats exhibited enzyme efficiencies (V(max)/K(m)) which were ten-fold greater than those observed in resistant rats. It may mean that VKOR activity of warfarin-resistant Aomori rats is almost lost, because their enzymatic efficiencies are very low even without warfarin. Further studies are needed to clarify how these rats can survive with a markedly reduced VKOR activity and how they simultaneously exhibit warfarin resistance.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 09/2012; · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is commonly used worldwide as a rodenticide. It inhibits blood coagulation by inhibiting vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity leading to hemorrhage. However, it has been reported that repeated or long-term treatment with warfarin results in resistance emerging in wild rodents. Such resistance may explain why it is difficult to control rodents in many regions in Japan. In this report, we studied mutations in the VKOR gene (including the VKOR complex subunit 1 (VKORC1)), while also analyzing VKOR and clotting factor activity in black rats (Rattus rattus) in order to understand better the mechanism of warfarin resistance in this species.We sequenced the VKORC1 gene from 275 rats living in the wild in Japan. We found several types of novel base substitutions, some of which conferred warfarin resistance.There was no difference in coagulation times between warfarin-sensitive and resistant rats measured under physiological conditions. However, after warfarin administration, no effect was noted in warfarin-resistant rats, although a prolonged coagulation time was noted in warfarin-sensitive rats.We also determined the kinetic differences in hepatic microsomal VKOR-dependent activity between warfarin-resistant and sensitive rats. Warfarin-resistant rats showed 2–3-fold lower Vmax/Km values than did sensitive rats. In addition, we report that resistant rats found in the Tokyo area had a VKOR activity which was poorly inhibited by warfarin.Finally, we conclude that reduced VKOR activity and warfarin resistance in the Japanese black rat might be due to mutations in the VKORC1 gene. However, further study is needed to clarify how such rats can maintain adequate vitamin K-dependent clotting factor levels, while simultaneously exhibiting low VKOR activity and warfarin resistance.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 06/2012; 103(2):144–151. · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypospadias is a common congenital anomaly caused by incomplete fusion of urethral folds. Development of the urethra and external genital system in the male fetus is an androgen-dependent process. In this regard, enzymes 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17 β HSD3, encoded by HSD17B3) and steroid 5 α-reductase type 2 (encoded by SRD5A2) play crucial roles.
To investigate the possible associations between common polymorphisms in HSD17B3 as well as well-known V89L polymorphism in SRD5A2 and risk of hypospadias.
A case-control study was performed between 1999 and 2005. There were 89 Japanese boys with hypospadias and 291 newborn controls. We genotyped HSD17B3-1999T>C, +10A>G, +20A>G, +139G>A (V31I), +913G>A (G289S), and SRD5A2+336G>C (V89L) polymorphisms by allelic discrimination assay. We measured mRNA expression of the wildtype G289 allele and the mutant S289 allele of the HSD17B3 gene in the transfected human fetal kidney HEK293 cells.
Assessment of hypospadias including its severity and HSD17B3 and SRD5A2 genes using DNA blood samples: allele and genotype distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these two genes in cases and controls.
In our study, the risk of hypospadias was significantly higher in subjects carrying homozygous HSD17B3+913A (289S) alleles (odds ratio [OR]: 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-6.76). The risk of severe hypospadias was much higher in these subjects (OR: 3.93; 95% CI: 1.34-11.49). The mRNA expression levels of HSD17B3 G289 were higher than those of HSD17B3 S289 mutant (P < 0.001). In addition, the risk of severe hypospadias increased in boys carrying the SRD5A2+336C (89L) allele (OR: 3.19; 95% CI: 1.09-9.36).
These results suggest that the HSD17B3 G289S polymorphism may be a potential risk modifier for hypospadias. Our findings provide evidence that a certain genotype related to androgen production may potentiate risk of hypospadias.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 08/2010; 7(8):2729-38. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scattering coumarin derivative rodenticides in broad areas have caused primary- and secondary-poisoning incidents in non-target wild birds. In this study, we compared factors determining warfarin sensitivity between bird species and rats based on vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) kinetics, VKOR inhibition by warfarin and warfarin metabolism assays. In VKOR characterization, chickens and ostriches showed significantly lower enzymatic efficiencies than rats (one-sixth and one-third, respectively), suggesting bird species depend more on a non-VKOR vitamin K source. On the other hand, the inhibition constants (K(i)) of VKOR for warfarin were significantly different between chickens and ostriches (11.3+/-2.5 microM and 0.64+/-0.39 microM, respectively). Interestingly, the ostrich K(i) was similar to the values for rats (0.28+/-0.09 microM). The K(i) results reveal a surprising possibility that VKOR in some bird species are easily inhibited by warfarin. Warfarin metabolism assays also showed a large inter-species difference in bird species. Chickens and ostriches showed higher metabolic activity than that of rats, while mallards and owls showed only a slight ability to metabolize warfarin. In this study, we clarified the wide inter-species difference that exists among birds in xenobiotic metabolism and sensitivity to a rodenticide.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 03/2010; 152(1):114-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is commonly used worldwide as a rodenticide. It inhibits coagulation of blood by inhibiting vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity. An inadequate supply of vitamin K blocks the production of prothrombin and causes hemorrhage. It has been reported that repeated or long-term treatments with this drug cause resistance in wild rodents. However, the mechanism of warfarin resistance in rodents is still not known precisely. Recent studies reported and identified the function of the molecule, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), which is the main unit of VKOR. An amino acid substitution in VKORC1 is one of the supposed mechanisms of warfarin resistance. An accelerated detoxification system involving cytochrome P450 (CYP) could also cause the rodenticide resistance. Administration of SKF-525A, a potent inhibitor for P450, increased the mortality due to reduction of warfarin metabolism in warfarin-resistant rats. Meanwhile, the appearance of warfarin-resistant rodents has led to the development of the more effective and toxic rodenticide superwarfarin, which is widely used in Europe and the USA. However, animals resistant to this second-generation rodenticide have already been reported in Europe. In this review, we focus on the mechanism and the pleiotropic effects of pesticide resistance in wild rodents.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 09/2008; 33(3):283-91. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wild roof rats (Rattus rattus) live in proximity to human habitats, and they may carry numerous pathogens of infectious diseases. Pest control is important for public health, and warfarin is a commonly used rodenticide worldwide. However, continual use of warfarin may cause drug resistance in rodents and lead to failure of their control, especially in urbanized areas. In warfarin-resistant rats, the warfarin level in plasma was significantly lower after oral administration than that in the control warfarin-sensitive rats. Warfarin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450), and hydroxylation of warfarin by P450 isoforms was significantly higher in warfarin-resistant rats (2-fold). Western blot analysis indicated that the level of CYP3A2 expression in warfarin-resistant rats was significantly larger than in warfarin-sensitive rats. The NADPH-P450 reductase activities in resistant rats were 8-fold higher than those in sensitive rats. In vivo, the administration of the P450 potent inhibitor proadifen (SKF-525A) increased the mortality of warfarin in the warfarin-resistant roof rats. We concluded that the mechanism of warfarin resistance in Tokyo roof rats is caused by increased clearance of warfarin.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition 02/2007; 35(1):62-6. · 3.33 Impact Factor