Grace E Kim

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (33)203.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Current nodal staging (N-staging) of ampullary carcinoma in the TNM staging system distinguishes between node-negative (N0) and node-positive (N1) disease but does not consider the metastatic lymph node (LN) number. Overall, 313 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for ampullary adenocarcinoma were categorized as N0, N1 (1-2 metastatic LNs), or N2 (≥3 metastatic LNs), as proposed by Kang et al. Clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) of the three groups were compared. The median number of LNs examined was 11, and LN metastasis was present in 142 cases (45 %). When LN-positive cases were re-classified according to the proposed staging system, 82 were N1 (26 %) and 60 were N2 (19 %). There was a significant correlation between proposed N-stage and lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, increased tumor size (each p < 0.001), and surgical margin positivity (p = 0.001). The median OS in LN-negative cases was significantly longer than that in LN-positive cases (107.5 vs. 32 months; p < 0.001). Patients with N1 and N2 disease had median survivals of 40 and 24.5 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). In addition, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals were 88, 76, 62 %, respectively, for N0; 90, 55, 31.5 %, respectively, for N1; and 68, 34, 30 %, respectively for N2 (p < 0.001). Even with multivariate modeling, the association between higher proposed N stage and shorter survival persisted (hazard ratio 1.6 for N1 and 1.9 for N2; p = 0.018). Classification of nodal status in ampullary carcinomas based on the number of metastatic LNs has a significant prognostic value. A revised N-staging classification system should be incorporated into the TNM staging of ampullary cancers.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4499-y · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The natural history of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs) is extremely variable. One of the most controversial problems in diagnosis is the accurate prediction of the clinical behavior of these tumors. PanNETs that behave aggressively with a malignant course may have bland cytologic features, while some tumors with previously described “malignant” features may behave in a benign or indolent fashion. Various classification schemes have been proposed for grading panNETs. The European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) and 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemes include counting the mitotic index and/or the Ki-67 proliferation index for grading. The current study was undertaken to determine whether tumors sampled by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be accurately graded based on the Ki-67 index when compared to surgical samples.METHODS Corresponding EUS-FNA cytology and surgical tissue specimens were obtained for 22 tumors and stained for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and the Ki-67 proliferation marker (MIB-1 antibody). Samples were graded by scoring Ki-67 staining indices in accordance with the 2010 ENETS/WHO criteria. The grading scores assigned to the EUS-FNA cytology samples were compared with the scores assigned to the corresponding histological samples.RESULTSThe majority (86%) of EUS-FNA cytology samples and corresponding surgical tissue specimens demonstrated concordant grading based on Ki-67 indices.CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that EUS-FNA cytology samples can be accurately graded based on the WHO Ki-67 labeling scheme. Thus, Ki-67 scoring in EUS-FNA cytology samples is an alternative approach for establishing the grade of panNETs. Accurate grading of panNETs is critical for predicting tumor biology, patient prognosis, and making informed decisions regarding patient management and treatment. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 10/2014; 122(10). DOI:10.1002/cncy.21457 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: miRNA levels are altered in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most common and lethal pancreatic malignancy, and intact miRNA processing is essential for lineage specification during pancreatic development. However, the role of miRNA processing in PDA has not been explored. Here we study the role of miRNA biogenesis in PDA development by deleting the miRNA processing enzyme Dicer in a PDA mouse model driven by oncogenic Kras. We find that loss of Dicer accelerates Kras driven acinar dedifferentiation and acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM), a process that has been shown to precede and promote the specification of PDA precursors. However, unconstrained ADM also displays high levels of apoptosis. Dicer loss does not accelerate development of Kras driven PDA precursors or PDA, but surprisingly, we observe that mouse PDA can develop without Dicer, although at the expense of proliferative capacity. Our data suggest that intact miRNA processing is involved in both constraining pro-tumorigenic changes in pancreatic differentiation as well as maintaining viability during PDA initiation.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95486. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095486 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) develops through distinct precursor lesions, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN). However, genetic features resulting in IPMN-associated PDA (IPMN-PDA) versus PanIN-associated PDA (PanIN-PDA) are largely unknown. Here we find that loss of Brg1, a core subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes, cooperates with oncogenic Kras to form cystic neoplastic lesions that resemble human IPMN and progress to PDA. Although Brg1-null IPMN-PDA develops rapidly, it possesses a distinct transcriptional profile compared with PanIN-PDA driven by mutant Kras and hemizygous p53 deletion. IPMN-PDA also is less lethal, mirroring prognostic trends in PDA patients. In addition, Brg1 deletion inhibits Kras-dependent PanIN development from adult acinar cells, but promotes Kras-driven preneoplastic transformation in adult duct cells. Therefore, this study implicates Brg1 as a determinant of context-dependent Kras-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis and suggests that chromatin remodelling may underlie the development of distinct PDA subsets.
    Nature Cell Biology 02/2014; 16(3). DOI:10.1038/ncb2916 · 20.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A formal Mentorship Program within the Children's Oncology Group (COG) was established to pair young investigators (mentees) with established COG members (mentors). Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement promoting mentorship programs, there are no publications describing and evaluating national mentorship programs in pediatric subspecialties. In this study, a series of internal program evaluations were performed using surveys of both mentors and mentees. Responses were deidentified and analyzed to determine the utility of the program by both participant satisfaction and self-reported academic productivity. Results indicated that mentees were generally satisfied with the program. Mentor-mentee pairs that met at least quarterly demonstrated greater academic productivity than pairings that met less frequently. This formal mentorship program appeared to have subjective and objective utility for the development of academic pediatric subspecialists.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 08/2013; 35(6):456-461. DOI:10.1097/MPH.0b013e31829eec33 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function of alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) protein leads to a phenotype called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in some tumors. High-grade astrocytomas comprise a heterogeneous group of central nervous system tumors. We examined a large cohort of adult (91) and pediatric (n=88) high-grade astrocytomas as well as lower grade forms (n=35) for immunohistochemical loss of ATRX protein expression and the presence of ALT using telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization, with further correlation to other known genetic alterations. We found that in pediatric high-grade astrocytomas, 29.6% of tumors were positive for ALT and 24.5% were immunonegative for the ATRX protein, these two alterations being highly associated with one another (P<0.0001). In adult high-grade astrocytomas, 26.4% of tumors were similarly positive for ALT, including 80% of ATRX protein immunonegative cases (P<0.0001). Similar frequencies were found in 11 adult low-grade astrocytomas, whereas all 24 pilocytic astrocytomas were negative for ALT. We did not find any significant correlations between isocitrate dehydrogenase status and either ALT positivity or ATRX protein expression in our adult high-grade astrocytomas. In both cohorts, however, the ALT positive high-grade astrocytomas showed more frequent amplification of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene (PDGFRA; 45% and 50%, respectively) than the ALT negative counterparts (18% and 26%; P=0.03 for each). In summary, our data show that the ALT and ATRX protein alterations are common in both pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas, often with associated PDGFRA gene amplification.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 14 June 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.90.
    Modern Pathology 06/2013; 26(11). DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2013.90 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ampullary (AMP) carcinomas comprise a heterogenous group of cancers lacking adequate subcategorization. In the present study, 249 strictly defined primary AMP carcinomas (ACs) identified in 1469 malignant pancreatoduodenectomy specimens were analyzed for defining features. Gross and microscopic findings were used to determine tumor epicenter and extent of preinvasive component. ACs were classified into 4 distinct subtypes based on location: (1) Intra-AMP (25%): Invasive carcinomas arising in intra-ampullary papillary-tubular neoplasms with zero to minimal, duodenal surface involvement (<25% of the tumor). These tumors were more commonly found in men, they had a relatively large overall size (mean, 2.9 cm) but had smaller invasive component (mean, 1.5 cm), and were predominantly of a lower TNM stage (85%, T1/2; and 72% N0). They carried the best prognosis among the 4 groups (3-y survival, 73%). (2) AMP-ductal (15%): These were tumors forming constrictive, sclerotic, plaque-like thickening of the walls of the common bile duct and/or pancreatic duct resulting in mucosa-covered, button-like elevations of the papilla into the duodenal lumen. There was no significant exophytic (preinvasive) growth. These were the smallest tumors (mean overall size, 1.9 cm; mean invasion size 1.7 cm), but carried the worst prognosis (3-y survival, 41%), presumably due to the pancreatobiliary histology/origin (in 86%); however, even this group had significantly better prognosis when compared with 113 ordinary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (3 y, 11%; P<0.0001). (3) Peri-AMP-duodenal (5%): Massive exophytic, ulcero-fungating tumors growing into the duodenal lumen and eccentrically encasing the ampullary orifice with only minimal intra-ampullary luminal involvement. These were mostly of intestinal phenotype (75%) and some had mucinous features. Although these tumors were the largest (mean overall size 4.7 cm; and mean invasion size 3.4 cm), and had the highest incidence of lymph node metastasis (50%), they carried an intermediate prognosis (3-y survival, 69%) to that seen among a group of 55 nonampullary duodenal carcinoma controls. (4) AC-not otherwise specified ("papilla of Vater"; 55%): Ulcero-nodular tumors located at the papilla of Vater, which do not show the specific characteristics identified among the other 3 subtypes. In conclusion, ACs comprise 4 clinicopathologic subtypes that are prognostically distinct.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 09/2012; 36(11):1592-1608. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31826399d8 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The decision to perform pancreas-preserving procedures or standard resections for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is often based on the perceived risk of malignancy, including potential nodal involvement. We sought to identify clinicopathological factors that predict nodal disease. This is a retrospective review of pathology database for PNET resections from January 1, 1988, to March 15, 2010. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of nodal metastasis. A total of 149 patients were identified. Enucleations had lower lymph node sampling rates compared to major resections. Excluding enucleations, 23% of patients had no lymph nodes sampled. For patients who did have lymph nodes evaluated, a median of 5 lymph nodes were examined. On multivariate analysis, only distant disease predicted nodal metastasis (odds ratio = 3.80, P = 0.02); tumor size did not (P = 0.48). One third of patients with lymph node metastasis had tumors less than 3 cm. Lymph nodes are not evaluated in many major pancreatic resections for PNET, and preoperative prediction of nodal metastasis is difficult, even when tumor size is considered. Consequently, many patients may be understaged and undergo potentially inadequate resection. Inconsistent lymph node sampling may explain conflicting conclusions in the literature regarding the prognostic value of lymph node involvement in PNET patients.
    Pancreas 08/2012; 41(6):840-4. DOI:10.1097/MPA.0b013e31823cdaa0 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia syndrome resulting from disordered mesenchymal differentiation. Children with DSD generally die in utero or during the first month of life from severe thoracic insufficiency syndrome. An association of DSD with nephroblastomatosis has been observed, but the natural history of such nephroblastomatosis remains poorly characterized due to the rarity of the underlying condition. We describe a patient with DSD who developed bilateral hyperplastic nephroblastomatosis that ultimately evolved into therapy-resistant anaplastic Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma).
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 03/2012; 34(7):548-51. DOI:10.1097/MPH.0b013e3182465b58 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An essential regulator of gene transcription, nuclear receptor liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) controls cell differentiation in the developing pancreas and maintains cholesterol homeostasis in adults. Recent genome-wide association studies linked mutations in the LRH-1 gene and its up-stream regulatory regions to development of pancreatic cancer. In this work, we show that LRH-1 transcription is activated up to 30-fold in human pancreatic cancer cells compared to normal pancreatic ductal epithelium. This activation correlates with markedly increased LRH-1 protein expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in vivo. Selective blocking of LRH-1 by receptor specific siRNA significantly inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The inhibition is tracked in part to the attenuation of the receptor's transcriptional targets controlling cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Previously, LRH-1 was shown to contribute to formation of intestinal tumors. This study demonstrates the critical involvement of LRH-1 in development and progression of pancreatic cancer, suggesting the LRH-1 receptor as a plausible therapeutic target for treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2011; 108(41):16927-31. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1112047108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an oncofetal protein that has been demonstrated to be a useful diagnostic immunomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma. Its expression in mesenchymal tumors of the liver, particularly undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES) and mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), has not been investigated. In this study, a total of 24 UESs and 18 MHs were immunohistochemically stained for GPC3 expression. The results showed cytoplasmic staining for GPC3 in 14 (58%) UESs, of which 6 exhibited diffuse immunoreactivity and the remaining 8 showed focal positivity. The patients with GPC3-positive UES tended to be younger (mean 18 years; median 11 years) than those with GPC3-negative tumors (mean 39.4 years; median 27 years), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .06). Eight MHs also exhibited GPC3 immunoreactivity (44%; 4 diffuse and 4 focal). Positive staining in all 8 cases was primarily seen in entrapped nonlesional hepatocytes with a canalicular and cytoplasmic staining pattern. In only 4 cases (22%) was GPC3 immunoreactivity also observed in the mesenchymal component. The patients with positive staining also tended to be younger (mean 2.6 years; median 1.1 years) compared with those with negative staining (mean 16.3 years; median 4.5 years), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .15). Our data demonstrate that GPC3 is expressed in a subset of UES and MH of the liver. Caution should thus be exercised when evaluating a GPC3-expressing hepatic neoplasm, particularly on a needle biopsy when the differential diagnosis includes poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoblastoma.
    Human pathology 09/2011; 43(5):695-701. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2011.06.016 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, type 2 (PFIC2), characterized by cholestasis in infancy that may progress to cirrhosis, is caused by mutation in ABCB11, which encodes bile salt export pump (BSEP). We correlated histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features in PFIC2 with specific mutations and clinical course. Twelve patients with clinical PFIC2 and ABCB11 mutations were identified, and 22 liver biopsy and explant specimens were assessed. All had hepatocellular cholestasis; most had canalicular bile plugs. At least 1 specimen from every patient had centrizonal/sinusoidal fibrosis, often with periportal fibrosis. Neonatal hepatitis-like features (inflammation, giant cells, necrosis) varied. In 2 of the 5 patients with paired specimens obtained >6 months apart, lobular and portal fibrosis worsened. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) in all 9 patients studied showed canalicular dilatation, microvilli loss, abnormal mitochondrial internal structure, and varying intracanalicular accumulation of finely granular bile. Canalicular staining for BSEP was absent in 10 patients and present in 2 patients, 1 of whom had intermittent symptoms. ABCB11 sequencing of all patients identified 6 novel and 10 previously described mutations, with nonsense, missense, and/or noncoding mutations in the 10 patients without immunohistochemically demonstrable BSEP. Missense and/or noncoding mutations were identified in the 2 patients with demonstrable BSEP, whose clinical course was more indolent. Mutations ending ABCB11 transcription appear linked, through hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis, to worse outcome. In conclusion, light microscopy and electron microscopy findings in clinical PFIC2 can support diagnosis, but are variable and nonspecific. Therefore, no correlation between specific mutations and histopathology is yet possible.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 05/2011; 35(5):687-96. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e318212ec87 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis is a well-known risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) development in humans, and inflammation promotes PDA initiation and progression in mouse models of the disease. However, the mechanistic link between inflammatory damage and PDA initiation is unclear. Using a Kras-driven mouse model of PDA, we establish that the inflammatory mediator Stat3 is a critical component of spontaneous and pancreatitis-accelerated PDA precursor formation and supports cell proliferation, metaplasia-associated inflammation, and MMP7 expression during neoplastic development. Furthermore, we show that Stat3 signaling enforces MMP7 expression in PDA cells and that MMP7 deletion limits tumor size and metastasis in mice. Finally, we demonstrate that serum MMP7 level in human patients with PDA correlated with metastatic disease and survival.
    Cancer cell 04/2011; 19(4):441-55. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2011.03.002 · 23.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal disease. Overall survival is typically 6 months from diagnosis. Numerous phase 3 trials of agents effective in other malignancies have failed to benefit unselected PDA populations, although patients do occasionally respond. Studies in other solid tumors have shown that heterogeneity in response is determined, in part, by molecular differences between tumors. Furthermore, treatment outcomes are improved by targeting drugs to tumor subtypes in which they are selectively effective, with breast and lung cancers providing recent examples. Identification of PDA molecular subtypes has been frustrated by a paucity of tumor specimens available for study. We have overcome this problem by combined analysis of transcriptional profiles of primary PDA samples from several studies, along with human and mouse PDA cell lines. We define three PDA subtypes: classical, quasimesenchymal and exocrine-like, and we present evidence for clinical outcome and therapeutic response differences between them. We further define gene signatures for these subtypes that may have utility in stratifying patients for treatment and present preclinical model systems that may be used to identify new subtype specific therapies.
    Nature medicine 04/2011; 17(4):500-3. DOI:10.1038/nm.2344 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologists participating in the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Biliary Atresia Research Consortium (BARC) developed and then evaluated a standardized system for histologic reporting of liver biopsies from infants with cholestasis. A set of 97 anonymous liver biopsy samples was sent to 10 pathologists at BARC centers. A semiquantitative scoring system that had 16 histologic features was developed and then used by the pathologists, who had no knowledge of clinical history, imaging results, or laboratory data. Interobserver agreement was evaluated statistically. Agreement on scoring of each feature and on the pathologists' diagnosis, compared with the final clinical diagnosis, was evaluated by using weighted kappa statistics. There was moderate to substantial interobserver agreement in identification of bile plugs in ducts, giant-cell transformation, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and bile duct proliferation. The pathologists' diagnosis of obstruction in clinically proven cases of biliary atresia (BA) ranged from 79%-98%, with a positive predictive value of 90.7%. Histologic features that best predicted BA, on the basis of logistic regression, included bile duct proliferation, portal fibrosis, and absence of sinusoidal fibrosis (each P<.0001). The BARC histologic assessment system identified features of liver biopsies from cholestatic infants, with good interobserver agreement, that might be used in diagnosis and determination of prognosis. The system diagnosed BA with a high level of sensitivity and identified infants with biliary obstruction with reasonable interobserver agreement. However, distinguishing between BA and disorders such as total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is not possible without adequate clinical information.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 04/2011; 9(4):357-362.e2. DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2011.01.003 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma typically seen in adults. It is extremely rare in children. It most often occurs in the extremities or in the retroperitoneum. We present a very rare case of an anterior mediastinal liposarcoma of the pleomorphic subtype in a 17-year-old girl, along with radiological and pathological correlation. The location, patient age and histological subtype are exceedingly uncommon for this tumor.
    Pediatric Radiology 12/2010; 40 Suppl 1(S1):S68-70. DOI:10.1007/s00247-010-1797-1 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been no uniform terminology for systematic analysis of mass-forming preinvasive neoplasms (which we term tumoral intraepithelial neoplasia) that occur specifically within the ampulla. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of these neoplasms, which we propose to refer to as intra-ampullary papillary-tubular neoplasm (IAPN). Three hundred and seventeen glandular neoplasms involving the ampulla were identified through a review of 1469 pancreatoduodenectomies and 11 ampullectomies. Eighty-two neoplasms characterized by substantial preinvasive exophytic component that grew almost exclusively (>75%) within the ampulla (in the ampullary channel or intra-ampullary portions of the very distal segments of the common bile duct or pancreatic duct) were analyzed. (1) Clinical: The mean age was 64 years, male/female ratio was 2.4, and mean tumor size was 2.7 cm. (2) Pathology: The tumors had a mixture of both papillary and tubular growth (each constituting at least 25% of the lesion) in 57%; predominantly (>75%) papillary in 23%, and predominantly (>75%) tubular in 20%. High-grade dysplasia was present in 94% of cases, of which 39% showed focal (<25% of the lesion), 28% showed substantial (25% to 75%), and 27% showed extensive (>75%) high-grade dysplasia. In terms of cell-lineage morphology, 45% had a mixture of patterns. However, when evaluated with a forced-binary approach as intestinal (INT) versus gastric/pancreatobiliary (GPB) based on the predominant pattern, 74% were classified as INT and 26% as GPB. (3) Immunohistochemistry: Percent sensitivity/specificity of cell-lineage markers were, for INT phenotype: MUC2 85/78 and CDX2 94/61; and for GBP: MUC1 89/79, MUC5AC 95/69, and MUC6 83/76, respectively. Cytokeratin 7 and 20 were coexpressed in more than half. (4) Invasive carcinoma: In 64 cases (78%), there was an associated invasive carcinoma. Size of the tumor and amount of dysplasia correlated with the incidence of invasion. Invasive carcinoma was of INT-type in 58% and of pancreatobiliary-type in 42%. Cell lineage in the invasive component was the same as that of the preinvasive component in 84%. All discrepant cases were pancreatobiliary-type invasions, which occurred in INT-type preinvasive lesions. (5) Outcome: The overall survival of invasive cases were significantly worse than that of noninvasive ones (57% vs. 93%; P=0.01); and 3 years, 69% versus 100% (P=0.08); and 5 years, 45% versus 100% (P=0.07), respectively. When compared with 166 conventional invasive carcinomas of the ampullary region, invasive IAPNs had significantly better prognosis with a mean survival of 51 versus 31 months (P<0.001) and the 3-year survival of 69% versus 44% (P<0.01). Tumoral intraepithelial neoplasia occurring within the ampulla are highly analogous to pancreatic or biliary intraductal papillary and tubular neoplasms as evidenced by their papillary and/or tubular growth, variable cell lineage, and spectrum of dysplastic change (adenoma-carcinoma sequence), and thus we propose to refer to these as IAPN. IAPNs are biologically indolent; noninvasive examples show an excellent prognosis, whereas those with invasion exhibit a malignant but nevertheless significantly better prognosis than typical invasive ampullary carcinomas unaccompanied by IAPNs. Twenty eight percent (64 of 230) of invasive carcinomas within the ampulla arise in association with IAPNs.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 11/2010; 34(12):1731-48. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181f8ff05 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prognostication of invasive ampullary adenocarcinomas (AACs) and their stratification into appropriate management categories have been highly challenging owing to a lack of well-established predictive parameters. In colorectal cancers, recent studies have shown that tumor budding confers a worse prognosis and correlates significantly with nodal metastasis and recurrence; however, this has not been evaluated in AAC.To investigate the prevalence, significance, and clinical correlations of tumor budding in AAC, 244 surgically resected, stringently defined, invasive AAC were analyzed for tumor budding---defined as the presence of more than or equal to 5 isolated single cancer cells or clusters composed of fewer than 5 cancer cells per field measuring 0.785 mm using a 20× objective lens in the stroma of the invasive front. The extent of the budding was then further classified as "high" if there were greater than or equal to 3 budding foci and as "low" if there were <3 budding foci or no budding focus.One hundred ninety-four AACs (80%) were found to be high-budding and 50 (20%) were low-budding. When the clinicopathologic features and survival of the 2 groups were compared, the AACs with high-budding had larger invasion size (19 mm vs. 13 mm; P<0.001), an unrecognizable/absent preinvasive component (57% vs. 82%; P<0.005), infiltrative growth (51% vs. 2%; P<0.001), nonintestinal-type histology (72% vs. 46%; P<0.001), worse differentiation (58% vs. 10%; P<0.001), more lymphatic (74% vs. 10%; P<0.001), and perineural invasion (28% vs. 2%; P<0.001); more lymph node metastasis (44% vs. 17%; P<0.001), higher T-stage (T3 and T4) (42% vs. 10%; P<0.001), and more aggressive behavior (mean survival: 50 mo vs. 32 mo; 3-year and 5-year survival rates: 93% vs. 41% and 68% vs. 24%, respectively; P<0.001). Furthermore, using a multivariable Cox regression model, tumor budding was found to be an independent predictor of survival (P=0.01), which impacts prognosis (hazard ratio: 2.6) even more than T-stage and lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio: 1.9 and 1.8, respectively).In conclusion, tumor budding is frequently encountered in AAC. High-budding is a strong independent predictor of overall survival, with a prognostic correlation stronger than the 2 established parameters: T-stage and lymph node metastasis. Therefore, budding should be incorporated into surgical pathology reports for AAC.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 10/2010; 34(10):1417-24. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181f0b05a · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the relationship between clinical variables and testicular histopathological changes associated with decreased fertility potential in children with cryptorchidism. Testis biopsies of 274 children who underwent orchiopexy and concurrent testicular biopsy between 1991 and 2001 were analyzed for germ and Leydig cell loss, and testicular fibrosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine if age at orchiopexy (analyzed as continuous and ordinal variables), preoperative testis palpability, unilateral vs bilateral disease and/or side of undescended testis was predictive of these pathological outcomes. Age at orchiopexy was associated with germ and Leydig cell depletion. Each month of testis undescent was associated with development of moderate/severe germ cell depletion (OR 1.02 for each month of age, p <0.005) and Leydig cell loss (OR 1.01 for each month of age, p <0.02). Nonpalpable testes were associated with severe germ cell depletion. Children with palpable testes had lower odds of germ cell depletion than those with nonpalpable testes (OR 0.46, p <0.005). This finding corresponds to a significant 2% risk per month of severe germ cell loss and 1% risk per month of Leydig cell depletion for each month a testis remains undescended, and a 50% greater risk of germ cell depletion in nonpalpable relative to palpable cryptorchid testes. Testes that remain undescended are associated with progressive loss of germ and Leydig cells, and nonpalpable testes predict severe germ cell loss.
    The Journal of urology 06/2009; 182(2):704-9. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2009.04.032 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2009; 181(4):119-119. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(09)60341-4 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

979 Citations
203.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2003
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States