Ronald Anderson

University of Pretoria, Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa

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Publications (61)175.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Manganese (as Mn(2+)), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, catalyzes the formation of the relatively stable membrane-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mediator of intracellular redox signaling in immune and inflammatory cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential for Mn(2+), via its pro-oxidative properties, to activate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, TNFα, and G-CSF by human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. For these studies, the cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and matured to generate a population of large CD14/CD16 co-expressing cells. The monocyte-derived macrophages were then exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml) or MnCl2 (25-100 μM)-alone or in combination-for 24 h at 37 °C, after which cell-free supernatants were analyzed using a multiplex cytokine assay procedure. Exposure of the cells to LPS caused modest statistically insignificant increases in cytokine production; MnCl2 caused dose-related increases in production of all six cytokines (achieving statistical significance of p < 0.0171- < 0.0005 for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, and TNFα). In the case of LPS and MnCl2 combinations, the observed increases in production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, and G-CSF were greater than those seen with cells exposed to the individual agents. The Mn(2+)-mediated induction of cytokine production was associated with increased production of H2O2 and completely attenuated by inclusion of the H2O2-scavenger dithiothreitol, and partially by inhibitors of NF-κB and p38MAP kinase. The findings from the studies here help to further characterize the pro-inflammatory mechanisms that may underpin clinical disorders associated with excess exposure to Mn(2+), particularly those disorders seen in the central nervous and respiratory systems.
    Journal of Immunotoxicology 05/2014; · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: A number of significant challenges remain with regard to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), which remains the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Although this infection is documented to be extremely common in younger children and in older adults, the burden of pneumonia it causes is considerably underestimated, since the incidence statistics are derived largely from bacteremic infections, because they are easy to document, and yet the greater burden of pneumococcal pneumonias is non-invasive. It has been estimated that for every bacteremic pneumonia that is documented, three non-bacteremic infections occur. Management of these infections is potentially complicated by the increasing resistance of the isolates to the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, it is well recognized that despite advances in medical care, the mortality of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia has remained largely unchanged over the past 50 years and averages approximately 12%. Much recent research interest in the field of pneumococcal infections has focused on important virulence factors of the organism, on improved diagnostic and prognostication tools, on defining risk factors for death, on optimal treatment strategies involving both antibiotics and adjunctive therapies, and on disease prevention. It is hoped that through these endeavors the outlook of pneumococcal infections will be improved.
    F1000prime reports. 01/2014; 6:82.
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined immune activation profiles in patients with advanced HIV-1 subtype C infection or assessed their potential to predict responsiveness to HAART. BioPlex, ELISA, and nephelometric procedures were used to measure plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C-infected patients sampled before and after 6 months of successful HAART (n = 20); in patients failing HAART (n = 30); and in uninfected controls (n = 8). Prior to HAART, CXCL9, CXCL10, β 2M, sTNF-R1, TGF- β 1, IFN- γ , IL-6, TNF, and sCD14 were significantly elevated in HIV-1-infected patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). All of these markers, with the exception of sTNF-R1, were also elevated in patients failing HAART (P < 0.05). The persistently elevated levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and β 2M in patients failing therapy in the setting of a marked reduction in these markers in patients on successful HAART suggest that they may be useful not only to monitor immune activation during HAART, but also to distinguish between good and poor responders. In the case of sCD14 and TGF- β 1, the levels of these biomarkers remained persistently elevated despite HAART-induced virological suppression, a finding that is consistent with ongoing monocyte-macrophage activation, underscoring a potential role for adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapy.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:198413. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPVs) and conjugate vaccines (PCVs), of which PPV23 and PCV13 are the current front runners, have had a significant, beneficial impact on public health. With regard to PPV23, there has been some debate, however, about its protective efficacy against all-cause pneumonia, as opposed to invasive pneumococcal disease, in high-risk cases. PCVs, on the other hand, have been included in many national immunisation programmes for prevention of severe pneumococcal disease in infants and young children, as well as for adults in various high-risk categories. Although innovative and effective, the protective efficacy of PCVs, the composition of which is based on the geographic prevalence and virulence of pneumococcal serotypes, is limited due to colonisation of the nasopharynx with non-vaccine serotypes. This phenomenon of serotype replacement has provided the impetus for development of new generation recombinant protein and whole cell pneumococcal vaccines with the potential to provide serotype-independent protection. In addition to an overview of the successes and limitations of PPVs and PCVs, this review is focused on emerging and pipeline protein-based and whole cell vaccines, preceded by a consideration of conserved pneumococcal virulence factors which are potential vaccine candidates.
    Journal of Infection. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of beta-2 agonists remains contentious possibly due to differences in their molecular structures and agonist activities. The current study has compared the effects of 3 different categories of β 2-agonists, namely, salbutamol (short-acting), formoterol (long-acting) and indacaterol (ultra-long-acting), at concentrations of 1-1000 nM, with human blood neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophils were activated with either N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 µM) or platelet-activating factor (PAF, 200 nM) in the absence and presence of the β 2-agonists followed by measurement of the generation of reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4, release of elastase, and expression of the β 2-integrin, CR3, using a combination of chemiluminescence, ELISA, colorimetric, and flow cytometric procedures respectively. These were correlated with alterations in the concentrations of intracellular cyclic-AMP and cytosolic Ca(2+). At the concentrations tested, formoterol and indacaterol caused equivalent, significant (P < 0.05 at 1-10 nM) dose-related inhibition of all of the pro-inflammatory activities tested, while salbutamol was much less effective (P < 0.05 at 100 nM and higher). Suppression of neutrophil reactivity was accompanied by elevations in intracellular cAMP and accelerated clearance of Ca(2+) from the cytosol of activated neutrophils. These findings demonstrate that β 2-agonists vary with respect to their suppressive effects on activated neutrophils.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:105420. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F) to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μ g/mL) for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P < 0.014-0.0006) upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11), consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:976347. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. While the detrimental effects of smoking among HIV-positive patients have been well documented, there is a paucity of data regarding cigarette smoking prevalence among these patients in South Africa (SA).Objectives. To establish the frequency, demographics, knowledge of harmful effects, and knowledge of smoking cessation strategies among HIV-positive patients in Johannesburg, SA.Methods. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire to interview HIV-positive patients attending the HIV Clinic at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital between 1 July and 31 October 2011.Results. Of 207 HIV-positive patients attending an antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out clinic, 31 (15%) were current smokers (23.2% of males and 7.4% of females) and a further 45 (21.7%) were ex-smokers. Most of the current smokers (30/31 patients) indicated their wish to quit smoking, and among the group as a whole, most patients were aware of the general (82.1%) and HIV-related (77.8%) risks of smoking and of methods for quitting smoking. Despite this, however, most (62.3%) were not aware of who they could approach for assistance and advice.Conclusions. Given the relatively high prevalence of current and ex-smokers among HIV-positive patients, there is a need for the introduction of smoking-cessation strategies and assistance at ART roll-out clinics in SA.
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 11/2013; 103(11):858-60. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAP) remains one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The risk of CAP increases as the CD4 cell count decreases. The common bacterial pathogens that cause CAP in HIV-infected persons are similar to those in HIV-uninfected individuals, with the pneumococcus being the most common pathogen. Prevention of CAP remains critical and necessitates a comprehensive approach addressing, among many other factors, cigarette smoking cessation strategies, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and immunization against those infections for which effective vaccinations are available.
    Clinics in chest medicine 06/2013; 34(2):205-216. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of oral and respiratory infections caused by both microbial and viral pathogens is well recognised, with those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at particularly high risk. The current review consists of three major sections. The first of these is focused on the suppressive effects of smoking on the protective functions of airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and adaptive immune mechanisms, as well as chronic systemic activation of neutrophils. This is followed by a consideration of the effects of cigarette smoke on microbial pathogens, specifically promotion of microbial virulence and antibiotic resistance. In addition to interactions between smoking and HIV infection, the final section covers specific infections/clinical syndromes associated with cigarette smoking, including those of the upper and lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous and other organ systems, as well as the benefits of smoking cessation.
    The Journal of infection 05/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (β2-agonists) are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled β2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of β2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of β2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of β2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2013; 7:1387-1398. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the infectious diseases. Despite the implementation of national pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine-based immunisation strategies targeted at high-risk groups, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains the most common cause of CAP. Notwithstanding the HIV pandemic, major challenges confronting the control of CAP include the range of bacterial and viral pathogens causing this condition, the ever-increasing problem of antibiotic resistance worldwide, and increased vulnerability associated with steadily aging populations in developed countries. These and other risk factors, as well as diagnostic strategies, are covered in the first section of this review. Thereafter, the review is focused on the pneumococcus, specifically the major virulence factors of this microbial pathogen and their role in triggering overexuberant inflammatory responses which contribute to the immunopathogenesis of invasive disease. The final section of the review is devoted to a consideration of pharmacological, anti-inflammatory strategies with adjunctive potential in the antimicrobial chemotherapy of CAP. This is focused on macrolides, corticosteroids, and statins with respect to their modes of anti-inflammatory action, current status, and limitations.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:490346. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is involved in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but little is known about its relationship to genetic susceptibility and biomarkers of disease activity, especially acute phase reactants in early RA. MMP-3 was measured by ELISA in serum samples of 128 disease-modifying, drug-naïve patients and analysed in relation to shared epitope genotype, a range of circulating chemokines/cytokines, acute phase reactants, autoantibodies, cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP), and the simplified disease activity index (SDAI). MMP-3 was elevated >1.86 ng/ml in 56.25% of patients (P < 0.0001), correlated with several biomarkers, notably IL-8, IL-6, IFN γ , VEGF and COMP (r values = 0.22-0.33, P < 0.014-0.0001) and with CRP and SAA levels (r = 0.40 and 0.41, resp., P < 0.0000) and SDAI (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001), but not with erosions or nodulosis. However, the correlations of CRP and SAA with SDAI were stronger (respective values of 0.63 and 0.54, P < 0.001 for both). COMP correlated with smoking, RF, and MMP-3. MMP-3 is significantly associated with disease activity, inflammatory mediators and cartilage breakdown, making it a potential biomarker of disease severity, but seemingly less useful than CRP and SAA as a biomarker of disease activity in early RA.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:183653. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalable clofazimine-containing dry powder microparticles (CFM-DPI) and native clofazimine (CFM) were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocyte-derived macrophage cell cultures and in low-dose aerosol infected mice. Both formulations resulted in 99% killing at 2.5 μg/ml in vitro. In mice, 480 μg and 720 μg CFM-DPI inhaled twice per week over four weeks reduced colony-forming units in the lung by as much as log(10) 2.6; 500 μg oral CFM achieved log(10) 0.7 reduction.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia remains an important cause of disease and death in both developed and developing countries and therefore continues to have a major medical impact. The mortality remains high despite the ready availability of potent antimicrobial agents to which the organisms are susceptible. However, management of these infections is potentially complicated by the emerging resistance of many of the common pathogens to the different classes of antibiotics that are usually prescribed. Furthermore, it is also being recognized that antibiotic resistance or treatment failures may occur not only through traditional microbial antibiotic resistance mechanisms but also through less well defined mechanisms, particularly those developed by the microbes in relation to their quorum sensing/biofilm machinery. Much recent research in this field has been focused on evaluating the clinical impact of antibiotic resistance on optimal antibiotic treatment and antimicrobial choices, as well as alternative strategies to deal with antibiotic resistance and treatment failures.
    Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2012; 33(3):232-43. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clofazimine, a lipophilic riminophenazine antibiotic, possesses both antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only in the treatment of leprosy, not in human tuberculosis, despite the fact that this agent is impressively active in vitro against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent insights into novel targets and mechanisms of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity coupled with the acquisition of innovative drug delivery technologies have, however, rekindled interest in clofazimine as a potential therapy for multidrug- and extensively multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in particular, as well as several autoimmune diseases. The primary objective of this review is to critically evaluate these recent developments and to assess their potential impact on improving the therapeutic efficacy and versatility of clofazimine.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 02/2012; 67(2):290-8. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tigecycline is the prototype of the recently introduced, intravenously administered glycylcycline class of antibiotics, developed in response to the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus, as well as Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. However, relatively little is known about the immunomodulatory potential of tigecycline, specifically its interactions with human neutrophils. In the current study we investigated the effects of tigecycline at therapeutically relevant concentrations and greater (0.625-10 mg/L) on alterations in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, generation of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of granule proteases [elastase, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] by human blood neutrophils activated with the chemoattractant N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP; 1 μM). Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations were measured using fura-2/AM-based spectrofluorimetry and radiometric procedures, generation of ROS by oxygen consumption and myeloperoxidase-mediated auto-iodination, and protease release by ELISA procedures. Exposure of the cells to fMLP resulted in activation of the generation of ROS, as well as release of the granule proteases, all of which were significantly increased by pre-incubation of the cells with tigecycline in a dose-dependent manner. Tigecycline-mediated enhancement of these neutrophil functions was associated with elevations in the concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+), which appeared to result from the Ca(2+) ionophore activity of tigecycline. Tigecycline, by functioning as a Ca(2+) ionophore, and independent of antimicrobial activity, potentiates the pro-inflammatory functions of human neutrophils in vitro.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/2012; 67(1):130-7. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrolide antibiotics possess several, beneficial, secondary properties which complement their primary antimicrobial activity. In addition to high levels of tissue penetration, which may counteract seemingly macrolide-resistant bacterial pathogens, these agents also possess anti-inflammatory properties, unrelated to their primary antimicrobial activity. Macrolides target cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, as well as structural cells, and are beneficial in controlling harmful inflammatory responses during acute and chronic bacterial infection. These secondary anti-inflammatory activities of macrolides appear to be particularly effective in attenuating neutrophil-mediated inflammation. This, in turn, may contribute to the usefulness of these agents in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of both microbial and nonmicrobial origin, predominantly of the airways. This paper is focused on the various mechanisms of macrolide-mediated anti-inflammatory activity which target both microbial pathogens and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, with emphasis on their clinical relevance.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2012; 2012:584262. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    Phytochemicals as Nutraceuticals - Global Approaches to Their Role in Nutrition and Health, 12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0203-8
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    ABSTRACT: The revised shared epitope (SE) concept in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on the presence (S) or absence (X) of the SE RAA amino acid motif at positions 72 to 74 of the third hypervariable region of the various human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles. The purpose of this study was to investigate SE subtypes on the basis of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 revised criteria for the classification of RA in a cohort of South African RA patients (n = 143) and their association with clinical and circulating biomarkers of disease activity (autoantibodies, acute phase reactants and cytokines). Genomic DNA was analysed using high-resolution recombinant sequence-specific oligonucleotide PCR typing of the HLA-DRB1 allele. Subtypes of the SE were classified according to the amino acids at positions 72 to 74 for the RAA sequence, and further sub-divided according to the amino acids at positions 70 and 71, which either contribute to (S2, S3P), or negate (S1, S3D) RA susceptibility. Disease activity was assessed on the basis of (1) Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein (CRP), (2) rheumatoid factor (RF), (3) CRP and (4) serum amyloid A by nephelometry, anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (aCCP) by an immunofluorometric procedure, and cytokines by multiplex bead array technology. Of the 143 RA patients, 81 (57%) were homozygous (SS) and 50 (35%) were heterozygous (SX) for the SE alleles with significant overexpression of S2 and S3P (respective odds ratios (ORs) 5.3 and 5.8; P < 0.0001), and 12 (8%) were classified as no SE allele (XX). Both the SS and SX groups showed a strong association with aCCP positivity (OR = 10.2 and P = 0.0010, OR = 9.2 and P = 0.0028, respectively) relative to the XX group. Clinical scores and concentrations of the other biomarkers of disease activity (RF, CRP and T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2, macrophage and fibroblast cytokines) were also generally higher in the SS group than in the SX and XX groups. RA susceptibility alleles investigated according to revised criteria for the classification of RA were significantly increased in South African RA patients and strongly associated with aCCP in particular as well as with circulating cytokines and disease severity.
    Arthritis research & therapy 10/2011; 13(5):R160. · 4.27 Impact Factor
  • Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major bacterial cause of pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media, and continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in individuals both in the developed and developing world. Management of these infections is potentially complicated by the emergence of resistance of this pathogen to many of the commonly used first-line antimicrobial agents. A number of significant risk factors exist that predispose to the occurrence of pneumococcal pneumonia, including lifestyle factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, as well as underlying medical conditions, such as HIV infection. Several of these predisposing factors also enhance the risk of bacteraemia. The initial step in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal infections is the occurrence of nasopharyngeal colonization, which may be followed by invasive disease. The pneumococcus has a myriad of virulence factors that contribute to these processes, including a polysaccharide capsule, various cell surface structures, toxins and adhesins, and the microorganism is also an effective producer of biofilm. Antibacterial resistance is emerging in this microorganism and affects all the various classes of drugs, including the β-lactams, the macrolides and the fluoroquinolones. Even multidrug resistance is occurring. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters allow us to understand the relationship between the presence of antibacterial resistance in the pneumococcus and the outcome of pneumococcal infections treated with the different antibacterial classes. Furthermore, these parameters also allow us to predict which antibacterials are most likely to be effective in the management of pneumococcal infections and the correct dosages to use. Most guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia recommend the use of either a β-lactam/macrolide combination or fluoroquinolone monotherapy for the empirical therapy of more severe hospitalized cases with pneumonia, including the subset of cases with pneumococcal bacteraemia. There are a number of adjunctive therapies that have been studied for use in combination with standard antibacterial therapy, in an attempt to decrease the high mortality, of which macrolides in particular, corticosteroids and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-elevating agents appear potentially most useful.
    Drugs 01/2011; 71(2):131-53. · 4.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

517 Citations
175.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • University of Pretoria
      • • Department of Immunology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2013
    • Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi
      Nairoba, Nairobi Area, Kenya
  • 1998–2013
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Pulmonology
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2007
    • Tshwane University of Technology
      • Department of Sport, Rehabilitation and Dental Sciences
      Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2004
    • National Institute for Occupational Health
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa