[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cell growth and proliferation are tightly connected to ensure that appropriately sized daughter cells are generated following mitosis. Energy stress blocks cell growth and proliferation, a critical response for survival under extreme conditions. Excessive oncogenic stress leads to p53 activation and the induction of senescence, an irreversible state of cell-cycle arrest and a critical component in the suppression of tumorigenesis. Nutrient-sensing and mitogenic cues converge on a major signaling node, which regulates the activity of the mTOR kinase. Although transcriptional responses to energy and oncogenic stresses have been examined by many gene-expression experiments, a global exploration of the modulation of mRNA translation in response to these conditions is lacking.
We combine RNA sequencing and ribosomal profiling analyses to systematically delineate modes of transcriptional and translational regulation induced in response to conditions of limited energy, oncogenic stress and cellular transformation. We detect a key role for mTOR and p53 in these distinct physiological states, and provide the first genome-wide demonstration that p53 activation results in mTOR inhibition and a consequent global repression of protein translation. We confirm the role of the direct p53 target genes Sestrin1 and Sestrin2 in this response, as part of the broad modulation of gene expression induced by p53 activation.
We delineate a bimodal tumor-suppressive regulatory program activated by p53, in which cell-cycle arrest is imposed mainly at the transcriptional level, whereas cell growth inhibition is enforced by global repression of the translation machinery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding within or nearby target genes involved in cell proliferation and survival enables the p53 tumor suppressor gene to regulate their transcription and cell-cycle progression. Using genome-wide chromatin-binding profiles, we describe binding of p53 also to regions located distantly from any known p53 target gene. Interestingly, many of these regions possess conserved p53-binding sites and all known hallmarks of enhancer regions. We demonstrate that these p53-bound enhancer regions (p53BERs) indeed contain enhancer activity and interact intrachromosomally with multiple neighboring genes to convey long-distance p53-dependent transcription regulation. Furthermore, p53BERs produce, in a p53-dependent manner, enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) that are required for efficient transcriptional enhancement of interacting target genes and induction of a p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest. Thus, our results ascribe transcription enhancement activity to p53 with the capacity to regulate multiple genes from a single genomic binding site. Moreover, eRNA production from p53BERs is required for efficient p53 transcription enhancement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown.
Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation.
Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is emerging as an important layer of gene regulation. Factors controlling APA are largely unknown. We developed a reporter-based RNAi screen for APA and identified PABPN1 as a regulator of this process. Genome-wide analysis of APA in human cells showed that loss of PABPN1 resulted in extensive 3' untranslated region shortening. Messenger RNA transcription, stability analyses, and in vitro cleavage assays indicated enhanced usage of proximal cleavage sites (CSs) as the underlying mechanism. Using Cyclin D1 as a test case, we demonstrated that enhanced usage of proximal CSs compromises microRNA-mediated repression. Triplet-repeat expansion in PABPN1 (trePABPN1) causes autosomal-dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). The expression of trePABPN1 in both a mouse model of OPMD and human cells elicited broad induction of proximal CS usage, linked to binding to endogenous PABPN1 and its sequestration in nuclear aggregates. Our results elucidate a novel function for PABPN1 as a suppressor of APA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a cellular defense mechanism against excessive mitogenic signaling and tumorigenesis. One of the major pathways required for OIS is the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. Consequently, many human tumors harbor p53 mutations while others show a dysfunctional p53 pathway, frequently by unknown mechanisms. We recently identified BRD7 as a potential tumor suppressor gene acting as a transcriptional cofactor for p53, affecting histone acetylation, p53 acetylation, and promoter activity on a subset of p53 target genes. We further found low BRD7 expression specifically in a subgroup of human breast tumors harboring wild-type, but not mutant, p53 and showed that one of the responsible mechanisms is deletion of the BRD7 gene locus. Here we further discuss the role of BRD7 as a cofactor in transcriptional regulation and highlight its role as a tumor suppressor via association with p53 and other tumor suppressor proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogene-induced senescence is a p53-dependent defence mechanism against uncontrolled proliferation. Consequently, many human tumours harbour p53 mutations and others show a dysfunctional p53 pathway, frequently by unknown mechanisms. Here we identify BRD7 (bromodomain-containing 7) as a protein whose inhibition allows full neoplastic transformation in the presence of wild-type p53. In human breast tumours harbouring wild-type, but not mutant, p53 the BRD7 gene locus was frequently deleted and low BRD7 expression was found in a subgroup of tumours. Functionally, BRD7 is required for efficient p53-mediated transcription of a subset of target genes. BRD7 interacts with p53 and p300 and is recruited to target gene promoters, affecting histone acetylation, p53 acetylation and promoter activity. Thus, BRD7 suppresses tumorigenicity by serving as a p53 cofactor required for the efficient induction of p53-dependent oncogene-induced senescence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During neoplastic transformation, cells can promote their own growth by activating proto-oncogenes. Reporting in Cell, Iliopoulos et al. (2009) now show that in certain cell types, a transient oncogenic signal is sufficient to induce neoplastic transformation and to maintain it through a positive feedback loop driven by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous small RNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by mechanisms conserved across metazoans. While the number of verified human miRNAs is still expanding, only few have been functionally annotated. To perform genetic screens for novel functions of miRNAs, we developed a library of vectors expressing the majority of cloned human miRNAs and created corresponding DNA barcode arrays. In a screen for miRNAs that cooperate with oncogenes in cellular transformation, we identified miR-372 and miR-373, each permitting proliferation and tumorigenesis of primary human cells that harbor both oncogenic RAS and active wild-type p53. These miRNAs neutralize p53-mediated CDK inhibition, possibly through direct inhibition of the expression of the tumorsuppressor LATS2. We provide evidence that these miRNAs are potential novel oncogenes participating in the development of human testicular germ cell tumors by numbing the p53 pathway, thus allowing tumorigenic growth in the presence of wild-type p53.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/2007; 604(6):17-46. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.037 · 1.96 Impact Factor