[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a myeloid proliferation resembling acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), mostly affecting perinatal infants with Down syndrome. Although self-limiting in a majority of cases, TAM may evolve as non-self-limiting AMKL after spontaneous remission (DS-AMKL). Pathogenesis of these Down syndrome-related myeloid disorders is poorly understood, except for GATA1 mutations found in most cases. Here we report genomic profiling of 41 TAM, 49 DS-AMKL and 19 non-DS-AMKL samples, including whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing of 15 TAM and 14 DS-AMKL samples. TAM appears to be caused by a single GATA1 mutation and constitutive trisomy 21. Subsequent AMKL evolves from a pre-existing TAM clone through the acquisition of additional mutations, with major mutational targets including multiple cohesin components (53%), CTCF (20%), and EZH2, KANSL1 and other epigenetic regulators (45%), as well as common signaling pathways, such as the JAK family kinases, MPL, SH2B3 (LNK) and multiple RAS pathway genes (47%).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) children have an increased incidence of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). The majority of these cases harbor somatic mutations in the GATA1 gene, which results in the loss of full-length of GATA1, accordingly only a truncated isoform of GATA1 that lacks the N-terminal 83 amino acids (GATA1-S) remains. We found through genetic studies in 106 TAM patients that internally deleted GATA1 proteins (GATA1-IDs) lacking amino acid residues 77-119 or 74-88 (created by splicing mutations) contributed to the genesis of TAM in six patients. Analyses of GATA1-deficient embryonic megakaryocytic progenitors revealed that the GATA1 function in growth restriction was disrupted in GATA1-IDs. In contrast, GATA1-S rather promoted megakaryocyte proliferation more profoundly than that induced by GATA1-deficiency. These results indicate that the internally deleted regions play important roles in megakaryocyte proliferation and perturbation of this mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of TAM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trib1 has been identified as a myeloid oncogene in a murine leukemia model. Here we identified a TRIB1 somatic mutation in a human case of Down syndrome-related acute megakaryocytic leukemia. The mutation was observed at well-conserved arginine 107 residue in the pseudokinase domain. This R107L mutation remained in leukocytes of the remission stage in which GATA1 mutation disappeared, suggesting the TRIB1 mutation is an earlier genetic event in leukemogenesis. The bone marrow transfer experiment showed that acute myeloid leukemia development was accelerated by transducing murine bone marrow cells with the R107L mutant in which enhancement of ERK phosphorylation and C/EBPα degradation by Trib1 expression was even greater than in those expressing wild-type. These results suggest that TRIB1 may be a novel important oncogene for Down syndrome-related acute megakaryocytic leukemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty percent to 30% of transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) observed in newborns with Down syndrome (DS) develop myeloid leukemia of DS (ML-DS). Most cases of TAM carry somatic GATA1 mutations resulting in the exclusive expression of a truncated protein (GATA1s). However, there are no reports on the expression levels of GATA1s in TAM blasts, and the risk factors for the progression to ML-DS are unidentified. To test whether the spectrum of transcripts derived from the mutant GATA1 genes affects the expression levels, we classified the mutations according to the types of transcripts, and investigated the modalities of expression by in vitro transfection experiments using GATA1 expression constructs harboring mutations. We show here that the mutations affected the amount of mutant protein. Based on our estimates of GATA1s protein expression, the mutations were classified into GATA1s high and low groups. Phenotypic analyses of 66 TAM patients with GATA1 mutations revealed that GATA1s low mutations were significantly associated with a risk of progression to ML-DS (P < .001) and lower white blood cell counts (P = .004). Our study indicates that quantitative differences in mutant protein levels have significant effects on the phenotype of TAM and warrants further investigation in a prospective study.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient leukemia (TL) has been observed in approximately 10% of newborn infants with Down syndrome (DS). Although treatment with cytarabine is effective in high-risk TL cases, approximately 20% of severe patients still suffer early death. In this study, we demonstrate abundant KIT expression in all 13 patients with GATA1 mutations, although no significant difference in expression levels was observed between TL and acute myeloid leukemia. Stem cell factor (SCF) stimulated the proliferation of the TL cells from five patients and treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib suppressed the proliferation effectively in vitro. To investigate the signal cascade, we established the first SCF-dependent, DS-related acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line, KPAM1. Withdrawal of SCF or treatment with imatinib induced apoptosis of KPAM1 cells. SCF activated the RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, followed by downregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor BIM and upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor MCL1. Although we found novel missense mutations of KIT in 2 of 14 TL patients, neither mutation led to KIT activation and neither reduced the cytotoxic effects of imatinib. These results suggest the essential role of SCF/KIT signaling in the proliferation of DS-related leukemia and the possibility of therapeutic benefits of imatinib for TL patients.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 11/2008; 23(1):95-103. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) is experienced by approximately 10% of neonates with Down syndrome (DS). Most TMD is asymptomatic and the patients undergo spontaneous remission within a few months. However, some cases are fatal because of systemic organ dysfunctions including hepatic fibrosis. Some cytokines such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) may be involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis in TMD. The report describes a fatal case of TMD accompanying DS. The patient presented with pulmonary hypertension and hepatic failure. An autopsy disclosed severe fibrosis in the lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high expression of PDGF receptor beta in the severe fibrotic areas of the fibrotic tissues. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of PDGFalpha and PDGFbeta in the peripheral blood samples of the patient. The finding indicates that the PDGF pathway may play an important role in the fibrosis of several organs in patients with TMD.
European Journal Of Haematology 08/2008; 81(1):58-64. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JAK3 mutations have been reported in transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) as well as in acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia of Down syndrome (DS-AMKL). However, functional consequences of the JAK3 mutations in TMD patients remain undetermined. To further understand how JAK3 mutations are involved in the development and/or progression of leukaemia in Down syndrome, additional TMD patients and the DS-AMKL cell line MGS were screened for JAK3 mutations, and we examined whether each JAK3 mutation is an activating mutation. JAK3 mutations were not detected in 10 TMD samples that had not previously been studied. Together with our previous report we detected JAK3 mutations in one in 11 TMD patients. Furthermore, this study showed for the first time that a TMD patient-derived JAK3 mutation (JAK3(I87T)), as well as two novel JAK3 mutations (JAK3(Q501H) and JAK3(R657Q)) identified in an MGS cell line, were activating mutations. Treatment of MGS cells and Ba/F3 cells expressing the JAK3 mutants with JAK3 inhibitors significantly decreased their growth and viability. These results suggest that the JAK3 activating mutation is an early event during leukaemogenesis in Down syndrome, and they provide proof-of-principle evidence that JAK3 inhibitors would have therapeutic effects on TMD and DS-AMKL patients carrying activating JAK3 mutations.
British Journal of Haematology 06/2008; 141(5):681-8. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of p53 function is a key event in tumorigenesis. Inactivation of p53 in primary tumors and cell lines is mediated by several molecular mechanisms, including deletions and rearrangements. However, generation of a p53 fusion gene has not yet been reported. Here we report a novel p53/an autosomal homolog of the fragile X mental retardation (FXR2) chimeric gene generated by an interstitial deletion. Western blot analyses have shown that the p53/FXR2 protein is indeed expressed in a Down syndrome-related acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line, CMK11-5 cells. To investigate the properties of the p53/FXR2 protein, we observed its subcellular localization. Flag-tagged expression vectors were transfected into COS-7 cells and the proteins were stained with an anti-Flag antibody. The p53/FXR2 protein was expressed at high levels in the cytoplasm, whereas wild-type p53 and FXR2 were localized primarily in the nucleus and in the periphery of the nucleus, respectively. Treatment with a topoisomerase II inhibitor, VP16, failed to induce expression of a p53 target gene, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF-1/CIP1), in CMK11-5 cells, and transient transfection analysis showed that the p53/FXR2 protein failed to transactivate the p21(WAF-1/CIP1) promoter. These results suggest that the p53/FXR2 fusion protein lacks the ability of wild-type p53 to function as a transcription factor. The p53/FXR2 gene is the first reported p53 fusion gene.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2006; 209(3):169-80. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the GATA1 gene on chromosome X have been found in almost all cases of transient myeloproliferative disorder and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) accompanying Down syndrome (DS). Although most GATA1 mutations lead to the expression of GATA1s lacking the N-terminal activation domain, we recently found two novel GATA1 proteins with defects in another N-terminal region. It has been suggested that loss of the N-terminal portion of GATA1 might interfere with physiological interactions with the critical megakaryocytic transcription factor RUNX1, and this would imply that GATA1s is not able to interact properly with RUNX1. However, the interaction domain of GATA1 remains controversial. In this study, we show that GATA1 binds to RUNX1 through its zinc-finger domains, and that the C-finger is indispensable for synergy with RUNX1. All of the patient-specific GATA1 mutants interacted efficiently with RUNX1 and retained their ability to act synergistically with RUNX1 on the megakaryocytic GP1balpha promoter, whereas the levels of transcriptional activities were diverse among the mutants. Thus, our data indicate that physical interaction and synergy between GATA1 and RUNX1 are retained in DS-AMKL, although it is still possible that increased RUNX1 activity plays a role in the development of leukemia in DS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both nuclear factor erythroid 2 45 kDa subunit (p45) and BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach) transcription factors can form dimers with one of the small Maf proteins, and these heterodimers bind to the musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (Maf) recognition element (MARE). MARE is known to act as a critical cis-regulatory element of erythroid and megakaryocytic genes. Although detailed analyses of p45-null mutant mice and small maf compound mutant mice revealed that these factors are both critical for platelet production, the functional contributions of Bach1 and the relationship or redundancy between Bach1 and p45 in megakaryocytes remain to be clarified. To address these issues, we generated transgenic lines of mice bearing human BACH1 cDNA under the control of the GATA-1 locus hematopoietic regulatory domain. The transgenic mouse lines showed significant thrombocytopenia associated with impaired maturation of the megakaryocytes, and they developed myelofibrosis. The megakaryocytes in the transgenic mice exhibited reduced proplatelet formation, and the modal ploidy class of megakaryocytes was 2N, indicating the impairment of endomitosis. Transcription of the p45 target genes was down-regulated and we indeed found that BACH1 binds to the thromboxane synthase gene, one of the target genes for p45 in megakaryocytes. These findings thus provide evidence that BACH1 acts as a transcriptional repressor in the regulation of MARE-dependent genes in megakaryocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the extracellular matrix. Allelic variations in the gene for fibrillin-1 ( FBN1) have been shown to cause MFS. To date, over 550 mutations have been identified in patients with MFS and related connective tissue diseases. However, about a half of MFS cases do not possess mutations in the FBN1 gene. These findings raise the possibility that variants located in other genes cause or modify MFS. To explore this possibility, firstly we analyzed FBN1 allelic variants in 12 Japanese patients with MFS, and secondly we analyzed fibrillin-3 gene ( FBN3) in patients without FBN1 mutations using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and direct sequencing analysis. We identified three novel FBN1 mutations and ten FBN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this report, we could not detect a responsible mutation of the FBN3 gene for MFS. Although the number of the cases in this report is small, at least these results suggest that disease-causing mutations in exon regions of the FBN3 gene are very rare in MFS.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2004; 49(8):404-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Bach2, a member of the CNC family of proteins, binds to the Maf recognition element (MARE) by forming homodimers or dimerizing with small Maf transcription factors. Bach2-expressing cells show reduced proliferation and undergo spontaneous cell death. The inhibition of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase activity by STI571 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines and CD34+ cells from patients with CML in lymphoid crisis results in induction of BACH2 expression. We show here that BACH2 modifies the in vitro cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. The cytotoxic effects of commonly used anticancer agents were studied by overexpression of BACH2 in RAJI lymphoid cells, a cell line that does not express endogenous BACH2. Cell growth inhibition was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Clones overexpressing BACH2 were more sensitive to etoposide, doxorubicin, and cytarabine than control RAJI cells, whereas there were no significant differences in the sensitivity of either cells to methotrexate or vincristine. Interestingly, we found that the former drugs were oxidative stressors that induced the nuclear accumulation of BACH2. In contrast, methotrexate or vincristine did not induce production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear accumulation of BACH2. These results, coupled with our previous data showing that BACH2 promotes oxidative stress-induced cell death, suggest that combination chemotherapy involving STI571 and anticancer drugs that produce ROS may be of benefit in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome 1 (Ph1)-positive leukemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) is a leukemoid reaction occurring occasionally in Down syndrome newborn infants. Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) develops in approximately 20% to 30% of the cases with TMD. Recently, acquired mutations in the N-terminal activation domain of the GATA-1 gene, encoding the erythroid/megakaryocytic transcription factor GATA-1, have been reported in Down syndrome-related AMKL (DS-AMKL). To understand the multistep leukemogenesis in Down syndrome, GATA-1 mutations were investigated in patients with TMD. We show here that mutations in the GATA-1 gene were detected in 21 of 22 cases with TMD. Most of the mutations in TMD were located in the regions including exon 2 and were essentially identical to those observed in DS-AMKL. In the DS-AMKL cell line, MGS, which itself expresses only a truncated mutant of GATA-1, expression of full-length GATA-1 induced the differentiation toward the erythroid lineage. However, expression of the short form of GATA-1 did not induce erythroid differentiation. These results indicate that expression of GATA-1 with a defective N-terminal activation domain contributes to the expansion of TMD blast cells and that other genetic changes contribute to the development of AMKL in Down syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Bach1 is a member of a novel family of broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) basic region leucine zipper factors. Bach1 forms a heterodimer with MafK, a member of the small Maf protein family (MafF, MafG, and MafK), which recognizes the NF-E2/Maf recognition element, a cis-regulatory motif containing a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element. Here we describe the gene structure of human BACH1, including a newly identified promoter and an alternatively RNA-spliced truncated form of BACH1, designated BACH1t, abundantly transcribed in human testis. The alternate splicing originated from the usage of a novel exon located 5.6 kilobase pairs downstream of the exon encoding the leucine zipper domain, and produced a protein that contained the conserved BTB/POZ, Cap'n collar, and basic region domains, but lacked the leucine zipper domain essential for NF-E2/Maf recognition element binding. Subcellular localization studies using green fluorescent protein as a reporter showed that full-length BACH1 localized to the cytoplasm, whereas BACH1t accumulated in the nucleus. Interestingly, coexpression of BACH1 and BACH1t demonstrated interaction between the molecules and the induction of nuclear import of BACH1. These results suggested that BACH1t recruits BACH1 to the nucleus through BTB domain-mediated interaction.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2001; 276(10):7278-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Bach2, a member of the BTB-basic region leucine zipper (bZip) factor family, binds to a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-responsive element and the related Maf-recognition element (MARE) by forming homodimers or heterodimers with Maf-related transcription factors. Bach2 regulates transcription by binding to these elements. To understand the function in hematopoiesis, we isolated a cDNA clone for human Bach2 (BACH2) encoding a protein of 841 amino acid residues with a deduced amino acid sequence having 89.5% identity to mouse homolog. Among human hematopoietic cell lines, BACH2 is expressed abundantly only in some B-lymphocytic cell lines. RT-PCR analysis of hematopoietic cells revealed that BACH2 mRNA is expressed in primary B-cells. Enforced expression of BACH2 in a human Burkitt cell line, RAJI that does not express endogenous BACH2, resulted in marked reduction of clonogenic activity, indicating that BACH2 possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, the BACH2 gene was localized to chromosome 6q15. Because deletion of the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q) is one of the commonest chromosomal alterations in human B-cell lymphoma, we examined for the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the BACH2 gene in human B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Among 25 informative cases, five (20%) showed LOH. These results indicate that BACH2 plays important roles in regulation of B cell development.