[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Odontogenic Ameloblast-associated Protein (ODAM) is expressed in a wide range of normal epithelial, and neoplastic tissues, and we have posited that ODAM serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for breast cancer and melanoma. Transfection of ODAM into breast cancer cells yields suppression of cellular growth, motility, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Herein we have extended these studies to the effects of ODAM on cultured melanoma cell lines. METHODS: The A375 and C8161 melanoma cell lines were stably transfected with ODAM and assayed for properties associated with tumorigenicity including cell growth, motility, and extracellular matrix adhesion. In addition, ODAM--transfected cells were assayed for signal transduction via AKT which promotes cell proliferation and survival in many neoplasms. RESULTS: ODAM expression in A375 and C8161 cells strongly inhibited cell growth and motility in vitro, increased cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, and yielded significant cytoskeletal/morphologic rearrangement. Furthermore, AKT activity was downregulated by ODAM expression while an increase was noted in expression of the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor gene, an antagonist of AKT activation. Increased PTEN in ODAM-expressing cells was associated with increases in PTEN mRNA levels and de novo protein synthesis. Silencing of PTEN expression yielded recovery of AKT activity in ODAM-expressing melanoma cells. Similar PTEN elevation and inhibition of AKT by ODAM was observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells while ODAM expression had no effect in PTEN-deficient BT-549 breast cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent anti-neoplastic effects of ODAM in cultured melanoma and breast cancer cells are associated with increased PTEN expression, and suppression of AKT activity. This association should serve to clarify the clinical import of ODAM expression and any role it may serve as an indicator of tumor behavior.
BMC Cancer 05/2013; 13(1):227. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diverse lines of evidence indicate that pre-fibrillar, diffusible assemblies of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) play an important role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although the precise molecular identity of these soluble toxins remains unsettled, recent experiments suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable Aβ dimers may be the basic building blocks of Alzheimer's disease-associated synaptotoxic assemblies and as such present an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In the absence of sufficient amounts of highly pure cerebral Aβ dimers, we have used synthetic disulfide cross-linked dimers (free of Aβ monomer or fibrils) to generate conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies. These dimers aggregate to form kinetically trapped protofibrils, but do not readily form fibrils. We identified two antibodies, 3C6 and 4B5, which preferentially bind assemblies formed from covalent Aβ dimers, but do not bind to Aβ monomer, amyloid precursor protein, or aggregates formed by other amyloidogenic proteins. Monoclonal antibody 3C6, but not an IgM isotype-matched control antibody, ameliorated the plasticity-disrupting effects of Aβ extracted from the aqueous phase of Alzheimer's disease brain, thus suggesting that 3C6 targets pathogenically relevant Aβ assemblies. These data prove the usefulness of covalent dimers and their assemblies as immunogens and recommend further investigation of the therapeutic and diagnostic utility of monoclonal antibodies raised to such assemblies.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2011; 119(1):189-201. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have posited that Odontogenic Ameloblast Associated Protein (ODAM) serves as a novel prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and now have investigated its potential role in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with a recombinant ODAM plasmid construct (or, as a control, the plasmid vector alone). ODAM expression increased adhesion and apoptosis of the transfected MDA-MB-231 cells and suppressed their growth rate, migratory activity, and capability to invade extracellular matrix-coated membranes. Implantation of such cells into mouse mammary fat pads resulted in significantly smaller tumors than occurred in animals that received control cells; furthermore, ODAM-expressing cells, when injected intravenously into mice, failed to metastasize, whereas the control-transfected counterparts produced extensive lung lesions. Our finding that induction of ODAM expression in human breast cancer cells markedly inhibited their neoplastic properties provides further evidence for the regulatory role of this molecule in tumorigenesis and, consequently, is of potential clinical import.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morbidity and mortality occurring in patients with multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, and light chain deposition disease can result from the pathologic deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) in kidneys and other organs. To reduce synthesis of such components, therapy for these disorders typically has involved antiplasma cell agents; however, this approach is not always effective and can have adverse consequences. We have investigated another means to achieve this objective; namely, RNA interference.
SP2/O mouse myeloma cells were stably transfected with a construct encoding a λ6 LC (Wil) under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter, while λ2-producing myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). Both were treated with small interfering RNA directed specifically to the V, J, or C portions of the molecules and then analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Transfected cells were found to constitutively express detectable quantities of messenger RNA and protein Wil and, after exposure to small interfering RNAs, an ∼ 40% reduction in messenger RNA and LC production was evidenced at 48 hours. An even greater effect was seen with the 8226 cells.
Our results have shown that RNA interference can markedly reduce LC synthesis and provide the basis for testing the therapeutic potential of this strategy using in vivo experimental models of multiple myeloma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odontogenic Ameloblast Associated Protein (ODAM) is a protein isolated in ameloblasts during odontogenesis. ODAM expression was identified in breast cancer, but its significance remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine if ODAM expression can serve as a prognostic marker and provide information regarding treatment in human breast cancer. Breast cancer patients were identified from our tumor registry from 1993 to 2003. Archived breast cancer tissue from 243 patients (stage 0 = 53, stage I = 51, stage II = 53, stage III = 47, stage IV = 39) was stained using monoclonal antibody for ODAM. Presence or absence of immunostaining was correlated with stage, histologic grade, response to chemotherapy, and survival using chi2 and logistic regression analyses. Tumor nuclear staining for ODAM increased with increasing group stage (P < 0.001). Staining for ODAM did not correlate with histologic grade or chemotherapy (P = 0.558, P = 0.093). Improved outcomes within each stage were noted with ODAM staining, statistically significant for stages 0, I, and II (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.003) and underpowered for stages III and IV (P = 0.724, P = 0.059). Survival benefit associated with tumor nuclear staining increased with advancing stage (P < 0.001). These results show that ODAM predicts survival in breast cancer. Research is ongoing to determine ODAM's clinical utility and role in carcinogenesis.
The American surgeon 09/2009; 75(9):769-75; discussion 775. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that the amyloid found in three patients with calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors (CEOT) was composed of N-terminal fragments of a putative 153-residue protein specified by a gene designated FLJ20513 now known to represent exons 5 through 10 of the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) locus that encodes a 279-residue polypeptide. Confirmation of the amyloidogenic potential of ODAM has resulted from analyses of four other cases where we found, in addition, a 74-residue segment specified by exon 4. Through preparation of ODAM-related synthetic peptides, it was possible to localize the fibril-forming region of this molecule, as well as generate a monoclonal antibody that reacted specifically with the amyloid associated with CEOT. Notably, we also detected green birefringent congophilic material in unerupted tooth follicles - a precursor of CEOT - and demonstrated through immunologic and chemical analyses the ODAM nature of the deposits. Our studies have provided further evidence for this unique form of odontogenic amyloid that we provisionally designate "AODAM".
Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis 07/2008; 15(2):89-95. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent investigations suggest that functions of the proapoptotic BCL2 family members, including BAD, are not limited to regulation of apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that BAD inhibits G(1) to S phase transition in MCF7 breast cancer cells independent of apoptosis. BAD overexpression inhibited G(1) transit and cell growth as well as cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression was mediated through inhibition of transcription activated by AP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that BAD is localized at the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-response element (TRE) and cAMP-response element (CRE) in the cyclin D1 promoter. This was shown to reflect direct binding interactions of BAD with c-Jun, and this interaction inhibited the activity of AP1 complexes at TRE. BAD did not interact with phosphorylated forms of c-Jun. Our data suggest that inhibitory TRE/CRE-c-Jun-BAD complexes are present at the cyclin D1 promoter in quiescent cells. Estrogen stimulation displaced BAD from TRE/CRE elements in MCF7 cells, whereas BAD overexpression inhibited estrogen-induced cyclin D1 synthesis and cell proliferation. Inhibition of endogenous BAD in MCF7 cells markedly increased the proliferative fraction and DNA synthesis, activated Cdks, and increased cyclin D1 protein levels. This action of BAD required serine residues Ser(75) and Ser(99). Both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms of BAD localized to the nuclei of human breast epithelial cells. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for BAD in cell cycle regulation dependent upon its phosphorylation state and independent of the BAD/BCL2 interaction and apoptosis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2007; 282(39):28864-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel (PTX) is a widely used chemotherapy agent and may cause cell death by apoptosis subsequent to microtubule (MT) disruption. In this paper, we have investigated whether cell cycle transit and or Cdc2 (Cdk1) activity is required for the apoptosis induced by PTX.
Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, Cdc2 was assayed bio chemically. Cdc2 activity was decreased by siRNA and dominant negative (dn) Cdc2 expression. Cells were arrested by chemical or biological inhibitors in a G1 or S phase. Apoptosis was measured by DNA fragmentation and examination of nuclei by microscopy. JNK and AKT activations were assessed as well.
Cell cycle inhibition was highly effective in decreasing PTX induced apoptosis. MT morphology was not altered by these inhibitors. PTX induced JNK activity or AKT mediated BAD phosphorylation was unaffected by cell cycle inhibitors. Abrogation of Cdc 2 activity was without effect on PTX induced apoptosis.
While cell cycle transit is required for PTX induced apoptosis; Cdc2 activity is not required.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2007; 59(2):235-49. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibody produced by a murine hybridoma obtained from the fusion of SP2/0 plasmacytoma cells with splenocytes of a mouse immunized with feline bone marrow was found to react with 60% of bone marrow cells and 80% of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL); reactivity in the latter tissue was restricted almost entirely to mononuclear cells. Two-color FACScan analyses of this antibody with mAbs specific for feline lymphocytes revealed positive and negative populations of CD4 and CD8 cells. The reactivity for CD4 and CD8 cells was animal age dependent, binding to a higher percentage of the cells in young (2-9 months) versus older animals (> 4 years). In a mitogen driven assay for IgG production by PBL the addition of this antibody to the cultures enhanced the suppressor activity of CD8 cells, a function attributed to activation of a CD4 suppressor-inducer population; removal of CD8 cells negated any induction of suppression. Mild papain digestion of bone marrow and PBL completely removed the antigen detected by this antibody while not affecting reactivity of a pan-T antibody. Western blot analysis showed binding of the antibody to polypeptides of approximately 200 kDa on feline bone marrow and PBL. The data suggest that this mAb is identifying the feline homologue of the leukocyte common antigen of cells with a functional specificity characteristic of a CD45RA isoform.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2005; 108(3-4):253-64. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that expression of the transcription factor HES-1 is required for the growth-inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on MCF-7 cells. In this study, we have used T47D cells with tetracyclin-regulated expression of wild-type or a dominant-negative form of HES-1. Expression of HES-1 in T47D cells inhibited G1/S-phase transition and activation of Cdk2 elicited by estrogen. Estrogen treatment of T47D cells caused increased expression of E2F-1, and this expression was inhibited by cotreatment with all-trans retinoic acid. We show that the effect is mediated through HES-1, which directly downregulates E2F-1 expression through a CACGAG-site within the E2F-1 promoter. Furthermore, proliferation caused by heregulin-beta1 treatment of T47D cells was inhibited by all-trans retinoic acid and this effect was mediated by HES-1. Interestingly, heregulin-beta1-mediated upregulation of E2F-1 expression was directly inhibited by HES-1 through the same CACGAG-site as seen with estrogen-stimulated induction. In addition, we found that two important downstream target genes of estrogen and heregulin-beta1 that are regulated through E2F-1, cyclin E and NPAT, were both regulated in a similar fashion by all-trans retinoic acid, and these effects were antagonized by dominant-negative HES-1. These findings establish that HES-1 inhibits both estrogen- and heregulin-beta1-stimulated growth of breast cancer cells, and further suggest that growth inhibition induced in these cells by all-trans retinoic acid occurs via HES-1-mediated downregulation of E2F-1 expression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER) beta counteracts the activity of ERalpha in many systems. In agreement with this, we show in this study that induced expression of ERbeta in the breast cancer cell line T47D reduces 17beta-estradiol-stimulated proliferation when expression of ERbeta mRNA equals that of ERalpha. Induction of ERbeta reduces growth of exponentially proliferating cells with a concomitant decrease in components of the cell cycle associated with proliferation, namely cyclin E, Cdc25A (a key regulator of Cdk2), p45(Skp2) (a key regulator of p27(Kip1) proteolysis), and an increase in the Cdk inhibitor p27(Kip1). We also observed a reduced Cdk2 activity. These findings suggest a possible role for ERbeta in breast cancer and imply that ERbeta-specific ligands may reduce proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells through actions on the G(1) phase cell-cycle machinery.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2004; 101(6):1566-71. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27Kip1 plays a key role in growth and development of the mammary epithelium and in breast cancer. p27Kip1 levels are regulated through ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated proteolysis, promoted by CDK2 and the F box protein Skp2 at the G1/S transition, and independent of Skp2 in mid-G1. We investigated the respective roles of Skp2 and subcellular localization of p27Kip1 in down-regulation of p27Kip1 induced in MCF-7 cells by estrogens. 17beta-Estradiol treatment increased Skp2 expression in MCF-7 cells; however, this increase was prevented by G1 blockade mediated by p16Ink4a or the CDK inhibitor roscovitine, whereas down-regulation of p27Kip1 was maintained. Exogenous Skp2 prevented growth arrest of MCF-7 cells by antiestrogen, coinciding with decreased p27Kip1 expression. Under conditions of G1 blockade, p27Kip1 was stabilized by inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export with leptomycin B or by mutation of p27Kip1 (Ser10 --> Ala; S10A) interfering with CRM1/p27Kip1 interaction. Antisense Skp2 oligonucleotides and a dominant-interfering Cul-1(1-452) mutant prevented down-regulation of p27Kip1S10A, whereas Skp2 overexpression elicited its destruction in mitogen-deprived cells. Active mediators of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway including Raf-1caax induced cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1 in antiestrogen-treated cells and prevented accumulation of p27Kip1 in these cells independent of Skp2 expression and coinciding with ERK activation. Genetic or chemical blockade of the ERK pathway prevented down-regulation and cytoplasmic localization of p27Kip1 in response to estrogen. Our studies indicate that estrogens elicit down-regulation of p27Kip1 in MCF-7 cells through Skp2-dependent and -independent mechanisms that depend upon subcellular localization of p27Kip1 and require the participation of mediators of the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling pathway.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2003; 278(42):41355-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) protein variants exist due to the posttranslational modifications. Besides ovaries, LHR immunoreactivity (LHRI) was also found in other tissues, such as the brain, fallopian tube, endometrium, trophoblast and resident tissue macrophages. The 3B5 mouse monoclonal antibody was raised against purified rat LHR. In rat, porcine and human ovaries, the 3B5 identified six distinct LHR bands migrating at approximately 92, 80, 68, 59, 52 and 48 kDa. Characteristic LHRI was detected in rat, human and porcine corpora lutea. During cellular differentiation, subcellular LHR distribution changed from none to granular cytoplasmic, perinuclear, surface, nuclear and no staining. There were also differences in vascular LHR expression--lack of LHRI in ovarian vessels and strong staining of vessels in other tissues investigated. In normal human term placentae, villous LHRI was associated with blood sinusoids and cytotrophoblast cells, and rarely detected in trophoblastic syncytium. In all abnormal placentae, the LHRI of sinusoids was absent, and syncytium showed either enhanced (immature placental phenotypes) or no LHRI (aged placental phenotype). LHRI in human brain was identified in microglial cells (CD68+ resident macrophages). Protein extracts from human vaginal wall and levator ani muscle and fascia showed strong approximately 92 and 68 kDa species, and LHRI was detected in smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, resident macrophages and nuclei of skeletal muscle fibers. Our observations indicate that, in contrast to the theory on the role of vascular hormone receptors in preferential pick up of circulating hormones, there is no need to enhance selective pick up rather only prevent LH/CG transport to inappropriate sites. Abnormal placental LHR expression may play a role in the development of abnormal pregnancy. Expression of LHR in the pelvic floor compartments suggests that high LH levels in postmenopausal women may contribute to the pelvic floor relaxation and increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders. Since chorionic gonadotropin increases secretion of a variety of cytokines by monocytes, and induces their inflammatory reaction and phagocytic activity, high LH levels in aging individuals may also activate microglia (mononuclear phagocyte system in the central nervous system) and contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease and other inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 07/2003; 1:46. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During human pregnancy, the production of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) rises steadily to eighty fold at term, and placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens. We have recently demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) protein in human placenta and its localization in villous cytotrophoblast (CT), vascular pericytes, and amniotic fibroblasts. In vitro, E2 stimulated development of large syncytiotrophoblast (ST) aggregates. In the present study we utilized ER-beta affinity purified polyclonal (N19:sc6820) and ER-alpha monoclonal (clone h-151) antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed a single approximately 52 kDa ER-beta band in chorionic villi (CV) protein extracts. In CV, strong cytoplasmic ER-beta immunoreactivity was confined to ST. Dual color immunohistochemistry revealed asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha in dividing villous CT cells. Prior to separation, the cell nuclei more distant from ST exhibited high ER-alpha, while cell nuclei associated with ST showed diminution of ER-alpha and appearance of ER-beta. In trophoblast cultures, development of ST aggregates was associated with diminution of ER-alpha and appearance of ER-beta immunoreactivity. ER-beta was also detected in endothelial cells, amniotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts, extravillous trophoblast (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and decidual cells (cytoplasmic only). In addition, CFK-E12 (E12) and CWK-F12 (F12) monoclonal antibodies, which recognize approximately 64 kDa ER-beta with hormone binding domain, showed nuclear-specific reactivity with villous ST, extravillous trophoblast, and amniotic epithelium and fibroblasts. Western blot analysis indicated abundant expression of a approximately 64 kDa ER-beta variant in trophoblast cultures, significantly higher when compared to the chorionic villi and freshly isolated trophoblast cell protein extracts. This is the first report on ER-beta expression in human placenta and cultured trophoblast. Our data indicate that during trophoblast differentiation, the ER-alpha is associated with a less, and ER-beta with the more differentiated state. Enhanced expression of approximately 64 kDa ER-beta variant in trophoblast cultures suggests a unique role of ER-beta hormone binding domain in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation. Our data also indicate that asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha may play a role in asymmetric division of estrogen-dependent cells.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 05/2003; 1:36. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens play an important role in the regulation of placental function, and 17-beta-estradiol (E2) production rises eighty fold during human pregnancy. Although term placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens, cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) in trophoblast remains unclear. We used western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry with h-151 and ID5 monoclonal antibodies to determine the expression and cellular localization of ER-alpha protein in human placentae and cultured trophoblast cells. Western blot analysis revealed a ~65 kDa ER-alpha band in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells (positive control). A similar band was detected in five normal term placentae exhibiting strong expression of Thy-1 differentiation protein in the villous core. However, five other term placentae, which exhibited low or no Thy-1 expression (abnormal placentae), exhibited virtually no ER-alpha expression. In normal placentae, nuclear ER-alpha expression was confined to villous cytotrophoblast cells (CT), but syncytiotrophoblast (ST) and extravillous trophoblast cells were unstained. In abnormal placentae no CT expressing ER-alpha were detected. Normal and abnormal placentae also showed ER-alpha expression in villous vascular pericytes and amniotic (but not villous) fibroblasts; no staining was detected in amniotic epithelial cells or decidual cells. All cultured trophoblast cells derived from the same normal and abnormal placentae showed distinct ER-alpha expression in western blots, and the ER-alpha expression was confined to the differentiating CT, but not to the mature ST. Trophoblast cells from six additional placentae were cultured in normal medium with phenol red (a weak estrogen) as above (PhR+), or plated in phenol red-free medium (PhR-) without or with mid-pregnancy levels of E2 (20 nM). Culture in PhR- medium without E2 caused retardation of syncytium formation and PhR-medium with E2 caused acceleration of syncytium formation compared to cultures in PhR+ medium. These data indicate that the considerable increase in estrogen production during pregnancy may play a role, via the ER-alpha, in the stimulation of CT differentiation and promote function in normal placentae. This mechanism, however, may not operate in abnormal placentae, which show a lack of ER-alpha expression.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 03/2003; 1:13. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin E, a G(1) cyclin serving to activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2, is the only cyclin gene for which alternative splicing leading to structurally different proteins has been described. Different cyclin E proteins are present in tumor tissues but absent from normal (steady) tissues. Cyclin E contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and ongoing differentiation and aging. Because trophoblast has invasive properties and differentiates into syncytium and placental aging may develop at term, we examined cyclin E protein variants in human placenta. Placental samples were collected from 27 deliveries between 33 and 41 wk and were compared with ovarian cancer (positive control). Both placental and tumor tissues showed seven cyclin E low molecular weight (LMW) bands migrating between 50 and 36 kDa. Placental expression of cyclin E showed certain variability among cases. Lowest cyclin E expression was detected in normal placentas (strong expression of Thy-1 differentiation protein in villous core and low dilatation of villous blood sinusoids). Abnormal placentas (significant depletion of Thy-1 and more or less pronounced dilatation of sinusoids) showed significant increase either of all (early stages of placental aging) or only certain cyclin E proteins (advanced aging). Our studies indicate that a similar spectrum of cyclin E protein variants is expressed in the placental and tumor tissues. Low cyclin E expression in normal placentas suggests a steady state. Overexpression of all cyclin E proteins may indicate an activation of cellular proliferation and differentiation to compensate for developing placental insufficiency. However, an enhanced expression of some cyclin E LMW proteins only might reflect an association of cyclin E isoforms with placental aging or an inefficient placental adaptation.
Biology of Reproduction 09/2002; 67(2):568-74. · 4.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of MCF 7 cells with the fungal estrogen zearalenone induced cyclin E-associated kinase activity transiently within 9-12 h; total cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2 activity was elevated for 24 h and beyond. This increased cyclin E/Cdk2 activity was associated with sequestration of the Cdk inhibitor p27 Cdk inhibitor 1B (p27(KIP1)) by newly formed cyclin D1/Cdk4 complexes and with downregulation of p27(KIP1) expression. The activation of cyclin A/Cdk2 activity corresponded with virtual elimination of p27(KIP1). The activity of cyclin E/Cdk2 complexes from zearalenone-treated lysates was inhibited in vitro by recombinant p27(KIP1), and this inhibition was relieved by the addition of recombinant cyclin D1/Cdk4 complexes. Thus, sequestration of p27(KIP1) by cyclin D1/Cdk4 resulted in activation of Cdk2 in vitro. Cdk inhibitory activity in lysates of zearalenone-treated cells was depleted by anti-p27(KIP1) and anti-Cdc2 interacting protein (p21(CIP1)) antibodies. Overexpression of the Cdk4/6-specific Cdk inhibitor of Cdk4 p16(INK4A) was associated with increased association of p27(KIP1) with Cdk2, concomitant with disruption of D cyclin/Cdk4 complexes. The proteasome inhibitor 2-leu-leu-leu-H aldehyde (MG-132) was relatively ineffective in inhibiting the initial, sequestration-dependent activation of cyclin E/Cdk2 yet was as effective as p16(INK4A) in inhibiting activation of cyclin A/Cdk2 later in G(1). Downregulation of p27(KIP1) proceeded in p16(INK4A)-expressing cells after zearalenone treatment, and G(1) arrest afforded by p16(INK4A) expression was reversible upon prolonged treatment with zearalenone. Zearalenone treatment of MCF-7 cells elicited expression of F-box protein S phase kinase-associated protein 2 (p45(SKP2)), a substrate-specific component of the ubiquitin-ligase complex that targets p27(KIP1) for degradation in the proteasome. These studies suggest that both sequestration of Cdk inhibitors by cyclin D1/Cdk4 complexes and downregulation of p27(KIP1) play major roles in the induction of Cdk2 activity and S phase entry elicited by estrogens in MCF-7 cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental data have established that the leading cause of sporadic female breast cancer is exposure to estrogens, predominantly 17beta-estradiol. Recent advances in the understanding of cell-cycle control mechanisms have been applied to outline the molecular mechanisms through which estrogens regulate the cell cycle in cultured breast cancer cells, in particular, in MCF-7 cells. Here, we discuss how estrogens exert control over several key G1 phase cell-cycle regulators, namely cyclin D1, Myc, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk inhibitors and Cdc25A. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogenic regulation of G1 phase regulators are far from clear, current evidence indicates that estrogens might regulate several key molecules required for S phase entry, this regulation being independent of cell-cycle transit per se.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2001; 12(7):320-7. · 8.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogens induce proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells by stimulating G(1)/S transition associated with increased cyclin D1 expression, activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We have utilized blockade of cyclin D1-Cdk4 complex formation through adenovirus-mediated expression of p16(INK4a) to demonstrate that estrogen regulates Cdk inhibitor expression and expression of the Cdk-activating phosphatase Cdc25A independent of cyclin D1-Cdk4 function and cell cycle progression. Expression of p16(INK4a) inhibited G(1)/S transition induced in MCF-7 cells by 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)) with associated inhibition of both Cdk4- and Cdk2-associated kinase activities. Inhibition of Cdk2 activity was associated with delayed removal of Cdk-inhibitory activity in early G(1) and decreased cyclin A expression. Cdk-inhibitory activity and expression of both p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) was decreased, however, in both control and p16(INK4a)-expressing cells 20 h after estrogen treatment. Expression of Cdc25A mRNA and protein was induced by E(2) in control and p16(INK4a)-expressing MCF-7 cells; however, functional activity of Cdc25A was inhibited in cells expressing p16(INK4a). Inhibition of Cdc25A activity in p16(INK4a)-expressing cells was associated with depressed Cdk2 activity and was reversed in vivo and in vitro by active Cdk2. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with a dominant-negative Cdk2 construct inhibited the E(2)-dependent activation of ectopic Cdc25A. Supporting a role for Cdc25A in estrogen action, antisense CDC25A oligonucleotides inhibited estrogen-induced Cdk2 activation and DNA synthesis. In addition, inactive cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes from p16(INK4a)-expressing, estrogen-treated cells were activated in vitro by treatment with recombinant Cdc25A and in vivo in cells overexpressing Cdc25A. The results demonstrate that functional association of cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes is required for Cdk2 activation in MCF-7 cells and that Cdk2 activity is, in turn, required for the in vivo activation of Cdc25A. These studies establish Cdc25A as a growth-promoting target of estrogen action and further indicate that estrogens independently regulate multiple components of the cell cycle machinery, including expression of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1).
Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2001; 21(3):794-810. · 5.37 Impact Factor