Darin J Erickson

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (125)238.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws is an important component of efforts to prevent alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. Little is known about the use of drinking-driving enforcement strategies by state and local law enforcement agencies or whether the use of strategies differs by agency and jurisdiction characteristics. We conducted two national surveys, with state patrol agencies (n = 48) and with a sample of local law enforcement agencies (n = 1,082) selected according to state and jurisdiction population size. We examined 3 primary enforcement strategies (sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws) and tested whether use of these strategies differed by jurisdiction and agency characteristics across state and local law enforcement agencies Most state patrol agencies reported conducting sobriety checkpoints (72.9%) and saturation patrols (95.8%), whereas less than half (43.8%) reported enforcing open container laws. In contrast, a lower proportion of local law enforcement agencies reported using these alcohol-impaired driving enforcement strategies (41.5, 62.7, and 41.1%, respectively). Sobriety checkpoint enforcement was more common in states in the dry South region (vs. wet and moderate regions). Among local law enforcement agencies, agencies with a full-time alcohol enforcement officer and agencies located in areas where drinking-driving was perceived to be very common (vs. not/somewhat common) were more likely to conduct multiple types of impaired driving enforcement. Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities.
    Traffic Injury Prevention 08/2015; 16(6):533-9. DOI:10.1080/15389588.2014.995789 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify and describe homogenous profiles of female college students based on weight-related behaviors and examine differences across 5 sexual orientation groups. Data from the 2009-2013 College Student Health Survey (Minnesota-based survey of 2- and 4-year college students) were used to fit latent class models. Four profiles were identified across all sexual orientation groups: "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," "unhealthy weight control," and "healthier eating habits, more physically active." Differences in patterns and prevalence of profiles across sexual orientation suggest need for interventions addressing insufficient physical activity and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Future interventions should consider the diversity of behavioral patterns across sexual orientation to more effectively address weight-related behavioral disparities.
    American journal of health behavior 07/2015; 39(4):461-70. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.39.4.2 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Accident Analysis & Prevention 03/2015; 78:104-109. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2015.02.018 · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Nicole A. VanKim, Darin J. Erickson, Melissa N. Laska
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    ABSTRACT: Food shopping is a complex behavior that consists of multiple dimensions. Little research has explored multiple dimensions of food shopping or examined how it relates to dietary intake. To identify patterns (or classes) of food shopping across four domains (fresh food purchasing, conscientious food shopping, food shopping locations, and food/beverage purchasing on or near campus) and explore how these patterns relate to dietary intake among college students. A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Students attending a public 4-year university and a 2-year community college in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area (N=1,201) participated in this study. Fast-food and soda consumption as well as meeting fruit and vegetable, fiber, added sugar, calcium, dairy, and fat recommendations. Crude and adjusted latent class models and adjusted logistic regression models were fit. An eight-class solution was identified: "traditional shopper" (14.9%), "fresh food and supermarket shopper" (14.1%), "convenience shopper" (18.8%), "conscientious convenience shopper" (13.8%), "conscientious, fresh food, convenience shopper" (11.8%), "conscientious fresh food shopper" (6.6%), "conscientious nonshopper" (10.2%), and "nonshopper" (9.8%). "Fresh food and supermarket shoppers" and "conscientious fresh food shoppers" had better dietary intake (for fast food, calcium, dairy, and added sugar), whereas "convenience shoppers" and "conscientious convenience shoppers," and "nonshoppers" had worse dietary intake (for soda, calcium, dairy, fiber, and fat) than "traditional shoppers." These findings highlight unique patterns in food shopping and associated dietary patterns that could inform tailoring of nutrition interventions for college students. Additional research is needed to understand modifiable contextual influences of healthy food shopping. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jand.2014.12.013 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Of the 507 participants who responded to the all items measuring exposure to SEM, 19% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner (UAI) in last 90 days, and 14% reported having had sero-discordant UAI. Among those with UAI experience, 23% reported receptive anal intercourse (R-UAI) and 37% reported insertive anal intercourse (I-UAI). SEM consumption was found to be significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Participants with increased consumption of bareback SEM reported higher odds of UAI and I-UAI after adjusting for other factors using multivariable statistics. MSM who started using SEM at a later age reported lower odds of UAI and I-UAI than MSM who started earlier. Future research should aim at understanding how MSM develop and maintain SEM preferences and the relationship between developmental and maintenance factors and HIV sexual risk behavior. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 02/2015; 56(3). DOI:10.1111/sjop.12203 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The viewing of sexually explicit media (SEM) is widespread, especially among men, and research linking SEM viewing and sexual behavior has shown a variety of results, some positive (e.g., sexuality education) and some negative (e.g., poorer body image). These results might be due to limitations in measuring SEM consumption, particularly around typology. The goal of the current study was to examine potential patterns of SEM viewing activities. Using data from an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM), we conducted latent class analyses of 15 SEM activities. Results suggested a three-class solution. The most prevalent class included over 60% of men and was characterized by viewing primarily safer-sex or conventional behaviors. The second class included 32% of men and had a similar albeit amplified pattern of viewing. The final class included just 7% of men and was marked by high levels of viewing of all activities, including fetish and kink. Compared to the conventional or safer-sex class, the other classes had lower internalized homonegativity, lower condom use self-efficacy, and higher SEM consumption or dose. Implications for HIV prevention, sexuality research and the SEM industry are discussed.
    12/2014; 6(1):28-43. DOI:10.1080/19419899.2014.984515
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42 %) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption.
    Journal of Community Health 12/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9973-0 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a high co-occurrence of alcohol use with tobacco use and therefore, it is important to identify trajectories of comorbidity to understand these behaviors. Furthermore, the risk factors that produce comorbid behaviors may differ from those that produce a single behavior. Methods: Data were derived from a multi-wave study of adolescents, the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort study, a population-based, observational cohort study. We fit trajectories to alcohol and tobacco use from ages 18 to 27, and then did analyses to explicitly identify trajectories of concurrent drinking and smoking. Results: We identified five trajectories of heavy drinking, including light or non-drinkers (69.4%), late onset moderately heavy drinkers (13.6%), late onset very heavy drinkers (4.2%), developmentally limited heavy drinkers (9.2%), and chronic heavy drinkers (3.6%), and four trajectories of smoking , including non or light smokers (47.1%), moderate smokers (24.4%), late onset heavy smokers (4.9%), and chronic heavy smokers (23.6%). Although the majority of participants in comorbid trajectories were light or non-drinkers, nearly half were either moderate-to- high drinkers or smokers, or some combination thereof. Detailed results will be reported, including risk factors associated with comorbidity. Conclusion: Overall, results support positive comorbidity between alcohol and tobacco trajectories through young adulthood. Additionally, identification of common drinking and smoking clusters might provide information for targeted prevention or treatment initiatives.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Over-service of alcohol (i.e., sales to obviously intoxicated patrons) at bars and restaurants can lead to various alcohol-related harms including drinking-driving and violence. To address this issue, we developed the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) program, a hybrid training program for bars and restaurants that includes online and in-person components for managers and servers. The ultimate goal of eARM is to reduce sales to intoxicated patrons; intermediate goals include adopting and implementing effective management policies for servers to follow. Methods: Prior to implementation of eARM we surveyed 328 managers and 241 servers at 328 alcohol establishments to assess managers’ implementation of responsible service policies and servers’ knowledge and perception of these policies. Results: We found that less than half of the establishments implemented responsible service policies such as distributing alcohol policies to servers before their first shift and having procedures in place for refusing sales to intoxicated patrons. Close to 85% of managers state that internal management is consistent in enforcing policies, but only 55% of servers feel there is consistent communication and enforcement amongst managers. Conclusion: Despite sales to intoxicated patrons being illegal, we found that alcohol establishments need to improve implementation of policies to address this issue. Training for alcohol establishments on implementing effective policies and procedures is needed.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In matched-pair analyses, study groups are matched with comparison groups on certain criteria to control for extraneous factors that may confound results (e.g., socioeconomic status). In some cases, available archival data sources are not sufficient to make a good match. To address this problem, we developed a new methodology using an innovative data source, virtual geographic imaging (VGI) technology, to identify appropriate comparisons. Our broader study evaluates effects of local malt liquor policies on urban crime. Beginning with three pilot cities, we will compare crime rates around alcohol outlets that are subject to local restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales, with crime rates around similar outlets that are not subject to the restrictions. To identify comparison outlets, we first matched on neighborhood demographics and alcohol outlet densities. We then conducted VGI observations on the five closest matches to inform our final selection. Our VGI instrument measures store type (e.g., grocery versus liquor), opportunity to loiter (e.g., adjacent parking lot), land use (e.g., commercial versus residential), infrastructure condition (e.g., boarded windows) and social disorder (e.g., adjacent adult bookstore). We confirmed the reliability of our instrument by comparing VGI results with results from in-person observations in all three cities. We assessed inter-rater reliability in a sample of 25 outlets and found good concordance. We concluded that VGI observations can be a reliable and useful tool for matching target and comparison groups when archival data sources are inadequate and in-person observations are not feasible. We will describe VGI measurement methodology and potential applications.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: How does what we see influence what we do? This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Methods: Participants were 1391 MSM living in the US recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. We build linear, quadratic, quadratic term and nominal models to assess the relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior Results: Almost all (98.5%) reported some gay SEM exposure over the last 90 days, with 97.8% reporting watching online. Median dosage was 24.9 minute per day or 2.9 hours per week. While 41% reported a preference to watch actors perform anal sex without condoms (termed “bareback SEM”), 17% preferred to watch actors perform anal sex with condoms (termed “safer sex SEM”) and 42% reported no preference. Overall SEM consumption was not associated with HIV risk; however, participants who watched more bareback SEM and/or who preferred bareback SEM reported significantly greater odds of engaging in risk behavior. Conclusions: Gay SEM consumption appears normative and extremely common among MSM. While SEM consumption does not predict risk, a preference for bareback SEM and greater exposure to bareback SEM was associated with increased risk behavior. In advancing HIV prevention for MSM, research to investigate causality and to identify new ways to use SEM in HIV prevention, is recommended.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, 17 states use some form of state-run system for the distribution of beer, wine and/or spirits for off-premise outlets (control states). Over the last few decades some states, most recently Washington, have privatized a part or all of their distribution system despite a recommendation by the U.S. Community Preventive Services Task Force against privatizing retail sales of alcohol. In the present study we examined how 17 alcohol control policies differed in control (n=18; including Washington) compared with privatized states (n=32), using data obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System for 2009. We assigned a score for each of the 17 policies in each state based on the level of the policy’s restrictiveness. Scores were developed based on both theoretical and empirical evidence for the available data. In addition, we created summary scores for policies in four domains (underage use, provision to underage, servers, and alcohol availability) and an overall summary score across all 17 policies. Differences in the mean scores between control and privatized states were assessed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test. We also analyzed differences among the control states based on levels of policy restrictiveness. We found that control and privatized states did not differ for any of the 17 alcohol control policies or across the summed scores. Control states do not appear to be more or less restrictive than privatized states on other alcohol control policies. These findings suggest that a state’s alcohol distribution system is independent of its overall policy environment.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading factor in nearly 10,000 motor vehicle fatalities annually in the U.S. Enactment of various state laws has contributed to a reduction in alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities over the past 40 years. Two types of these laws are those that permit use of sobriety checkpoints and those that prohibit open containers of alcohol in motor vehicles. We compared rates of alcohol-impaired driving in states that permit sobriety checkpoints with states that do not, and, similarly, compared states that prohibit open containers with states that do not as of 2010. Data on sobriety checkpoint laws were obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; data on open container laws were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System. We measured alcohol-impaired driving in the past 30 days using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Sobriety checkpoints are permitted in 36 states; open containers of alcohol are prohibited in motor vehicles in 43 states. We conducted multilevel regression analysis (individual-level outcome, state-level predictor), adjusting for demographics (e.g., sex, age) at the individual level, and state population and religiosity at the state level. States that permit sobriety checkpoints had significantly lower levels of alcohol-impaired driving. There was not a significant association between prohibition of open containers and alcohol-impaired driving. Additional results on how associations are affected by enforcement efforts of state patrol agencies will be presented. We conclude that legal restrictions on the use of sobriety checkpoints in some states may be constraining efforts to further reduce alcohol-impaired driving.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Most states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol sales to underage and obviously intoxicated patrons. Researchers first began assessing likelihood of alcohol sales to underage people in the early 1990’s and found that sales rates were 75-100%. A decade later, the likelihood of sales to youth dropped to 26-39%. This decrease is most likely attributed to the increased intervention and enforcement that occurred during this time. During the late 1990’s researchers also began assessing the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons and found estimated sales rates up to 79%. However, there has been less active intervention and enforcement of sales to intoxicated individuals compared to underage sales over the past few decades. We assessed the likelihood of sales to individuals who appear obviously intoxicated to determine if any progress has been made on this issue. Methods. We conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (actors feigned intoxication and attempted to purchase alcohol) at 326 bars and restaurants during 2012 and 2013 as part of baseline data collection for a large prevention trial. Observations of establishment and server characteristics (e.g., server age) were recorded at the time of each purchase attempt. Results. Pseudo-intoxicated individuals were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. Few establishment or server characteristics were associated with likelihood of an alcohol sale. Conclusion. In stark contrast to the success with reducing alcohol sales to underage, a very high rate of illegal sales to obviously intoxicated patrons continues to occur. Implications of study findings will be discussed.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: A range of state-level policies have been identified to target population-level rates of alcohol use; however, a given type of alcohol policy may vary in strength across states. We assessed associations between the strength of 17 types of U.S. state-level alcohol control policies and adult alcohol consumption levels. We coded each policy (using the Alcohol Policy Information System) based on its strength, and conceptually combined the policies into four domains: underage consumption/possession, provision to underage, general availability, and server policies. We then used latent class analysis to group states based on domain-level strength scores, identifying four classes: (1) Weak policies except for strong server policies (6 states); (2) Average for all policies (29 states); (3) Strong underage consumption/possession policies but otherwise average policies (11 states); (4) Strong policies overall (4 states). We measured adult alcohol consumption (monthly, binge, and heavy) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Crude comparisons showed that for all three consumption measures, mean state-level consumption was highest for Class 1, followed by Class 2, Class, 3, and lowest for Class 4. We regressed alcohol consumption on the four classes using a multi-level model, controlling for individual demographics and state-level total population and religiosity. Using Class 2 as the referent, we found that Classes 1, 3 and 4 had lower binge drinking (p < .05). Similar patterns were seen for monthly and heavy alcohol use. We conclude that, in general, states with stronger alcohol policy environments have lower adult alcohol consumption, although causal inferences cannot be made.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We assessed disparities in weight and weight-related behaviors among college students by sexual orientation and gender. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analyses of pooled annual data (2007-2011; n = 33 907) from students participating in a Minnesota state-based survey of 40 two- and four-year colleges and universities. Sexual orientation included heterosexual, gay or lesbian, bisexual, unsure, and discordant heterosexual (heterosexuals engaging in same-sex sexual experiences). Dependent variables included weight status (derived from self-reported weight and height), diet (fruits, vegetables, soda, fast food, restaurant meals, breakfast), physical activity, screen time, unhealthy weight control, and body satisfaction. Results. Bisexual and lesbian women were more likely to be obese than heterosexual and discordant heterosexual women. Bisexual women were at high risk for unhealthy weight, diet, physical activity, and weight control behaviors. Gay and bisexual men exhibited poor activity patterns, though gay men consumed significantly less regular soda (and significantly more diet soda) than heterosexual men. Conclusions. We observed disparities in weight-, diet-, and physical activity-related factors across sexual orientation among college youths. Additional research is needed to better understand these disparities and the most appropriate intervention strategies to address them. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1-e11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302094).
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a multi-step method of coding the strength of 18 alcohol policies included in the Alcohol Policy Information System for each of the 50 states. After thoroughly reviewing each policy area, we chose components that were most important in categorizing the strength or restrictiveness of the policy using the following criteria: overall reach, enforceability, and implementation. We determined a unique coding scheme for each policy area. The total number of categories per policy area ranged from two to six, with categories numbered in an ordered sequence from least to most restrictive. We provide three examples of our coding schemes: Keg Registration, Underage Possession, and Sunday Sales. We also rank the states on their alcohol policy sum score. This study demonstrates how alcohol policies can be measured quantitatively, an important step for assessing the effects of alcohol policies on various outcomes.
    09/2014; 6(3). DOI:10.1002/wmh3.97
  • Syed Wb Noor, B. R. Simon Rosser, Darin J. Erickson
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    ABSTRACT: Although the phenomenon of hypersexuality has been described in the literature, and scales of compulsive sexual behavior have been published, the existing measures do not assess compulsive sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption. This study tested the psychometric properties of a new scale, the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results showed good psychometric performance of a 5 item, 2 factor preoccupation-compulsivity solution. As hypothesized, the scale correlates positively with compulsive sexual behavior, internalized homonegativity, and negatively with sexual self-esteem. The scale will enable researchers to investigate the etiologic factors of compulsive SEM use, and enable clinicians to assess problematic consumption.
    Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 07/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1080/10720162.2014.938849
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    ABSTRACT: Background Compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agents can significantly reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales to underage individuals, but these checks need to be conducted using optimal methods to maintain effectiveness.Methods We conducted a national survey of local and state enforcement agencies from 2010 to 2011 to assess: (i) how many agencies are currently conducting underage alcohol compliance checks, (ii) how many agencies that conduct compliance checks use optimal methods—including checking all establishments in the jurisdiction, conducting checks at least 3 to 4 times per year, conducting follow-up checks within 3 months, and penalizing the licensee (not only the server/clerk) for failing a compliance check, and (iii) characteristics of the agencies that conduct compliance checks.ResultsJust over one-third of local law enforcement agencies and over two-thirds of state agencies reported conducting compliance checks. However, only a small percentage of the agencies (4 to 6%) reported using all of the optimal methods to maximize effectiveness of these compliance checks. Local law enforcement agencies with an alcohol-related division, those with at least 1 full-time officer assigned to work on alcohol, and those in larger communities were significantly more likely to conduct compliance checks. State agencies with more full-time agents and those located in states where the state agency or both state and local enforcement agencies have primary responsibility (vs. only the local law agency) for enforcing alcohol retail laws were also more likely to conduct compliance checks; however, these agency characteristics did not remain statistically significant in the multivariate analyses.Conclusions Continued effort is needed to increase the number of local and state agencies conducting compliance checks using optimal methods to reduce youth access to alcohol.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1111/acer.12397 · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Darin J Erickson, Kathleen M Lenk, Jean L Forster
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    ABSTRACT: New tobacco and nicotine products such as snus, hookah, and electronic cigarettes have risen in popularity in recent years. Use of these products among young adults is of particular interest given that experimentation with new products is common in young adulthood. We conducted latent class analysis among a population-based sample of young adults to identify separate classes based on use of 6 types of tobacco or nicotine products: snus, hookah, electronic cigarettes, cigarillos, snuff, and cigarettes. We then examined how identified classes differed on demographic characteristics and marijuana and alcohol use. We identified 5 classes: the largest group (60%) was characterized as reporting no or limited use of any of the products, while the smallest group (7%) was characterized by use of many types of products ("poly-users"). Of the 3 middle classes, 2 were the same size (10%) and were characterized by primarily using 2 of the products: one class used snus and snuff, and the other used cigarillos and hookah; the third class (13%) was characterized by primarily cigarette smoking. Numerous differences were seen across classes, including the poly-users being less likely to be college students/graduates and more likely to be male and use marijuana and alcohol. We found that young adults can be grouped into 5 subgroups based on types of tobacco/nicotine products they do and do not use. A poly-use group that uses all types of tobacco products is concerning, particularly given high levels of marijuana and alcohol use reported in this group.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2014; 16(8). DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu024 · 2.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
238.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2015
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Florida
      • College of Medicine
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2000
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      • National Center for PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • Boston University
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Psychological Sciences
      Columbia, Missouri, United States