[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high proportion of people with severe mental health problems are unemployed but would like to work. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) offers a promising approach to establishing people in paid employment. In a randomized controlled trial across six European countries, we investigated the economic case for IPS for people with severe mental health problems compared to standard vocational rehabilitation. Individuals (n=312) were randomized to receive either IPS or standard vocational services and followed for 18 months. Service use and outcome data were collected. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted with two primary outcomes: additional days worked in competitive settings and additional percentage of individuals who worked at least 1 day. Analyses distinguished country effects. A partial cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. IPS produced better outcomes than alternative vocational services at lower cost overall to the health and social care systems. This pattern also held in disaggregated analyses for five of the six European sites. The inclusion of imputed values for missing cost data supported these findings. IPS would be viewed as more cost-effective than standard vocational services. Further analysis demonstrated cost-benefit arguments for IPS. Compared to standard vocational rehabilitation services, IPS is, therefore, probably cost-saving and almost certainly more cost-effective as a way to help people with severe mental health problems into competitive employment.
World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) 02/2013; 12(1):60-8. · 8.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are frequently associated with poor long term outcomes. Established interventions have little, if any, positive effects on negative symptoms. Arts Therapies such as Body Psychotherapy (BPT) have been suggested to reduce negative symptoms, but the existing evidence is limited. In a small exploratory trial a manualised form of group BPT led to significantly lower negative symptom levels both at the end of treatment and at 4 months follow-up as compared to supportive counseling. We designed a large multi-site trial to assess the effectiveness of a manualised BPT intervention in reducing negative symptoms, compared to an active control. METHODS: In a randomised controlled trial, 256 schizophrenic outpatients with negative symptoms will be randomly allocated either to BPT or Pilates groups. In both conditions, patients will be offered two 90 minutes sessions per week in groups of about 8 patients over a period of 10 weeks. Outcomes are assessed at the end of treatment and at six months follow-up. The primary outcome is severity of negative symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), whilst a range of secondary outcome measures include general psychopathology, social contacts, and quality of life. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. DISCUSSION: The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a promising form of group therapy which may help alleviate negative symptoms that are associated with unfavourable long-term outcomes and have so far have been difficult to treat. If the trial is successful, it will add a new and effective option in the treatment of negative symptoms. Group BPT is manualised, might be attractive to many patients because of its unusual approach, and could potentially be rolled out to services at relatively little additional cost.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84216587.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test whether offering financial incentives to patients with psychotic disorders is effective in improving adherence to maintenance treatment with antipsychotics.
Cluster randomised controlled trial.
Community mental health teams in secondary psychiatric care in the United Kingdom.
Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder, who were prescribed long acting antipsychotic (depot) injections but had received 75% or less of the prescribed injections. We randomly allocated 73 teams with a total of 141 patients. Primary outcome data were available for 35 intervention teams with 75 patients (96% of randomised) and for 31 control teams with 56 patients (89% of randomised).
Participants in the intervention group were offered £15 (€17; $22) for each depot injection over a 12 month period. Participants in the control condition received treatment as usual.
The primary outcome was the percentage of prescribed depot injections given during the 12 month intervention period.
73 teams with 141 consenting patients were randomised, and outcomes were assessed for 131 patients (93%). Average baseline adherence was 69% in the intervention group and 67% in the control group. During the 12 month trial period adherence was 85% in the intervention group and 71% in the control group. The adjusted effect estimate was 11.5% (95% confidence interval 3.9% to 19.0%, P=0.003). A secondary outcome was an adherence of ≥95%, which was achieved in 28% of the intervention group and 5% of the control group (adjusted odds ratio 8.21, 95% confidence interval 2.00 to 33.67, P=0.003). Although differences in clinician rated clinical improvement between the groups failed to reach statistical significance, patients in the intervention group had more favourable subjective quality of life ratings (β=0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 1.15, P=0.002). The number of admissions to hospital and adverse events were low in both groups and did not show substantial differences.
Offering modest financial incentives to patients with psychotic disorders is an effective method for improving adherence to maintenance treatment with antipsychotics.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN77769281.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Much of the literature to date concerning public attitudes towards people with severe mental illness (SMI) has focused on negative stereotypes and discriminatory behaviour. However, there also exists a tradition of volunteering with these people, implying a more positive attitude. Groups with positive attitudes and behaviours towards people with SMI have received relatively little attention in research. They merit further attention, as evidence on characteristics and experiences of volunteers may help to promote volunteering. The present paper aims to systematically review the literature reporting characteristics, motivations, experiences, and benefits of volunteers in the care of people with SMI. METHODS: In November 2010, a systematic electronic search was carried out in BNI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Registers and Web of Science databases, using a combination of 'volunteer', 'mental health' and 'outcome' search terms. A secondary hand search was performed in relevant psychiatric journals, grey literature and references. RESULTS: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review, with data on a total of 540 volunteers. The results suggest that volunteers are a mostly female, but otherwise heterogeneous group. Motivations for volunteering are a combination of what they can 'give' to others and what they can 'get' for themselves. Overall volunteers report positive experiences. The main benefit to persons with a psychiatric illness is the gaining of a companion, who is non-stigmatizing and proactive in increasing their social-community involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence base for volunteers in care of people with SMI is small and inconsistent. However there are potential implications for both current and future volunteering programmes from the data. As the data suggests that there is no 'typical' volunteer, volunteering programmes should recruit individuals from a variety of backgrounds. The act of volunteering can not only benefit people with SMI, but also the volunteers. Further research may specify methods of recruiting, training, supervising and using volunteers to maximise the benefit for all involved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:People with psychiatric diseases have a severely increased risk for physical morbidity and premature death from physical diseases. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes (DM) and obesity in schizophrenia and depression in three different geographical areas - Asia (Japan), Africa (Nigeria) and Western Europe (Switzerland, Germany and Denmark) - and to search for possible transcultural differences in these correlations, which would also reflect the differences between low-income areas in Africa (Nigeria) and high-income areas in Europe and Japan.Method:Patients with International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) F2 diseases (schizophrenia spectrum disorders) and F3 diseases (affective disorders) admitted to one Nigerian, one Japanese, two Swiss, two German and six Danish centres during 1 year were included. Physical diseases in accordance with ICD-10 were also registered. Psychiatric and physical comorbidity were calculated and standardized rate ratio incidences of background populations were our primary measures.Results:Incidence rate ratios were increased for both CVD, DM and overweight in both F2 and F3 in all cultures (Western Europe, Nigeria and Japan) within the same ranges (however, the Japanese results should be interpreted conservatively owing to the limited sample size). Overweight among the mentally ill were marked in Nigeria. A parallelism of the incidence of overweight, CVD and diabetes with the occurrence in background populations was seen and was most marked in overweight.Conclusions:Overweight, CVD and DM were increased in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders in all three cultures investigated (Western Europe, Nigeria and Japan). Lifestyle diseases were also seen in Nigeria and Japan. The results from this study indicate that cultural background might be seen as an important factor in dealing with lifestyle diseases among people with a severe mental illness, as it is in the general population.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 10/2012; · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physical comorbidities and substance use are commonly reported in patients with mental disorders. AIM: To examine somatic comorbidity in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) compared to patients with mental disorders but no SUD. METHODS: Lifetime prevalence data on mental and physical health status were collected from inpatients in 12 mental health care facilities in five different countries. Differences in somatic comorbidity were examined by means of logistic regression analysis controlling for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2,338 patients, 447 (19%) had a primary or secondary SUD diagnosis. In comparison to patients with other mental disorders, patients with SUD had a higher prevalence of infectious and digestive diseases but a lower prevalence of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders. Patterns of physical comorbidities differed according to type of substance used (alcohol use - cardiovascular; tobacco use - respiratory, neoplasms; cannabinoid use - injuries; opioid use - infectious, digestive; benzodiazepine use - endocrine, nutritional, metabolic; stimulants - urogenital). CONCLUSIONS: SUD are related to specific somatic health risks while some of our findings point to potentially protective effects. The widespread prescription of benzodiazepines requires research on physical health effects. Early detection of SUD and their integration into programmes targeting physical comorbidity should be a priority in organizing mental health care.
International Journal of Social Psychiatry 10/2012; · 1.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hope is an important variable in mental health, particularly in the emergent field of recovery- and wellbeing-focused research. This study validates the "Integrative Hope Scale" (IHS) for use in people with severe mental illness. Two hundred participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed using the IHS, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Sixty participants were re-assessed after 14days to establish re-test reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, correlations between the scales and kappa coefficients were used to establish validity and reliability. The factor analysis confirmed a four-factor solution with excellent model fit, after minor modifications to the initial model. Discriminant validity and internal consistency were excellent. Test-retest reliability was good except for one item. This study suggests the scale to be a valid, reliable and feasible tool for the assessment of hope in people with severe mental illness. It provides a sound basis for future research on hope in mental health. For use in people with psychosis, we suggest some minor modifications to the scale.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that a better therapeutic relationship (TR) predicts more positive attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, but did not address whether it is also linked with actual adherence. This study investigated whether the TR is associated with adherence to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.
134 clinicians and 507 of their patients with schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder participated in a European multi-centre study. A logistic regression model examined how the TR as rated by patients and by clinicians is associated with medication adherence, adjusting for clinician clustering and symptom severity.
Patient and clinician ratings of the TR were weakly inter-correlated (r(s) = 0.13, p = 0.004), but each was independently linked with better adherence. After adjusting for patient rated TR and symptom severity, each unit increase in clinician rated TR was associated with an increase of the odds ratio of good compliance by 65.9% (95% CI: 34.6% to 104.5%). After adjusting for clinician rated TR and symptom severity, for each unit increase in patient rated TR the odds ratio of good compliance was increased by 20.8% (95% CI: 4.4% to 39.8%).
A better TR is associated with better adherence to medication among patients with schizophrenia. Patients' and clinicians' perspectives of the TR are both important, but may reflect distinct aspects.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e36080. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positive relationships between employment and clinical status have been found in several studies. However, an unequivocal interpretation of these relationships is difficult on the basis of common statistical methods.
In this analysis, a structural equation model approach for longitudinal data was applied to identify the direction of statistical relationships between hours worked, clinical status and days in psychiatric hospital in 312 persons with schizophrenia who participated in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) with conventional vocational services in six study settings across Europe. Data were analysed by an autoregressive cross-lagged effects model, an autoregressive cross-lagged model with random intercepts and an autoregressive latent trajectory model.
Comparison of model fit parameters suggested the autoregressive cross-lagged effects model to be the best approach for the given data structure. All models indicated that patients who received an IPS intervention spent more hours in competitive employment and, due to indirect positive effects of employment on clinical status, spent fewer days in psychiatric hospitals than patients who received conventional vocational training.
Results support the hypothesis that the IPS intervention has positive effects not only on vocational but also on clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.
Social Psychiatry 11/2011; 47(9):1381-9. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in community mental healthcare has been shown to depend on the setting in which they are implemented. Recently structured patient-clinician communication was found to be effective in a multi-centre trial in six European countries, the DIALOG trial. In the overall study, differences between centres were controlled for, not studied. Here, we test whether the effectiveness of structured patient-clinician communication varies between services in different countries, and explore setting characteristics associated with outcome.
The study is part of the DIALOG trial, which included 507 patients with schizophrenia or related disorder, treated by 134 keyworkers. The keyworkers were allocated to intervention or treatment as usual.
Positive effects were found on quality of life (effect size 0.20: 95% CI 0.01-0.39) and treatment satisfaction (0.27: 0.06-0.47) in all centres, but reductions in unmet needs for care were only seen in two centres (-0.83 and -0.60), and in positive, negative and general symptoms in one (-0.87, -0.78, -0.87). The intervention was most effective in settings with patient populations with many unmet needs for care and high symptom levels.
Psychosocial interventions in community mental healthcare may not be assumed to have uniform effectiveness across settings. Differences in patient population served and mental healthcare provided, should be studied for their influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. Structured patient-clinician communication has a uniform effect on quality of life and treatment satisfaction, but on unmet needs for care and symptom levels its effect differs between mental healthcare settings.
Social Psychiatry 08/2011; 46(8):685-93. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) were developed to assess the severity of a mental illness. They are used as outcome measures in different countries, and are meanwhile translated from the original English version into many languages, among others into German (HoNOS-D). We conducted a study in order to estimate the concurrent validity and sensitivity to change using clinical parameters as ICD-10 diagnoses, as well as the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI), and the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) psychopathology scale, a frequently used psychopathological rating system, in a representative clinical sample.
Data on the three instruments (CGI, AMDP, HoNOS-D) were collected at admission and discharge of 100 psychiatric inpatients using a representative clinical sample. Experienced clinicians completed the CGI, AMDP and HoNOS-D. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were performed. We estimated the concurrent validity by calculating correlations between the HoNOS and other scales. Secondly, we examined the differences between HoNOS scores related to diagnoses and demographic parameters. Thirdly we calculated change criteria and outcome effect size for the HoNOS.
Even in a small clinical sample (n = 100), the HoNOS-D items are highly correlated with the corresponding AMDP syndromes (p < 0.003). The HoNOS-D score is associated with the CGI score (p < 0.01). Correlations of HoNOS symptoms, behavior and impairment items with AMDP syndromes as well as differences in diagnoses were appropriate and comprehensible as regards clinical content, and change on the HoNOS total score is statistically significant (t = 6.57, d.f. = 89, p < 0.0001).
This study is the first to investigate the concurrent validity of HoNOS-D concerning psychopathology using the AMDP rating system in a clinical sample of patients with mental disorders in an inpatient setting. HoNOS-D can be recommended for routinely screening outcomes in inpatient psychiatric settings. Our analysis showed that HoNOS-D covers psychopathology corresponding to the AMDP rating system. A limitation of the study is that the study sample comprised only an inpatient population; there may well be differences compared to an outpatient sample.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic relationships between clients and vocational rehabilitation workers have been shown to predict entering competitive employment. We aimed to determine predictors of good relationships, using data from an international randomized controlled trial of supported employment (n=312). Baseline predictors of early therapeutic relationships with vocational workers were assessed, along with the impact of vocational status and changing clinical and social functioning variables on relationship ratings over time. Associations between client and professional relationship ratings were also explored. Better early client-rated therapeutic relationship was predicted by better baseline relationship with the clinical keyworker, being in the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) service, the absence of work history and a greater proportion of care needs being met, whereas over time it was predicted by being in the IPS service. Professional-rated early relationship was predicted by social disability and remission, while over time it was predicted by being the same sex as the client, duration of the relationship and the client's increasing anxiety. Client and professional ratings were positively associated but clients' ratings were higher than professionals', particularly in the IPS service. Relationships were better where clients may have been more motivated to engage, including by their prior experience of a good therapeutic relationship with the clinical keyworker.
Psychiatry Research 11/2010; 187(1-2):68-73. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is limited information available about the mental health of female sex workers. Therefore, we aimed to make a comprehensive assessment of the mental status of female sex workers over different outdoors and indoors work settings and nationalities.
As the prerequisites of a probability sampling were not given, a quota-sampling strategy was the best possible alternative. Sex workers were contacted at different locations in the city of Zurich. They were interviewed with a computerized version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Additional information was assessed in a structured face-to-face interview.
The 193 interviewed female sex workers displayed high rates of mental disorders. These mental disorders were related to violence and the subjectively perceived burden of sex work.
Sex work is a major public health problem. It has many faces, but ill mental health of sex workers is primarily related to different forms of violence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the distinctions between the client-keyworker relationship and the client-vocational worker relationship by assessing their impact on clinical outcomes and exploring the associations between the two.
As part of an international randomised controlled trial of supported employment (n = 312), client-keyworker relationship and client-vocational worker relationship were each tested against clinical and social functioning 6 months later. Associations between the two relationships over time were explored.
Client-keyworker relationship predicted quality of life, while client-vocational worker relationship, as rated by the client, did not predict any clinical or social functioning outcomes. Vocational worker-rated relationship predicted reduced depression. The client-keyworker and client-vocational worker relationships were correlated, but this did not change over time.
The impact of the client-vocational worker is likely to be on the shared task of finding employment, rather than on clinical and social functioning. Good client-vocational worker relationships do not detract from client-keyworker relationships.
Social Psychiatry 11/2009; 45(12):1187-93. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of an RCT in six European sites, the direct mental health care cost for 422 patients with schizophrenia was analysed according to how total and medication costs differed across sites and which variables were likely to predict total or service-specific costs.
Service use was recorded continuously during a 12-month follow-up. Prescribed psychotropic medication was recorded at baseline and 12 months later. Service use data were transformed into EURO, log-transformed and analysed using linear regression models.
Although samples were homogeneous, large inter-site cost differences were found (annual means ranging from 2958 euro in Spain up to 36978 euro in Switzerland). Psychopharmacologic costs were much more constant across sites than costs for other services. Total costs were associated more with region or socio-demographic characteristics than with disorder related parameters.
The findings confirm remarkable differences in direct costs of patients with schizophrenia across Europe. However, the relative stability of medication costs suggests a need to analyse mechanisms that influence service-specific costs for schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Research 05/2009; 111(1-3):70-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of support. This qualitative study aimed to explore clients' views of the difficulties of obtaining and maintaining employment, their experiences of the support received from their IPS or Vocational Service workers and the perceived impact of work on clients' lives.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people with psychotic disorders participating in a six-centre international randomised controlled trial of IPS compared to usual vocational rehabilitation. To assess their experiences of the services and the perceived effects of working, two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had found work during the study period were interviewed, along with two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had not.
IPS clients reported having received more help seeking and maintaining employment, whereas Vocational Service clients reported having received more help in finding sheltered employment or placements. Clients who had worked associated this with financial stability, improved social lives, increased self-esteem, integration into society and amelioration of their symptoms, as well as reduced feelings of boredom and isolation, but also reported increased levels of stress. IPS clients as well as Vocational Service ones reported not receiving enough follow-up support, despite this being proposed as a key feature of the model.
Findings from the in-depth interviews reflect differences in service models that have also been tested quantitatively but further work in disaggregating the IPS model and assessing the impact of each component would be valuable.
Social Psychiatry 04/2009; 44(11):961-70. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the suicide rates of psychiatric in-patients in the canton of Zurich for the period 1992-2004, and to determine putative risk factors.
The data were derived from the psychiatric case register of the canton Zurich. The analyses were based on person-years calculations and standardised mortality ratios. Additional information was assessed via case records.
During the 13-year period the standardised mortality ratio was 48.9. The risk of suicide was particularly high in patients with personality and affective disorders. Most suicides occurred during regular leave periods, despite the fact that clinical assessment had indicated there was no suicide risk for the patient.
The suicide risk of in-patients is distinctly higher than in the general population. A better assessment of suicide risk before regular leave periods could lead to a decrease of suicides in in-patient settings, as well as a more rigorous treatment of borderline cases, and of affective and psychotic symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental health interventions should demonstrate an effect on patients' functioning as well as his/her needs, in particular on unmet needs whose assessment depends on the perspective of either the patient or the clinician. However, individual met and unmet needs appear to change over time, qualitatively and quantitatively, raising questions about their sensitivity to change and about the association between level of needs and treatment.
Data on baseline and follow-up need assessment in community mental health services in four European countries in the context of a cluster randomised trial on a novel mental health service intervention were used, which involved 102 clinicians with key worker roles and 320 patients with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders. Need assessment was performed with the Camberwell assessment of needs short appraisal schedule (CANSAS) among patients as well as clinicians. Focus is the sensitivity to change in unmet needs over time as well as the concordance between patient and clinician ratings and their relationship with treatment condition.
At follow-up 294 patients (92%) had a full need assessment, while clinician rated needs were available for 302 patients (94%). Generally, the total number of met needs remained quite stable, but unmet needs decreased significantly over time, according to patients as well as to clinicians. Sensitivity to change of unmet needs is quite high: about two third of all unmet needs made a transition to no or met need, and more than half of all unmet needs at follow-up were new. Agreement between patient and clinician on unmet needs at baseline as well as follow-up was rather low, without any indication of a specific treatment effect.
Individual unmet needs appear to be quite sensitive to change over time but as yet less suitable as outcome criterion of treatment or specific interventions.
Social Psychiatry 10/2008; 44(4):317-24. · 2.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An intervention to structure patient-key worker communication has been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this paper was to investigate effectiveness of the intervention in terms of moderators of effectiveness.
A total of 507 patients with schizophrenia were included. Moderators of effectiveness were investigated using two-way anovas.
Patients with a better relationship with their key worker and a shorter duration of illness at baseline benefited more from the intervention in terms of quality of life. Patients who received the intervention who were in competitive employment or had a shorter duration of illness showed greater reduction of unmet needs. Older patients receiving the intervention had better treatment satisfaction.
Outcome of the intervention was moderated by patient characteristics. Moreover, the moderating characteristics varied depending on the specific outcome. Evidence on moderators is very limited, even though, they are significant for understanding, targeting and implementing complex interventions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although mental health reforms in the 20th century were characterized by deinstitutionalization, previous research suggested a new era of reinstitutionalization in six European countries between 1990 and 2002. This study aimed to establish whether there has been a trend in Europe toward more institutionalized care since 2002.
Primary data sources were used to collect data on conventional inpatient beds, involuntary hospital admissions, forensic beds, places in residential care and supervised and supported housing, and the prison population in nine countries: Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Republic of Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland.
Between 2002 and 2006 the number of conventional psychiatric inpatient beds tended to fall and changes in involuntary admissions were inconsistent. The number of forensic beds, places in supervised and supported housing, and the prison population increased in most, but not all, of the countries studied.
The findings suggest an ongoing although not consistent trend toward increasing provision of institutionalized mental health care across Europe.