[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid tumors like neuroblastoma exhibit hypoxic areas, which can lead both to cell death or aggressiveness increase. Hypoxia is a known stress able to induce stabilization of p53, implicated in cell fate regulation. Recently, p53 appeared to be involved in autophagy in an opposite manner, depending on its location: when nuclear, it enhanced transcription of pro-autophagic gene whereas when cytoplasmic, it inhibited the autophagic process. Today, we used cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic that inhibits proteasomal HIF-1 degradation and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). We focused on CoCl(2)-induced cell death in a DNA-binding mutated p53 neuroblastoma cell line (SKNBE(2c). An autophagic signalling was evidenced by an increase of Beclin-1, ATG 5-12, and LC3-II expression whereas the p53(mut) presence decreased with CoCl(2) time exposure. Activation of the pathway seemed to protect cells from ROS production and, at least in part, from death. The autophagic inhibitors activated the apoptotic signalling and the death was enhanced. To delineate the eventual implication of the p53(mut) in the autophagic process in response to hypoxia, we monitored signalling in p53(WT)SHSY5Y cells, after either shRNA-p53 down-regulation or transcriptional activity inhibition by pifithrin alphaWe did not detect autophagy neither with p53(wt) nor when p53 was lacking whereas such a response was effective with a mutated or inactivated p53. To conclude, mutated p53 in neuroblastoma cells could be linked with the switch between apoptotic response and cell death by autophagy in response to hypoxic mimetic stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotrophins play a central role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. However, neurotrophins can also modulate B and T cell proliferation and activation, especially via autocrine loops. We hypothesized that both serum and lymphocytic neurotrophin levels may be deregulated in systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may reflect clinical symptoms of the disease.
Neurotrophins in the serum (ELISA tests) and lymphocytes (flow cytometry) were measured in 26 SLE patients and 26 control subjects. Th1 (interferon-γ) and Th2 (IL-10) profiles and serum concentration of BAFF were assessed by ELISA in the SLE and control subjects.
We have demonstrated that both NGF and BDNF serum levels are higher in SLE patients than healthy controls (p=0.003 and p<0.001), independently of Th1 or Th2 profiles. Enhanced serum NT-3 levels (p=0.003) were only found in severe lupus flares (i.e. SLEDAI ≥ 10) and significantly correlated with complement activation (decreased CH 50, Γ=-0.28, p=0.03). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between serum NGF levels and the number of circulating T regulatory cells (Γ=0.48, p=0.01). In circulating B cells, production of both NGF and BDNF was greater in SLE patients than in healthy controls. In particular, the number of NGF-secreting B cells correlated with decreased complement levels (p=0.05). One month after SLE flare treatment, BDNF levels decreased; in contrast, NGF and NT-3 levels remained unchanged.
This study demonstrates that serum and B cell levels of both NGF and BDNF are increased in SLE, suggesting that the neurotrophin production pathway is deregulated in this disease. These results must be confirmed in a larger study with naive SLE patients, in order to avoid the potential confounding influence of prior immune-modulating treatments on neurotrophin levels.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79414. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now a well-established treatment modality for cutaneous carcinomas and is based on the administration of a light-activated drug followed by illumination of the pathological area. The treatment of metastatic melanoma remains a therapeutic challenge. To define the possible role of melanin in relative phototoxicity of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a photosensitizer used in PDT in vivo, we studied cell death in two variants (with or without melanin, B16F10 and B16G4F cells, respectively) of a melanoma cell line. Concentrations of 5-Ala up to 10 mM induced similar cytostatic effects in the B16G4F and B16F10 cells. PDT and high 5-ALA concentrations induced photocytotoxicity in both melanoma cell lines (at 10 mM for B16F10 cells and at 5 mM for B16G4F cells). Cell death corresponded to p53-dependent apoptotic signaling in pigmented B16F10 cells, whereas an autophagic response leading to a caspase-independent death was detected in non-pigmented B16G4F cells. Therefore, the PDT-induced cell death pathway appeared to correlate with melanin synthesis capacity in melanoma cells. To reduce the cytotoxicity of 5-ALA without irradiation, a low drug concentration could be used. Consequently, in combination with current therapeutics, a moderate concentration of 5-ALA and PDT may constitute a supplementary promising approach to eliminate metastatic melanoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotensin, a neuropeptide growth factor, and its two specific neurotensin receptors, NTSR1 and NTSR2, were shown to be expressed by human B cell lines. Another NTSR, sortilin, which is common to neurotensin and neurotrophins, was also detected as we have previously described. Neurotensin was functional in B cell lines; it induced their proliferation and inhibited apoptosis induced by serum deprivation or Fas activation. Quantitative study of gene expression in two malignant B cell diseases showed that NTSR2 was overexpressed, NTSR1 decreased, and neurotensin was unexpressed in B cell leukemia patient's cells, as compared with healthy B cells. However, these expressions did not significantly change in large diffuse B cell lymphoma lymph nodes compared with benign ones. This study points out that neurotensin and its two specific receptors are expressed in human B lymphocytes. Such expressions were not described, and their relationship in B cell diseases, especially in chronic B cell leukemia, needs to be considered further in regard to these findings.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established in the elderly population. Apoptosis is a key event in maintaining colon homeostasis, both in aging as well as in cancer prevention. Here, we report that colon morphology is affected during the aging process: crypt loss (P=0.045) and increasing distances between crypts (P=0.0001678) were observed, associated with a tendency for mucosa reduction (P=0.083). In addition, our results show that apoptosis plays a determining role on the effect of aging during CRC. Increased expression of cleaved caspase 3 (the key factor implicated in the caspase-dependent pathway; P=0.026 for non-tumor tissues, P=0.0013 for tumor tissues) and AIF (implicated in the caspase-independent pathway; P=0.037) in tissue from elderly patients has been observed. Furthermore, elderly patients respond better to chemotherapy than younger ones (P=9.27 x 10(-5)). These results suggest that patient age should be taken into account to adapt treatment of CRC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in many types of cancers, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). CSCs seem to be involved in initiation, growth, and tumor metastasis, as well as in radio- and chemotherapy failures. CSCs appears as new biological targets for cancer therapy, requiring the development of noninvasive cell sorting methods. In this study, we used sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF) to prepare enriched populations of CSCs from eight cell lines corresponding to different CRC grades. On the basis of phenotypic and functional characterizations, "hyperlayer" elution resulted in a fraction overexpressing CSC markers (CD44, CD166, EpCAM) for all cell lines. CSCs were eluted in the last fraction for seven out of eight cell lines, but in the first for HCT116. These results suggest, according to the literature, that two different pools of CSCs exist, quiescent and activated, which can both be sorted by SdFFF. Moreover, according to CSC properties, enriched fractions are able to form colonies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor with still poor prognosis. Tumor initiation, growth and recurrences might depend on Brain Tumor Stem Cells (BTSCs) which can promote tumor aggressiveness and potentially affords new therapeutic target. Recent works emphasized aberrant cell-surface glyco-conjugate expression in brain tumors suggesting that altered glycosylation is closely linked to cancer tumor metastasis and invasive process. Post-translational changes might play a key role in determining the fates of most aggressive and undifferentiated cells such as self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. In order to characterize the glycosylation-related genes involved in differentiation status of the BTSCs, two glioblastoma cell lines, U87-MG and U251 have been cultured according to two conditions leading to undifferentiated floating cells or differentiated adherent cells. The expression level of 559 glycosylation related genes has been analyzed by Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA) analysis and allowed to isolate eight up-regulated genes specific of a subpopulation of undifferentiated cells. Protein expression has been confirmed. Among main selected genes, five are also over-expressed in the undifferentiated condition in primary cultures provided by three GBM freshly isolated from patient. This work suggests that new Glycosylation-related gene signature might improve the characterization of the most aggressive and undifferentiated cells and supports that in future, N-linked glycosylation might provide new target to develop therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumor growth.
Cancer letters 08/2011; 312(1):24-32. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis has to be drastically controlled in organs with important cell turnover such as the colon. Deregulation of this process is often present in tumor progression. Tissues of 82 patients treated for colorectal cancer (CRC) were analyzed using antibodies against AIF, p53, DR4, DR5, cleaved caspase-3 and the TUNEL method to detect apoptosis; whereas staining of Ki-67 was used as a proliferation marker. In situ immunohistochemical analyses were compared in non-tumor (NT) cells from normal adjacent mucous membranes with tumor (T) cells from patients with Stage I (n=6), Stage II (n=35), Stage III (n=27) and Stage IV (n=14) CRC. Results were correlated with the tumor stages and the treatment response of patients to improve the understanding of CRC development. p53 and DR5 expression decreased progressively with CRC stage, suggesting that these proteins are important markers of advanced tumor stages. Moreover, p53 appears as a prognostic factor to predict recurrence-free survival. Including the detection of p53 and DR5 for establishing the diagnosis of CRC and adapting the treatment to each patient is strongly suggested by our work.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fas pathway is described as an activator of the glioblastoma proliferation by increasing the pathogenicity of this tumour. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pathway depending on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could limit the glioblastoma spreading. Here, Fas and TLR4 pathways were activated in glioblastoma cell lines by an agonist antibody and/or LPS treatment. Activation of the Fas pathway or of the TLR4 pathway induced cell proliferation. However, simultaneous treatment with agonist antibody and LPS decreased proliferation. This anti-proliferative effect was caspase dependent, and a decreased cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression were also observed. Both TLR4 and MMP-9 were highly expressed in human glioblastoma tissues. These data suggest that TLR4 signal transduction pathways neutralize proliferation and migration induced by Fas pathway activation in glioblastoma cell lines.
Cancer letters 07/2011; 311(2):195-202. · 4.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to study the evolution of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) immunological profile, its impact on pSS activity and long-term evolution in a bicentric cohort of French patients with pSS (n = 445, mean age 53.6 ± 14 years, mean follow-up 76.1 ± 51 months).
This is a retrospective cohort study.
Two hundred twelve patients were Sjögren's syndrome A (SSA) positive, and 131 were both SSA and Sjögren's syndrome B (SSB) positive. Sixty-eight patients (15%) had cryoglobulinemia. Active systemic profile (i.e., hypergammaglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor (RF), and anti-Sjögren's syndrome A (anti-SSA), anti-Sjögren's syndrome B (anti-SSB) positivity), associated with multisystemic involvement, leads to an increased utilization of corticosteroid and hydroxychloroquine. Multivariate analysis pointed out independent statistical association between hypergammaglobulinemia, anti-SSA, anti-SSB, and RF. Cryoglobulinemia is associated with multi-systemic involvement, lymphoma, and pSS-related death.
The subset of patients with active immunological profile is characterized by systemic complications leading to immunosuppressive drug utilization and polyclonal B-cell activation profile.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 07/2011; 31(5):840-7. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotrophin receptors were initially identified in neural cells. They were recently detected in some cancers in association with invasiveness, but the function of these tyrosine kinase receptors was not previously investigated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
We report herein that human CRC cell lines synthesize the neural growth factor Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under stress conditions (serum starvation). In parallel, CRC cells expressed high- (TrkB) and low-affinity (p75(NTR)) receptors at the plasma membrane, whereas TrkA and TrkC, two other high affinity receptors for NGF and NT-3, respectively, were undetectable. We demonstrate that BDNF induced cell proliferation and had an anti-apoptotic effect mediated through TrkB, as assessed by K252a, a Trk pharmacologic inhibitor. It suppressed both cell proliferation and survival of CRC cells that do not express TrkA nor TrkC. In parallel to the increase of BDNF secretion, sortilin, a protein acting as a neurotrophin transporter as well as a co-receptor for p75(NTR), was increased in the cytoplasm of primary and metastatic CRC cells, which suggests that sortilin could regulate neurotrophin transport in these cells. However, pro-BDNF, also detected in CRC cells, was co-expressed with p75(NTR) at the cell membrane and co-localized with sortilin. In contrast to BDNF, exogenous pro-BDNF induced CRC apoptosis, which suggests that a counterbalance mechanism is involved in the control of CRC cell survival, through sortilin as the co-receptor for p75(NTR), the high affinity receptor for pro-neurotrophins. Likewise, we show that BDNF and TrkB transcripts (and not p75(NTR)) are overexpressed in the patients' tumors by comparison with their adjacent normal tissues, notably in advanced stages of CRC.
Taken together, these results highlight that BDNF and TrkB are essential for CRC cell growth and survival in vitro and in tumors. This autocrine loop could be of major importance to define new targeted therapies.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25097. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and often fatal malignancy. Immunochemotherapy, a combination of rituximab to standard chemotherapy, has resulted in improved survival. However a substantial proportion of patients still fail to reach sustained remission. We have previously demonstrated that autocrine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production plays a function in human B cell survival, at least partly via sortilin expression. As neurotrophin receptor (Trks) signaling involved activation of survival pathways that are inhibited by rituximab, we speculated that neurotrophins may provide additional support for tumour cell survival and therapeutic resistance in DLBCL.
In the present study, we used two DLBCL cell lines, SUDHL4 and SUDHL6, known to be respectively less and more sensitive to rituximab. We found by RT-PCR, western blotting, cytometry and confocal microscopy that both cell lines expressed, in normal culture conditions, BDNF and to a lesser extent NGF, as well as truncated TrkB and p75(NTR)/sortilin death neurotrophin receptors. Furthermore, BDNF secretion was detected in cell supernatants. NGF and BDNF production and Trk receptor expression, including TrkA, are regulated by apoptotic conditions (serum deprivation or rituximab exposure). Indeed, we show for the first time that rituximab exposure of DLBCL cell lines induces NGF secretion and that differences in rituximab sensitivity are associated with differential expression patterns of neurotrophins and their receptors (TrkA). Finally, these cells are sensitive to the Trk-inhibitor, K252a, as shown by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, K252a exhibits additive cytotoxic effects with rituximab.
Collectively, these data strongly suggest that a neurotrophin axis, such NGF/TrkA pathway, may contribute to malignant cell survival and rituximab resistance in DLBCL.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27213. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The status of the three retinoic acid receptors (RARs) α, β and γ in human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not as yet been examined. RARs are in part responsible for the actions of the retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives), which are essential for human health and survival due to their extensive involvement in numerous cellular processes, in particular in epithelial morphology. The present study examined the expression of the three RARs in CRC using immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue sections. RAR expression in tumor (T) and adjacent non-tumor (NT) specimens from stage I (n=6), stage II (n=34), stage III (n=26) and stage IV (n=14) CRC patients was compared with that in normal mucous membranes (n=10) from control individuals. The findings were correlated with tumor grade, treatment response (progression during treatment, remission, chemoresistance) and survival as clinicopathological parameters. RARα and γ expression was decreased with CRC stage in the T tissues (P=0.016 and P=0.052, respectively), suggesting that they may be used as predictive markers. RARβ expression in the NT tissues was associated with a more favorable prognosis (P=0.04). These results provide important information on the tumor microenvironment (the area adjacent to tumor cells).
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2011; 2(3):491-497. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether proapoptotic proteins were associated with clinicopathologic heterogeneity and influenced survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we evaluated patterns of expression of the BCL-2 family member BAD, PP1alpha (the catalytic subunit of PP1 involved in activation of BAD), and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF).
We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients all treated with standard chemotherapy ([CHOP] cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone-like); of these, 16 received rituximab. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed from biopsy samples of nodal DLBCL that were performed at initial diagnosis. Normal reactive lymph nodes were used as controls.
BAD expression was found in 38 of 46 DLBCL cases and, though variable, was often strong. PP1alpha and AIF were detected in all tumors tested with a relative strong expression. Lower BAD expression was shown to be significantly associated with advanced clinical stages (Ann Arbor stage III + IV and International Prognostic Index intermediate-high to high; P = .006 and P = .0008, respectively). Moreover, BAD staining was positively correlated with BCL-2 (P = .022) and PP1alpha (P = .013) staining. Finally, high AIF expression proved to be predictive of a longer overall survival in non-rituximab-treated patients.
Our study shows for the first time in DLBCL that differential BAD expression might play a role in the development of the disease, possibly reflecting its function as a tumor suppressor. Furthermore, our data highlight the interest in targeting BAD phosphatases and AIF-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis for new therapeutic strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Articular manifestations (AMs) occurred in approximately 30-60% of patients with primary SS (pSS). We conducted the current study to describe clinical presentation, specific treatment and to report clinical outcome of pSS patients with AM in a large bicentric French cohort.
Clinical, biological and immunological features of 419 consecutive patients with pSS were recorded in order to describe the clinical and immunological course of pSS AM and to point out the impact of those rheumatological features on pSS evolution.
A total of 188 patients with pSS (172 women, 16 men) exhibited AM. They preceded sicca symptoms in 32, were simultaneous to pSS diagnosis in 98 and followed diagnosis in 59 patients. Clinical presentation was polyarticular and concerned mostly peripheral joints (synovitis, n = 66). Symptoms responded readily to symptomatic treatment in 45 cases (24%). DMARDs or immunosuppressive treatments were introduced in 133 patients: HCQ (n = 111), corticosteroid (n = 53), MTX (n = 12), SSZ (n = 6), AZA (n = 3), LEF (n = 1), etanercept (n = 1) and allochrysine (n = 1). Only one case of RA was diagnosed during the evolution. Statistical analysis identified clinical and biological factors associated with AM (P < or = 0.05): RP, muscular manifestations, renal involvement, peripheral neuropathy, cutaneous vasculitis, and positivity of RF, anti-SSB antibodies and cryoglobulinaemia. Patients with AM at diagnosis were characterized by a multisystemic involvement at the end of the follow-up period (P < 0.001).
Although AMs are frequent and usually mild in pSS, these manifestations are associated with a pluri-systemic involvement of pSS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotrophins (NTs) are able to activate lymphocytes and fibroblasts; they can modulate angiogenesis and sympathic vascular function. Thus, they can be implicated in the three pathogenic processes of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aims of this study are to determine blood levels of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in SSc and to correlate them with clinical and biological data.
Serum samples were obtained from 55 SSc patients and 32 control subjects to measure NTs levels by ELISA and to determine their relationships with SSc profiles.
Serum NGF levels were higher in SSc patients (288.26 ± 170.34 pg/mL) than in control subjects (170.34 ± 50.8 pg/mL, p<0.001) and correlated with gammaglobulins levels and the presence of both anti-cardiolipin and anti-Scl-70 antibodies (p<0.05). In contrast, BDNF levels were lower in SSc patients than in controls (1121.9 ± 158.1 vs 1372.9 ± 190.9 pg/mL, p<0.0001), especially in pulmonary arterial hypertension and diffuse SSc as compared to limited forms (all p<0.05). NT-3 levels were similar in SSc and in the control group (2657.2 ± 2296 vs 2959.3 ± 2555 pg/mL, NS). BDNF levels correlated negatively with increased NGF levels in the SSc group (and not in controls).
Low BDNF serum levels were not previously documented in SSc, particularly in the diffuse SSc subset and in patients with pulmonary hypertension or anti-Scl-70 antibodies. The negative correlation between NGF and BDNF levels observed in SSc and not in healthy controls could be implicated in sympathic vascular dysfunction in SSc.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(11):e13918. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents original label free bio sensors allowing the study of electrical properties of human cells and so potentially
cell identification and discrimination. Proposed biosensors are based on planar devices operating at microwave frequencies
and fabricated using a standard microelectronic process. Actually, their microscopic sensitive areas allow an improved detection
at the cell scale which represents a significant progress in the study of many biological phenomenon. In this paper, biosensor
detection capabilities are demonstrated on only few biological cells analysis up to one single cell interacting with the sensor.
Fabricated micro-sensors can be used to determine cell intrinsic electrical impedance at microwave frequencies allowing a
label free approach to accurately discriminate biological cells.
KeywordsBiosensor-electrical bio-impedance-microelectronics-RF planar devices
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents an original biosensor chip allowing determination of intrinsic relative permittivity of biological cells at microwave frequencies. This sensor permits non-invasive cell identification and discrimination using an RF signal to probe intracellular medium of biological samples. Indeed, these sensors use an RF planar resonator that allows detection capabilities on less than 10 cells, thanks to the microscopic size of its sensitive area. Especially, measurements between 15 and 35 GHz show the ability label-free biosensors to differentiate two human cell types using their own electromagnetic characteristics. The real part of permittivity of cells changes from 20 to 48 for the nervous system cell types studied. The proposed biodetection method is detailed and we show how the accuracy and the repeatability of measurements have been improved to reach reproducible measurements.
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies 11/2009; 1(06):497 - 504. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor, characterized by its resistance to treatments. To define efficient therapy, the origin of tumor-forming cells needs to be elucidated in order to search for new therapeutic pathways. The objective of this study was to determine the different cell populations constituting a human glioblastoma cell line, U-87 MG and their sensitivity to apoptosis induced through the activation of Fas, a membranous death receptor. By a cell sorting method, the sedimentation field flow fractionation, two major cell subpopulations were identified, a most differentiated cell fraction, containing large and adherent cells, sensitive to Fas-induced apoptosis and another one, characterized by small cells forming aggregates, expressing CD133, a marker of stem cells and more resistant to Fas-activated apoptosis. By using a selective method of culture, adapted for neural stem cell cultures, we have verified that the U-87 MG cell line contained cancer stem cells similar to the immature ones obtained by the cell sorting method. Interestingly, while these tumor stem cells, expressing CD133, were resistant to Fas-induced apoptosis, monomeric form of Fas protein was detected predominantly in these cells. In contrast, the most mature cells, responsive to Fas-activated apoptosis, collected in another cell fraction, contained oligomeric aggregates of Fas protein, a pre-signalling form of the Fas receptor, essential for the initiation of apoptosis through its activation. These results suggest that these immature stem cells in glioma could be an important factor of resistance to chemotherapy requiring apoptosis through Fas signalling system. Indeed, future strategies of treatment, inducing differentiation of these stem cells need to be considered to enhance therapeutic efficiency.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2009; 34(3):717-27. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+). Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+), but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2) were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2). No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2). However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(7):e6184. · 3.73 Impact Factor