Philip Kahl

University of Cologne, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (62)198.08 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Postoperative ileus (POI) is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME). We demonstrated that orally applicated CPSI-2364 prevents POI in rodents by blockade of p38 MAPK pathway and abrogation of NO production in macrophages. In the present experimental swine study we compared the effect of orally and intravenously administered CPSI-2364 on POI and examined CPSI-2364 effect on anastomotic healing. Methods: CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via oral or intravenous route. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation of the small bowel. ME specimens were examined by quantitative PCR for CCL2 chemokine gene expression and myeloperoxidase activity. Functional analyzes included measurement of ileal smooth-muscle ex vivo contractility, in vivo intestinal and colonic transit. Furthermore, anastomotic healing of a rectorectostomy after CPSI-2364 treatment was assessed by perianastomotic hydroxyproline concentration, a histochemically evaluated healing score and anastomotic bursting pressure (ABP). Results: CPSI-2364 abolished inflammation of the ME and improved postoperative smooth muscle contractility and intestinal transit independently of its application route. Hydroxyproline concentration and ABP measurement revealed no wound healing disturbances after oral or intravenous CPSI-2364 treatment whereas histological scoring demonstrated delayed anastomotic healing after intravenous treatment. Conclusion: CPSI-2364 effectively prevents POI in swine independently of its application route. Impairment of anastomotic healing could be observed after intravenous but not oral preoperative CPSI-2364 treatment. Subsumed, an oral preoperative administration of CPSI-2364 appears to be a safe and efficient strategy for prophylaxis of POI. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 11/2013; 32(5):1362-1373. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the phenotypical change of cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal type, is thought to be a key event in invasion and metastasis of adenocarcinomas. These changes involve loss of keratin expression as well as loss of cell polarity and adhesion. We here aimed to determine whether the loss of keratin expression itself drives increased invasion and metastasis in adenocarcinomas and whether keratin loss leads to the phenotypic changes associated with EMT. Therefore, we employed a recently described murine model in which conditional deletion of the Keratin cluster II by Cre-recombinase leads to the loss of the entire keratinmultiprotein family. These mice were crossed into a newly generated Cre-recombinase inducible KRAS-driven murine lung cancer model to examine the effect of keratin loss on morphology, invasion and metastasis as well as expression of EMT related genes in the resulting tumors. We here clearly show that loss of a functional keratin cytoskeleton did not significantly alter tumor morphology or biology in terms of invasion, metastasis, proliferation or tumor burden and did not lead to induction of EMT. Further, tumor cells did not induce synchronously expression of vimentin, which is often seen in EMT, to compensate for keratin loss. In summary, our data suggest that changes in cell shape and migration that underlie EMT are dependent on changes in signaling pathways that cause secondary changes in keratin expression and organization. Thus, we conclude that loss of the keratin cytoskeleton per se is not sufficient to causally drive EMT in this tumor model.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e57996. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have underlined the role of nuclear receptors in the involvement of prostate cancer signalling pathways. A total of 84 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), 84 low risk prostate cancer (LPC) and 64 advanced disease (APC) cases were sampled on a tissue microarray (TMA) and stained for retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-α, retionoid X receptor (RXR)-α, liver X receptor (LXR)-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and proliferate-activated receptor gamma (PPAR)-γ and the (pro)-inflammatory molecules cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunohistochemically. PPAR-γ expression in APC tissues was found to be significantly higher than that in LPC and BPH specimens (p<0.001). In contrast, RXR-a expression was significantly lower (p<0.001). COX2 staining demonstrated a trend towards overexpression in APC (p=0.025). No significant differences were found for RAR-α, iNOS and TNF-α expression. Staining of FXR and LXR was seen diffusely in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, preventing sufficient evaluation by definition. This study provides the basis for applying PPAR-γ ligands clinically in treatment of APC.
    Anticancer research 08/2012; 32(8):3479-83. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated circumscribed cell proliferations in healthy livers in comparison to non-cirrhotic livers bearing hepatocellular carcinoma. Using histochemical staining for cytochrome c oxidase, the fourth complex of the respiratory chain, we visualized patch-forming descendents of regeneratively active liver cells. The clonal nature of these patches was verified by laser-capture microdissection and Sanger sequencing of the enzyme's core subunits in patches carrying marker mutations on the mtDNA. We demonstrate a highly significant increase of the patch size and also a highly significant increase in the number of patches carrying marker mutations between hepatocellular carcinoma-free and -bearing livers. Thus, the carcinoma-bearing livers accumulated more genetic damage on mtDNA than the control group. Furthermore, for the first time, we present evidence in hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing non-cirrhotic livers of a significantly reduced pool of regeneratively active liver cells that are genetically and functionally altered. The analogy to ageing-related changes is suggestive of premature ageing of stem cells in non-cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing liver as an early step to hepatocarcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Journal of Pathology 06/2012; 228(3):333-40. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keratinocytes release a number of cytokines interacting with other intra-and subepidermal cells during the initiation and the perpetuation of skin inflammatory reactions. Cultured human keratinocytes overexpressing the transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) assumed a spindled morphology and displayed increased locomotion. Moreover, the receptor for TGF-alpha, the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), is important for autocrine growth, promotion of cell survival, and regulation of cell migration. The expression of TGF-alpha and EGFR has not been widely studied in human developing skin and their roles in genodermatosis are not known. In this study, we investigated the expression of TGF-alpha and EGFR by immunohistochemistry in human developing skin at different gestational ages (14th week, 20th week, and 34th week), in six patients with psoriasis, and, for the first time, in an infant affected with restrictive dermopathy, a very rare lethal genodermatosis, characterized by abnormal skin growth and differentiation with thin, tightly adherent skin. TGF-alpha and EGFR were expressed in the basal layer at the 14th week and in all epidermal layers at the 20th and 34th week of gestation. In psoriasis, TGF-alpha was overexpressed in all layers of epidermis, while EGFR was expressed in the basal and first suprabasal layers. In restrictive dermopathy, we observed no expression of both TGF-alpha and EGFR at the level of the skin. The other organs showed comparable patterns to those of an agematched infant. In conclusion, TGF-alpha and EGFR interact strictly to promote skin development during the intrauterine life. An interactive autocrine growth cycle between TGF-alpha and EGFR is present in psoriasis. A skin-localized alteration of the expression of TGF-alpha and EGFR may be at the basis of restrictive dermopathy. The delay of growth and differentiation of the skin in restrictive dermopathy may be related to the absent expression of TGF-alpha, which is probably due to a down regulation of EGFR by an abnormal autocrine mechanism. KeywordsTGF-α-EGFR-developing skin-psoriasis-genodermatosis
    Pathology & Oncology Research 04/2012; 6(4):250-255. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is routinely graded according to the Gleason grading scheme. This scheme is predominantly based on the textural appearance of aberrant glandular structures. Gleason grade is difficult to standardize and often leads to discussion due to interrater and intrarater disagreement. Thus, we investigated whether digital image based automated quantitative histomorphometry could be used to achieve a more standardized, reproducible classification outcome. In a proof of principle study we developed a method to evaluate digitized histological images of single prostate cancer regions in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Preprocessed color images were subjected to color deconvolution, followed by the binarization of obtained hematoxylin related image channels. Highlighted neoplastic epithelial gland related objects were morphometrically assessed by a classifier based on 2 calculated quantitative and objective geometric measures, that is inverse solidity and inverse compactness. The procedure was then applied to the prostate cancer probes of 125 patients. Each probe was independently classified for Gleason grade 3, 4 or 5 by an experienced pathologist blinded to image analysis outcome. Together inverse compactness and inverse solidity were adequate discriminatory features for a powerful classifier that distinguished Gleason grade 3 from grade 4/5 histology. The classifier was robust on sensitivity analysis. Results suggest that quantitative and interpretable measures can be obtained from image based analysis, permitting algorithmic differentiation of prostate Gleason grades. The method must be validated in a large independent series of specimens.
    The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(5):1867-75. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global histone modifications have been implicated in the progression of various tumour entities. Our study was designed to assess global methylation levels of histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1-3) at different stages of prostate cancer (PCA) carcinogenesis. Global H4K20 methylation levels were evaluated using a tissue microarray in patients with clinically localized PCA (n = 113), non-malignant prostate disease (n = 27), metastatic hormone-naive PCA (mPCA, n = 30) and castration-resistant PCA (CRPC, n = 34). Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess global levels of H4K20 methylation levels. Similar proportions of the normal, PCA, and mPCA prostate tissues showed strong H4K20me3 staining. CRPC tissue analysis showed the weakest immunostaining levels of H4K20me1 and H4K20me2, compared to other prostate tissues. H4K20me2 methylation levels indicated significant differences in examined tissues except for normal prostate versus PCA tissue. H4K20me1 differentiates CRPC from other prostate tissues. H4K20me1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastases, and H4K20me2 showed a significant correlation with the Gleason score. However, H4K20 methylation levels failed to predict PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy. H4K20 methylation levels constitute valuable markers for the dynamic process of prostate cancer carcinogenesis.
    BMC Urology 03/2012; 12:5. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the role of global histone H3K9 and H4K20 methylation levels as prognostic parameters in patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). Global histone methylation levels were investigated in 193 RCC (including 142 clear cell (cc), 31 papillary (p), 10 chromophobe (ch) and 10 sarcomatoid (s) RCC), 10 oncocytomas and 30 benign renal specimens. Histone modifications were mostly similar in the different histological subtypes (p>0.05); significant differences were observed for ccRCC vs. pRCC and pRCC vs. sRCC. Comparing the global H3K9 methylation levels of benign renal tissue with RCC H3K9me1 (histone H3 lysine 9 mono-methylation) (p<0.001), H3K9me2 (histone H3 lysine 9 di-methylation) (p=0.001) and H3K9me3 (histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation) (p<0.001) was significantly over-expressed in benign renal tissue. H3K9 and H4K20 methylation levels were positively correlated to pT-stage (p<0.005) and grading (p<0.05). In localized RCC (n=144), H3K9me1 levels showed a significant correlation with progression-free survival in the univariate model (p=0.034). Global histone methylation levels may help to identify RCC patients with poor prognosis.
    Anticancer research 03/2012; 32(3):879-86. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global histone modification patterns have been shown to be a predictive factor of recurrence in various cancers. We analyzed global histone-3-lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation in prostate cancer (PCA) tissues. H3K27 mono-, di-, and tri-methylation patterns were different in nonmalignant prostate tissue, localized PCA, metastatic PCA, and castration-resistant PCA. H3K27 mono-methylation was correlated with pT-stage, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle infiltration, and Gleason score in localized PCA and may therefore indicate adverse prognosis.
    Cancer Investigation 12/2011; 30(2):92-7. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer/HNPCC) is a cancer susceptibility syndrome which is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, in particular MLH1 and MSH2. A pathogenic germline mutation in the respective MMR gene is suggested by the finding of a loss of a mismatch repair protein in tumor tissue on immunohistochemical staining combined with an early age of onset and/or the familial occurrence of colorectal cancer. Pathogenic germline mutations are identifiable in around 60% of patients suspected of Lynch syndrome, depending on the familial occurrence. The aim of the present study was to identify novel susceptibility genes for Lynch syndrome. 64 Healthy controls and 64 Lynch syndrome patients with no pathogenic MSH2 mutation but a loss of MSH2 expression in their tumor tissue were screened for rare and disease causing germline mutations in the functional candidate genes ESR1, ESR2, MAX, PCNA, and KAT2A. Thirty variants were identified, and these were then genotyped in an independent sample of 36 mutation negative Lynch syndrome patients and 234 controls. Since a trend towards association was observed for KAT2A, an additional set of 21 tagging SNPs was analyzed at this locus in a final case-control sample of 142 mutation negative Lynch syndrome patients and 298 controls. The mutation analysis failed to reveal any rare disease-causing mutations. No association was found at the single-marker or haplotypic level for any common disease-modifying variant. The present results suggest that neither rare nor common genetic variants in ESR1, ESR2, MAX, PCNA, or KAT2A contribute to the development of Lynch syndrome.
    Familial Cancer 11/2011; 11(1):19-26. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four and a half LIM domain protein-2 (FHL2) is a component of the focal adhesion structures and has been suggested to have an important role in cancer progression. This study analyses the role of FHL2 in peritumoural fibroblasts of sporadic and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Tissue specimens of 48 sporadic and 49 hereditary colon cancers, respectively, were stained immunohistochemically for FHL2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 ligand and α-SMA. Myofibroblasts at the tumour invasion front co-expressed α-SMA and FHL2. Sporadic colon cancer but not HNPCC cases showed a correlation between TGF-β1 expression of the invading tumour cells and FHL2 staining of peritumoural myofibroblasts. Overexpression of FHL2 in peritumoural myofibroblasts correlated to lymphatic metastasis in sporadic colon cancer but not in HNPCC. In cultured mouse fibroblasts, TGF-β1 treatment induced myofibroblast differentiation, stimulated FHL2 protein expression and elevated number of migratory cells in transwell motility assays, suggesting that FHL2 is regulated downstream of TGF-β. Physical contact of colon cancer cells and myofibroblasts via FHL2-positive focal adhesions was detected in human colon carcinoma tissue and in co-culture assays using sporadic as well as HNPCC-derived tumour cell lines. Our data provide strong evidence for an important role of FHL2 in the progression of colon cancers. Tumour-secreted TGF-β1 stimulates FHL2 protein expression in peritumoural fibroblasts, probably facilitating the invasion of tumour glands into the surrounding tissue by enhanced myofibroblast migration and tight connection of fibroblasts to tumour cells via focal adhesions. These findings are absent in HNPCC-associated colon cancers in vivo and may contribute to a less invasive and more protruding tumour margin of microsatellite instable carcinomas.
    Laboratory Investigation 08/2011; 91(12):1695-705. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate if histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methylation plays a role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue and whether its expression is a predictor of cancer recurrence in RCC. A tissue microarray (TMA) with 193 RCC specimens (comprising 142 clear-cell, 31 papillary, 10 chromophobe and 10 sarcomatoid RCC), 10 oncocytoma tissue specimens and a TMA with 30 benign renal tissue samples were stained with antibodies against H3K27-monomethyl (H3K27me1), H3K27-dimethyl (H3K27me2) and H3K27-trimethyl (H3K27me3). Sections were scored according to staining intensity and the proportion of epithelial cells showing nuclear staining. H3K27 methylation levels were correlated with established clinical-pathological variables (tumour-node-metastasis [TNM] stage, Fuhrman grade) and progression-free/cancer-specific survival. H3K27me1/-me2/-me3 staining was significantly more intense in papillary RCC then in clear-cell RCC. H3K27me3 levels were higher in oncocytoma than in RCC. H3K27me1/-me2/-me3 methylation levels were inversely correlated with Fuhrman grading and pT-stage. Global H3K27me1/-me2/-me3 methylation levels were always higher in benign renal tissue than in RCC with tumour relapse (H3K27me1 P < 0.001, H3K27me2 P= 0.032, H3K27me3 P= 0.004). Progression-free survival was shorter in patients with lower levels of H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 in the univariate analysis. The newly created H3K27me score (combining the staining levels of the single modifications) was a significant and independent predictor of RCC progression-free survival. The present study on H3K27-methylation supports the hypothesis that global histone modifications are potential markers of cancer prognosis in RCC. One reason could be that decreased H3K27 indicates transcriptional activation and therefore predicts cancer activation.
    BJU International 08/2011; 109(3):459-65. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to further define the challenges, minimally invasive fetal surgery will have to overcome human fetuses with gastroschisis. The purpose of this study was to compare macroscopic and histopathologic characteristics of experimental laparoschisis in sheep fetuses with actual cases of gastroschisis from a postmortem series of human fetuses. Employing fetoscopy, we created a laparoschisis model in eight fetal sheep between 74 and 92 days of gestation (median 86.5 days). Twenty to 31 days after fetoscopic creation of fetal laparoschisis, six surviving fetuses were harvested for macroscopic and histopathologic assessments of the experimental lesion. These findings were compared to those of ten human fetuses with gastroschisis after termination of pregnancy. In the six sheep fetuses, both macroscopic and histopathologic intestinal changes achieved by this animal model resembled those of the human fetuses with gastroschisis. The surface of the intestine, liver and stomach exposed to the amniotic fluid was covered by a thick pseudocapsule made up of reactive fibroblasts and a dense capillary network. Parts of the capsule showed a foreign body-type reaction. Macroscopic and histopathological findings in a new minimally invasive laparoschisis model in sheep resemble those found in human fetuses with gastroschisis. The new model seems therefore suitable for assessing the potential of prenatal minimally invasive fetoscopic interventions in this condition.
    Archives of Gynecology 03/2011; 285(1):15-9. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of perioperative activation of intestinal muscularis macrophages is a promising intervention to avoid post-traumatic gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. However, impaired macrophage function could have deleterious consequences on anastomotic healing, especially in complications aggravating the healing process itself, such as infectious problems either as preexisting local inflammation or infection (e.g., complicated diverticulitis) or endotoxemia due to early postoperative infections (e.g., pneumonia). Aim of this study was to investigate colonic anastomotic healing in macrophage-depleted mice in the presence of endotoxemia. Colonic anastomoses were performed, and mice were randomized into six groups (wild type; wild type with endotoxemia; pharmacological depletion of macrophages; pharmacological depletion with endotoxemia; genetically conditioned within the gut muscularis macrophage-deficient osteopetrotic mice; osteopetrotic mice with endotoxemia). Anastomotic tissues were removed 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery and used for functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular investigations. After pharmacological pretreatment, an almost complete depletion of macrophages was found in the muscularis up to 24 h postoperatively. Bursting pressure was significantly lower than 10 days after anastomotic procedure in osteopetrotic mice during endotoxemia, in marked contrast to transient pharmacologically macrophage-depleted mice. Pharmacological depletion during endotoxemia did not affect hydroxyproline concentration. Finally, in osteopetrotic mice during endotoxemia, collagen-3 expression was significantly lower compared to controls. In our current model, we demonstrate that perioperative pharmacological macrophage depletion and inactivation transiently diminishes muscularis macrophages and does not affect intestinal anastomotic healing in the presence of endotoxemia. However, a long-lasting macrophage absence or dysfunction impairs anastomotic healing and could be a risk factor for postoperative anastomotic leakage.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2011; 26(6):737-46. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pattern of DNA CpG island hypermethylation in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC). DNA from pRCC (n= 32) and adjacent normal tissue (n= 15) was isolated. A quantitative methylation-specific PCR was performed to analyse the methylation pattern at APC (actin beta), CDH1 (E-cadherin), GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1), RASSF1A (Ras association domain family member 1A) and TIMP3 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3); a sequence of ACTB without CpG was used to normalize for DNA input and to calculate the relative amount of methylated DNA (normalized index of methylation, NIM). RASSF1A hypermethylation was observed in most pRCC and normal samples (100 vs 94.4%), but the median NIM was significantly higher in pRCC samples (2.11 vs 0.61; P < 0.001). RASSF1A hypermethylation allowed discrimination of pRCC and normal tissue with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 73.3% as determined via receiver operator characteristic analysis (area under curve = 0.814). Hypermethylation at APC (3.0 vs 6.7%), CDH1 (15.6 vs 0%), GSTP1 (21.9 vs 6.7%) and TIMP3 (6.3 vs 0%) was infrequent in pRCC and normal tissue. CDH1 was significantly correlated with pathological stage (P= 0.015), and patients with methylated CDH1 methylation showed a trend towards shorter recurrence-free survival (log-rank P= 0.057). The number of methylated gene sites was correlated with pathological stage (P= 0.007) and lymph node metastasis (P= 0.008). DNA hypermethylation at RASSF1A is common in pRCC tissue irrespective of the histological subtype, but also frequently seen at lower levels in normal adjacent tissue. Aberrant hypermethylation could be a prognostic marker for pRCC.
    BJU International 02/2011; 107(4):664-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular markers predictive of prostate cancer prognosis are urgently needed. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, has repeatedly been shown to be associated with adverse outcome in this malignancy. We hypothesized that a regulatory BCL2 -938C>A promoter polymorphism, which significantly affects promoter activity and Bcl-2 expression in different malignancies, may influence survival. Reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveled that the -938C>A BCL2 promoter polymorphism significantly affects promoter activity and transcription factor binding in prostate cancer cells. Significantly higher BCL2 mRNA expression was observed in primary prostate carcinomas derived from patients with the AA, compared to CC, genotype. Survival analysis showed that the -938AA genotype was an independent, unfavorable prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in a primary cohort of 142 patients and in an independent replication cohort of 148 patients, with hazard ratios (HR) of 4.4 (95% CI, 1.3-15.1; p = 0.018) and 4.6 (95% CI, 1.5-14.2; p = 0.009). Furthermore, the -938AA genotype was independently associated with worse overall survival in the replication series, with a HR of 10.9 (95% CI, 1.2-99.3; p = 0.034). We conclude that the BCL2 -938C>A polymorphism is an independent predictor of relapse-free and overall survival in patients with prostate cancer. The BCL2 -938C>A polymorphism should be evaluated prospectively and may also have promise in assisting optimal patient choice for treatment with BCL2-targeted drugs already in evaluation for prostate cancer treatment.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/2011; 129(10):2390-9. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we identified 3' end deletions in the EPCAM gene as a novel cause of Lynch syndrome. These truncating EPCAM deletions cause allele-specific epigenetic silencing of the neighboring DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2 in tissues expressing EPCAM. Here we screened a cohort of unexplained Lynch-like families for the presence of EPCAM deletions. We identified 27 novel independent MSH2-deficient families from multiple geographical origins with varying deletions all encompassing the 3' end of EPCAM, but leaving the MSH2 gene intact. Within The Netherlands and Germany, EPCAM deletions appeared to represent at least 2.8% and 1.1% of the confirmed Lynch syndrome families, respectively. MSH2 promoter methylation was observed in epithelial tissues of all deletion carriers tested, thus confirming silencing of MSH2 as the causative defect. In a total of 45 families, 19 different deletions were found, all including the last two exons and the transcription termination signal of EPCAM. All deletions appeared to originate from Alu-repeat mediated recombination events. In 17 cases regions of microhomology around the breakpoints were found, suggesting nonallelic homologous recombination as the most likely mechanism. We conclude that 3' end EPCAM deletions are a recurrent cause of Lynch syndrome, which should be implemented in routine Lynch syndrome diagnostics.
    Human Mutation 01/2011; 32(4):407-14. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic alterations play an important role in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have suggested that global histone modifications are predictors of cancer recurrence in various tumor entities. Global histone acetylation levels (histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation [H3K9Ac], histone H3 lysine 18 acetylation [H3K18Ac], total histone H3 acetylation [H3Ac] and total histone H4 acetylation [H4Ac]) were determined in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using immunohistochemistry in a tissue micro array with 193 RCC and 10 oncocytoma specimens. The histone acetylation pattern was not different among the diverse histological subtypes of RCC or oncocytoma samples. The H3Ac levels were inversely correlated with pT-stage (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.036), Fuhrman grading (P = 0.001) and RCC progression (P = 0.029, hazard ratio 0.87). H4Ac deacetylation was correlated with pT-stage (P = 0.011) and grading (P = 0.029). H3K18Ac levels were an independent predictor of cancer-progression following surgery for localized RCC in the univariate (P = 0.001, hazard ratio 0.78) and multivariate (P = 0.005, hazard ratio 0.82) analysis. In conclusion, our study supports the concept of global histone modification levels as a universal cancer prognosis marker, and provides evidence for the use of histone deacetylases inhibitors as future drugs in the therapy of RCC.
    Cancer Science 12/2010; 101(12):2664-9. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical studies on the sealing of colorectal anastomoses in order to reduce the rate of leakage have previously been performed with divergent results. However, comparatively few studies have been performed on anastomotic healing using a fibrin glue-coated patch. The aim of this experimental basic scientific study in mice was to investigate the effect of fibrin glue-coated collagen patches on the healing process of colonic anastomoses in situations of adverse healing process (technical deficiency and peritonitis). Colonic anastomoses were carried out in 206 mice and randomized into six groups (I: complete anastomoses, II: sealed complete anastomoses, III: incomplete anastomoses, IV: sealed incomplete anastomoses, V: complete anastomoses in the presence of bacterial peritonitis, VI: sealed complete anastomoses in the presence of bacterial peritonitis). Tissues from the anastomoses were removed and used for functional, histochemical, molecular, and biochemical investigations. The evaluation of postoperative course data revealed the beneficial effect of additional sealing with a fixed combination of collagen matrix-bound coagulation factors I and IIa (Tachosil(®), Nycomed Austria, Linz) in high-risk experimental anastomotic healing. Sealing incomplete anastomoses resulted in significantly lower lethality and leakage rates, as well as significantly higher bursting pressure values and histopathologic scores. Collagen 1 and 3 expressions and hydroxyproline concentrations are greatly increased with additional sealing in all high-risk anastomoses. In our current model, we demonstrate that additionally sealing high-risk experimental colonic anastomoses provides a positive effect on the healing process. The effect on the molecular level in particular seems to be essential and requires further experimental studies to evaluate the mechanism.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 11/2010; 395(8):1039-48. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified the four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) as a novel regulator of CCL19-induced dendritic cell (DC) migration. Initiation of migration is a hallmark of DC function and plays a central role in the induction and regulation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs continuously acquire Ag in the periphery and migrate to draining lymph nodes, under the influence of local environmental chemotactic factors like CCL19/21 or sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). We investigated the role of S1P- and RhoA-regulated FHL2 in this process. We found reduced nuclear localization of FHL2 in mature bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs), compared with immature BMDCs, following stimulation with CCL19. Furthermore, in vitro-generated murine FHL2(-/-) BMDCs displayed a significantly increased migratory speed, directionality, and migratory persistence toward the chemokine CCL19 compared with wild-type BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo, FHL2(-/-) BMDCs showed increased migration toward lymphoid organs. FHL2(-/-) BMDCs increased the expression of S1PR1, which was associated with greater Rac activation. An S1PR1 antagonist and knock-down of S1PR1 abrogated the increased migratory speed of FHL2(-/-) BMDCs. Our results identify FHL2 as an important novel regulator of DC migration via regulation of their sensitivity toward environmental migratory cues like S1P and CCL19.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 185(3):1466-75. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

867 Citations
198.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Cologne
      • Institute of Pathology
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Bonn
      • • Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie
      • • Institute of Pathology
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2011
    • Institute for Pathology, Cologne
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Institut für Pathologie und Molekularpathologie
      Gelsenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010
    • Medical University of Varna
      Odessos, Varna, Bulgaria
  • 2007–2010
    • University of Bonn - Medical Center
      • Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2000
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Pathology (Mannheim)
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany