Shin Hayashi

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (22)67.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Microdeletion of chromosome 9q33q34 is an emerging disease concept associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), intellectual disability and a variety of movement disorders. Patient We report a male infant with EIEE with suppression-burst (Ohtahara syndrome) who carried a de novo 2.0 Mb microdeletion in chromosome 9q33q34, including STXBP1. The previously reported cases with 9q33q34 microdeletion including STXBP1 were reviewed. Results The patient showed infantile spasms from four months of age, which were refractory to multiple antiepileptic drugs. He also presented with severe dystonia during infancy, rotatory nystagmus and nephroureteral malformations. Immunoglobulin and clobazam administered at 11 months were effective for the spasms, but profound psychomotor retardation remained. A comparative genomic hybridization array analysis and the fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a de novo 2.0 Mb microdeletion in chromosome 9q33q34, which encompasses STXBP1, ENG, SPTAN1 and 52 other genes. A total of 14 patients (13 from the literature) with a 9q33q24 microdeletion including STXBP1 were reviewed, and five of them displayed EIEE with suppression-burst, and six of them had early onset epilepsy but not EIEE. Dystonia has been previously described in 9q33q34 deletions involving TOR1A, but not STXBP1. Neither abnormal eye movements nor nephroureteral malformations were previously described. Conclusions This case adds unique clinical presentations of neurological and nephroureteral abnormalities to the features of 9q33q34 microdeletion.
    Pediatric Neurology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Heterozygous loss of function mutations of CASK at Xp11.4 in females cause severe intellectual disability (ID) and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH). However, the longitudinal clinical and radiological course of affected patients, including patterns of postnatal growth, has not been described. Neurodevelopmental and imaging information was retrospectively accrued for 16 Japanese (15 female and 1 male) patients with ID and MICPCH associated with CASK mutations. All records were analyzed; patient age ranged from 2 to 16 years at the time of the most recent examinations. The growth pattern, neurological development, neurological signs/symptoms, and facial features were similar in the 15 female patients. Their head circumference at birth was within the normal range in about half, and their height and weight were frequently normal. This was followed by early development of severe microcephaly and postnatal growth retardation. The patients acquired head control almost normally between 3 and 6 months, followed by motor delay. More than half of the female patients had epilepsy. Their MRIs showed microcephaly, brainstem, and cerebellar hypoplasia in early infancy, and a normal or large appearing corpus callosum. The male patient showed a more severe clinical phenotype. These uniform clinical and radiological features should facilitate an early diagnosis and be useful for medical care of females with ID and MICPCH associated with CASK mutations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2012; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Duplications of Xq28 harboring the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene explain approximately 1% of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). The common clinical features observed in patients with dup(X)(q28) are severe ID, infantile hypotonia, mild dysmorphic features and a history of recurrent infections, and MECP2 duplication syndrome is now recognized as a clinical entity. While some patients with this syndrome have other characteristic phenotypes, the reason for the spectrum of phenotypes has not been clarified. Since dup(X)(q28) rearrangements vary in size and location, genes other than MECP2 might affect the phenotype. We used a high-density oligonucleotide array to carry out precise mapping in eight Japanese families in which dup(X)(q28) was detected using an in-house bacterial artificial chromosome-based microarray to screen cohorts of individuals with multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability (MCA/ID) or with XLID. We hypothesized that the size, gene content, and location of dup(X)(q28) may contribute to variable expressively observed in MECP2 duplication syndrome. Genotype-phenotype correlation in our cases together with cases reported in the literature suggested that copy-number gains between two low copy repeats (LCRK1 and LCRL1) are associated with the incidence of hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanism of this association.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2012; 158A(6):1292-303. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 3% of the live-born infants have major dysmorphic features, and about two-thirds of which are observed in the maxillofacial region; however, in many cases, the etiology of the dysmorphic features remains uncertain. Recently, the genome-wide screening of large patient cohorts with congenital disorders has made it possible to discover genomic aberrations corresponding to the pathogenesis. In our analyses of more than 536 cases of clinically undiagnosed multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (MR) by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, we detected two non-consanguineous unrelated patients with microdeletions at 10p11.23-p12.1, which overlapped for 957 kb, including four protein-coding genes: ARMC4, MPP7, WAC and BAMBI. As the two patients had similar phenotypes; for example, MR and multiple maxillofacial abnormalities including midface retrusion, wide mouth and large tongue, we assessed the phenotypes in detail to define the common features, using quantitative evaluations of the maxillofacial dysmorphism. The concordance of the genetic and phenotypic alterations is a good evidence of a new syndrome. Although an interstitial deletion of 10p is rare, the current study is the first trial to examine precisely the craniofacial characteristics of patients with a heterozygous deletion at 10p11.23-p12.1, and presents good evidence to diagnose potential patients with the same genetic cause.
    Journal of Human Genetics 01/2012; 57(3):191-6. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of the hypothesis that copy number mutations of the genes encoding myelin compact proteins are responsible for myelin disorders in humans, we have explored the possibility of copy number mutations in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) whose responsible genes remain undefined. A family with 6 affected members in 3 consecutive generations, presenting with motor and sensory demyelinating polyneuropathy, was investigated. Characteristic clinical features in this pedigree include Adie pupils and substantial intrafamilial variability in the age at onset, electrophysiological findings, and clinical severity. Nucleotide sequence analyses of PMP22, MPZ, or GJB1 and gene dosage study of PMP22 did not reveal causative mutations. Hence, we applied a custom-designed array for comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis to conduct a comprehensive screening of copy number mutations involving any of the known causative genes for CMT other than PMP22. The array CGH analyses revealed increased gene dosage involving the whole MPZ, and the flanking genes of SDHC and C1orf192. The gene dosage is estimated to be 5 copies. This mutation showed complete cosegregation with the disease phenotype in this pedigree. The increased gene dosage of MPZ and increased expression level of MPZ mRNA emphasize the important role of the dosage of the MPZ protein in the functional integrity of peripheral nerve myelin in humans, and provide a new insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying CMT.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2012; 71(1):84-92. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations of chromosomal rearrangements in patients with mental retardation (MR) are particularly informative in the search for genes involved in MR. Here we report a family with concomitant duplications of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) at Xq28 and ATRX (the causative gene for X-linked alpha thalassemia/mental retardation) at Xq21.1 detected by array-comparative genomic hybridization. The alterations were observed in a 25-year-old man who inherited them from his mother, who showed a normal phenotype and completely skewed X-chromosome inactivation, and also in his cousin, a 32-year-old man. The proband and his cousin showed severe MR, muscular hypotonia, recurrent respiratory infections and various other features characteristic of MECP2 duplication syndrome. However, the proband also had cerebellar atrophy never reported before in MECP2 duplication syndrome, suggesting that his phenotypes were modified through the ATRX duplication in an additive or epistatic manner.
    Journal of Human Genetics 12/2011; 57(1):73-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CASK gene encoding a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family is highly expressed in the mammalian nervous system of both adults and fetuses, playing several roles in neural development and synaptic function. Recently, CASK aberrations caused by both mutations and deletions have been reported to cause severe mental retardation (MR), microcephaly and disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) in females. Here, mutations and copy numbers of CASK were examined in ten females with MR and MICPCH, and the following changes were detected: nonsense mutations in three cases, a 2-bp deletion in one case, mutations at exon-intron junctions in two cases, heterozygous deletions encompassing CASK in two cases and interstitial duplications in two cases. Except for the heterozygous deletions, each change including the intragenic duplications potentially caused an aberrant transcript, resulting in CASK null mutations. The results provide novel mutations and copy number aberrations of CASK, causing MR with MICPCH, and also demonstrate the similarity of the phenotypes of MR with MICPCH regardless of the CASK mutation.
    Human Genetics 07/2011; 131(1):99-110. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the analysis of patients with congenital abnormalities using array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) have uncovered two types of genomic copy-number variants (CNVs); pathogenic CNVs (pCNVs) relevant to congenital disorders and benign CNVs observed also in healthy populations, complicating the screening of disease-associated alterations by aCGH. To apply the aCGH technique to the diagnosis as well as investigation of multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (MCA/MR), we constructed a consortium with 23 medical institutes and hospitals in Japan, and recruited 536 patients with clinically uncharacterized MCA/MR, whose karyotypes were normal according to conventional cytogenetics, for two-stage screening using two types of bacterial artificial chromosome-based microarray. The first screening using a targeted array detected pCNV in 54 of 536 cases (10.1%), whereas the second screening of the 349 cases negative in the first screening using a genome-wide high-density array at intervals of approximately 0.7 Mb detected pCNVs in 48 cases (13.8%), including pCNVs relevant to recently established microdeletion or microduplication syndromes, CNVs containing pathogenic genes and recurrent CNVs containing the same region among different patients. The results show the efficient application of aCGH in the clinical setting.Keywords: array-CGH; congenital anomaly; mental retardation; screening
    Journal of Human Genetics 10/2010; 56(2):110-124. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a common, clinically complex and genetically heterogeneous disease arising from many mutations along the X chromosome. Although research during the past decade has identified >90 XLMR genes, many more remain uncharacterized. In this study, copy-number variations (CNVs) were screened in individuals with MR from 144 families by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using a bacterial artificial chromosome-based X-tiling array. Candidate pathogenic CNVs (pCNVs) were detected in 10 families (6.9%). Five of the families had pCNVs involving known XLMR genes, duplication of Xq28 containing MECP2 in three families, duplication of Xp11.22-p11.23 containing FTSJ1 and PQBP1 in one family, and deletion of Xp11.22 bearing SHROOM4 in one family. New candidate pCNVs were detected in five families as follows: identical complex pCNVs involved in dup(X)(p22.2) and dup(X)(p21.3) containing part of REPS2, NHS and IL1RAPL1 in two unrelated families, duplication of Xp22.2 including part of FRMPD4, duplication of Xq21.1 including HDX and deletion of Xq24 noncoding region in one family, respectively. Both parents and only mother samples were available in six and three families, respectively, and pCNVs were inherited from each of their mothers in those families other than a family of the proband with deletion of SHROOM4. This study should help to identify the novel XLMR genes and mechanisms leading to MR and reveal the clinical conditions and genomic background of XLMR.
    Journal of Human Genetics 09/2010; 55(9):590-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By using an in-house bacterial artificial chromosome-based X-tilling array, we detected a 0.4 Mb novel deletion at Xq24 that included UBE2A in a 4-year-old and 10-month-old boy with mental retardation and various other characteristics inherited from his mother; for example, marked developmental delay, synophrys, ocular hypertelorism, esotropia, low nasal bridge, marked generalized hirsutism and seizure. Although additional nine transcripts around UBE2A were also defective, a phenotypic similarity with a recently reported X-linked familial case involving a novel X-linked mental retardation syndrome and a nonsense mutation of UBE2A indicates a functional defect of UBE2A to be responsible for most of the abnormalities in these cases. Because some characteristics, such as congenital heart disease and proximal placement of the thumb, were not described in the family reported previously, suggesting genes other than UBE2A within the deleted region to be responsible for those abnormalities.
    Journal of Human Genetics 03/2010; 55(4):244-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report on a 1-year-old Japanese girl with psychomotor retardation, bilateral congenital corneal opacity and bilateral postaxial polysyndactyly of the feet. Although she had a normal female karyotype, our in-house bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based array-CGH analysis successfully detected at least a 2.7-Mb heterozygous deletion at 14q22.1-q22.3 harboring 18 protein-coding genes. Among the genes, BMP4 was a candidate for the gene causing the abnormalities of both the eye and digits. It was previously reported that the BMP family was correlated with the morphogenesis of digits and ocular development, and Bmp4 heterozygous null mice revealed skeletal abnormalities including polydactyly and ocular anterior segment abnormalities. Patients with a deletion including BMP4 also hadabnormalities of the eye and digits. These previous reports support that a haplo-insufficiency of the BMP4 gene likely caused the congenital ocular and digit abnormalities. Moreover, among the other genes contained in the deletion, GMFB is a candidate for the gene responsible for the psychomotor retardation.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2008; 146A(22):2905-10. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report on a 5-year-old Japanese girl with developmental delay and microcephaly. Although she had a normal karyotype, a bacterial artificial chromosome-based array-comparative genome hybridization analysis detected a de novo 4.0-Mb heterozygous deletion at Xp11.3-p11.4 harboring nine genes. By comparison with a healthy carrier mother of a boy with atypical Norrie disease having a smaller deletion in the same region, we excluded four genes as candidates whose haploinsufficiency would be causative for developmental delay. Among the other five genes, CASK seems to be the most likely candidate for a causative gene, because it is strongly expressed in fetal brain and plays important roles in neural development and synaptic function. We confirmed that the expression of CASK mRNA was decreased in the patient compared with healthy controls and the patient's X-chromosomal inactivation was not skewed. These results suggested that the genetic deletion of CASK results in haploinsufficiency, which might be causative for the patient's developmental delay or mental retardation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2008; 146A(16):2145-51. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here on two unrelated patients (Patients 1 and 2) with a cryptic microduplication involving a 22q13 segment. Both patients manifested infantile hypotonia, developmental delay, and growth deficiency. In addition, an abnormal signal intensity area was detected in the frontal white matter of Patient 2 by brain MRI. Whole-genome microarray comparative genomic hybridization for Patient 1 and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with 22q-subtelomeric probes performed in both patients showed a submicroscopic 22q13 duplication that involved the SHANK3 gene. The duplication in Patient 1 was de novo type, while that in Patient 2 was derived from a familial 17;22 translocation. The presence of common clinical manifestations in the two patients with the common duplicated region led to a conclusion that 22q terminal duplication is a recognizable clinical entity, that is, the 22q13 microduplication syndrome.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2008; 143A(23):2804-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imatinib is highly effective for the treatment of chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) caused by the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene. However, its effectiveness for cardiac involvement of CEL has remained unclear. We describe a 46-year-old man with CEL treated with imatinib. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses revealed a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion transcript with FIP1L1 intron 10 fused to PDGFRA exon 12, and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis confirmed the interstitial deletion in chromosome 4q12. On admission, the patient had left heart failure accompanied by a large thrombus in the left ventricle. After pretreatment with furosemide and prednisolone, we started imatinib treatment at 100 mg/day. Eosinophilia disappeared within 1 week, and the left ventricular thrombus was resolved within 5 months. At 6 months after starting imatinib, the patient showed grade 4 liver dysfunction. A liver biopsy revealed hepatocyte necrosis with lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion transcript had become undetectable, and imatinib treatment was stopped. The liver dysfunction resolved within a month. Although the CEL relapsed 6 months later, imatinib could be successfully resumed in combination with 25 mg/day of prednisolone. Thus, imatinib may be very effective for treating the early cardiac involvement of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive CEL, but it needs to be used cautiously.
    International Journal of Hematology 11/2007; 86(3):233-7. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic factors underlying mental retardation (MR) are very heterogeneous. Recent studies have identified a number of genes involved in MR, several of which lie on the X-chromosome, but the current understanding of the monogenic causes of MR is far from complete. Investigation of chromosomal rearrangements in patients with MR has proven particularly informative in the search for novel genes. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis, we identified a small copy number gain at Xq25, which was undetectable by conventional G-band analysis, in a boy with unexplained MR. Further characterization revealed a partial tandem duplication of GRIA3, an alteration also present on one allele in his mother. RT-PCR analysis of lymphoblastoid cell RNA revealed remarkably reduced GRIA3 transcript levels in the patient. The mother, whose cognitive level is normal, also demonstrated remarkably reduced GRIA3 transcript levels in lymphoblastoid cells, and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was completely skewed in her peripheral lymphocytes. It is possible that XCI in the brain is not completely skewed and that GRIA3 expression from the normal allele may account for the mother's normal cognitive function. Taken together with previous findings of GRIA3 disruptions in the patients with MR, our study strengthens the idea that GRIA3 is a candidate gene for X-linked MR and that severely reduced GRIA3 expression results in MR.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2007; 143A(13):1448-55. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a 2-year-old Japanese girl with Cornelia-de Lange syndrome (CdLS) who had mental and growth retardation, together with characteristic facial anomalies and mild extremity malformations. She had a balanced chromosomal translocation, 46,XX,t(5;13)(p13.1;q12.1) de novo. Surprisingly, this was the same translocation that had provided a clue to the identification of a major causative gene for CdLS, NIPBL [Krantz et al., 2004; Tonkin et al., 2004]. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the breakpoint was confirmed to lie within NIPBL at 5p13.1. Furthermore, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) demonstrated a cryptic 1-Mb deletion harboring six known genes at 1q25-q31.1. A FISH analysis of her parents confirmed that the deletion was de novo. Although patients with interstitial deletions at 1q are rare, some of their features were similar to those observed in our patient, indicating that her clinical manifestations are likely to be affected by not only the disruption of NIPBL but also the concomitant microdeletion at 1q25-q31.1. The present case suggests that array-CGH can uncover cryptic genomic aberrations affecting atypical phenotypes even in well-known congenital disorders.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2007; 143A(11):1191-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 15-year-old girl had exertion dyspnea, focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, portal vein hypoplasia, portopulmonary hypertension, mental retardation, and minor facial abnormalities. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated an abnormal chromosome 8 with 8p22-pter duplication and 8q24.3-qter deletion, with the duplicated 8p segment attached to band 8q24.3. Her mother had a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8, inv(8)(p22q24.3). Therefore, the girl's abnormal chromosome 8 was a recombinant of maternal inversion chromosome: 46,XX,rec(8)dup(8p)inv(8)(p22q24.3)mat. Further characterization of the recombinant chromosome, using array CGH and regional FISH analyses, defined 15 Mb distal 8p duplication and 0.5 Mb 8q deletion. Possible correlation of the recombinant chromosome and hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia in the patient is discussed.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2007; 143A(12):1334-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on two patients; a female having mild mental retardation (MR) with a balanced translocation, 46,XX,t(X;15)(q28;p11.2), and a male diagnosed as having mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) with atypical early-onset MR and a normal male karyotype. Molecular cytogenetic analyses, including fluorescence in situ hybridization and array-based comparative genomic hybridization using an in-house X-tiling array, revealed that first patient to have a breakpoint at Xq28 lying within the FMR2 gene and the second to have a small deletion at Xq28 including part of FMR2 together with the IDS gene responsible for MPS II. In Patient 1, X-chromosome inactivation predominantly occurred in the normal X in her lymphocytes, suggesting that her MR might be explained by a disruption of the FMR2 gene on der(X) t(X;15) concomitant with the predominant inactivation of the intact FMR2 gene in another allele. We compared phenotypes of Patient 2 with those of MPS II cases with deletion of the IDS gene alone reported previously, suggesting that the early-onset MR might be affected by the additional deletion of FMR2.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2007; 143(7):687-93. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human chromosome X is closely associated with congenital disorders and mental retardation (MR), because it contains a significantly higher number of genes than estimated from the proportion in the human genome. We constructed a high-density and high-resolution human chromosome X array (X-tiling array) for comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The array contains a total of 1,001 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) throughout chromosome X except pseudoautosomal regions and two BACs specific for Y. In four hybridizations using DNA samples from healthy males, the ratio of each spotted DNA was scattered between -3SD and 3SD, corresponding to a log(2) ratio of -0.35 and 0.35, respectively. Using DNA samples from patients with known congenital disorders, our X-tiling array was proven to discriminate one-copy losses and gains together with their physical sizes, and also to estimate the percentage of a mosaicism in a patient with mos 45,X[13]/46,X,r(X)[7]. Furthermore, array-CGH in a patient with atypical Schinzel-Giedion syndrome disclosed a 1.1-Mb duplication at Xq22.3 including a part of the IL1RAPL2 gene as a likely causative aberration. The results indicate our in-house X-tiling array to be useful for the identification of cryptic copy-number aberrations containing novel genes responsible for diseases such as congenital disorders and X-linked MR.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2007; 52(5):397-405. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In idiopathic or nonspecific mental retardation, the overall rate of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements is estimated to be about 5%. Development of cost-effective screening for subtelomeric deletions would help clinical geneticists to make specific diagnoses in children with idiopathic mental retardation. Current screening modalities include fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using subtelomeric probes and PCR-based quantitative analyses. Reductions in the cost and turnaround time will make the complete screening of subtelomeric rearrangements more widely used in clinical settings. Recently, a versatile method, called the multiplex PCR/liquid chromatography assay (MP/LC), was developed to assess copy numbers in this assay. Multiple genomic regions are amplified using unlabeled primers, then separated by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In the present study, we developed an MP/LC-based subtelomeric screening system that involves 21 multiple reactions and validated the protocol by analyzing 16 publicly available cell lines with known cytogenetic abnormalities involving at least one subtelomere per patient. To confirm the validity of the MP/LC method, we analyzed these cell lines concurrently with array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), which gives higher resolution than the conventional G-banding technique. Among those 16 samples, the results from MP/LC and array-CGH agreed with each other perfectly. In 2 of the 16 samples, MP/LC correctly revealed subtelomeric duplications that were detected by array-CGH but were undetected by conventional cytogenetics, demonstrating the sensitivity of the MP/LC assay. This system is expected to be useful for making specific diagnoses and in genetic counseling for children with idiopathic mental retardation, a sizable fraction of whom have subtelomeric rearrangements.
    Genetic Testing 02/2007; 11(3):241-8. · 1.17 Impact Factor