[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important food-borne pathogen, which continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. It is known that E. coli O157:H7 survive in soil environment might result in the contamination of fresh produce or water source. To investigate how the soils and their properties affect E. coli O157:H7 survival, we studied E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics in 14 soils collected in eastern China from the warm-temperate zone to subtropical zone. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survival as a function of time can be well described by the Weibull model. The calculated td values (survival time to reach the detection limit, 100 colony forming units per gram oven-dried weight of soil) for the test soils were between 1.4 and 25.8 days. A significantly longer survival time (td) was observed in neutral or alkaline soils from north-eastern China (the warm-temperate zone) than that in acidic soils from south-eastern China (the subtropical zone). Distinct E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics was related to soil properties. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the td values were significantly enhanced by soil microbial biomass carbon and total nitrogen, but were significantly reduced by amorphous Al2O3 and relative abundance of Chloroflexi. It should pay more attention to E. coli O157:H7 long survival in soils and its potential environmental contamination risk.
Science of The Total Environment 04/2014; 476-477:49-56. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25% m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the 1H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the passive solarization+fumigation treatments, emissions from the non-tarped furrow were very high (~50%). Emissions from the bed top and sidewall of these treatments were relatively low but were increased in the latter due to the longer environmental exposure of the VIF covering with the coupled approach (increased tarp permeability). Overall, this approach offered no advantage over fumigation-only in terms of emission reduction. With active solarization+fumigation, the large application of hot water during solarization apparently led to severely limited diffusion causing very low total emissions (<1%). Although this suggests a benefit in terms of air quality, a lack of diffusion could limit the pesticidal efficacy of the treatment.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although long-regarded as an excellent soil fumigant for killing plant pests, methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in 2005 in the USA, because it can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Iodomethane (MeI) has been identified as an effective alternative to MeBr and is used in a number of countries for pre-plant pest control. However, MeI is highly volatile and potentially carcinogenic to humans if inhaled. In addition, iodide anions, a breakdown product of MeI, can build up in fumigated soils, and potentially cause plant toxicity and contaminate groundwater via leaching. In order to overcome above two obstacles in MeI application, a method is proposed to place reactive bags containing ammonium hydroxide solution (NH4OH) on the soil surface underneath an impermeable plastic film covering the fumigated area. Our research showed that using this approach, over 99% of the applied MeI was quantitatively transferred to iodide. Of all the resulting iodide, only 2.7% remained in the fumigated soil, and 97.3% was contained in the reactive bag that can be easily removed after fumigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators, such as metam sodium (Met-Na), are used for soil fumigation of agricultural land. The ban on the fumigant methyl bromide has resulted in greater use of MITC generators. To understand the efficacy of MITC, it is necessary to assess its generation and disappearance kinetics when Met-Na is applied to soil. This study evaluated the movement of water and distribution and dissipation of MITC in soil after application of Met-Na through surface drip irrigation systems. The effects of varying water application volume (25, 50, and 75 mm) and rate (1.9, 5.0, and 7.5 L h m) were evaluated in a sandy loam soil. Good fumigant distribution within the sandy loam soil was observed under medium water application amount (50 mm) with slow to intermediate drip application rates (1.9-5.0 L h m). Low water application amount (25 mm) or high application rate (7.5 L h m) did not provide adequate MITC distribution throughout the soil bed width and rooting depth. Dissipation patterns of MITC in soil in all water application amounts and rates followed first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of 0.025 ± 0.004 h and a half-life of 27 ± 3 h. Simulated water distribution through the soil profile using HYDRUS 2D/3D fitted measured field data well, and the model accurately simulated MITC fumigant distribution in the soil.
Journal of Environmental Quality 09/2013; 42(5):1555-64. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thin-layer models are commonly used to estimate NH3 emissions from liquid waste. However, such models differ in their ability to accurately reproduce observed emissions, which may be partly due to an incomplete mechanistic understanding of NH3 volatilization. In this study, NH3 release from pure solutions of (NH4)2SO4 (AS), swine pit liquid (PL), swine lagoon liquid (LL), dairy lagoon liquid (DLL), and dairy manure liquid (DML) were evaluated under controlled conditions (pH 7.6 and temperature 20 °C). Relationships between the NH3 release and pH, temperature, and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) were established. Under similar TAN conditions, the NH3 release was higher for PL, LL, DLL, and DML than for AS. Pure solutions of AS that were spiked with NaHCO3 showed NH3 emissions rates that were comparable to DML, DLL, LL and PL. The enhanced NH3 emissions of PL, LL, DLL and DML were therefore explained by linkages between TAN and HCO3−.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding the cost of the film since it maximizes efficacy while minimizing volatility losses. Otherwise, the integrated methods such as Deep + HDPE and Reagent + Irrigation, are recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soil fumigation is an important component of U.S. agriculture but excessive emissions can be problematic. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of agricultural films (e.g., tarps) on atmospheric emissions of soil fumigants, spatiotemporal distribution in soil, and plant pathogen control in the field using plastic films with varying permeability and thermal properties. A reduced-rate of 70 % Inline (60.8% 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and 33.3% chloropicrin (CP)) was applied via drip irrigation to raised soil beds covered with standard high-density polyethylene film (HDPE), thermic film (Thermic), or virtually impermeable film (VIF). 1,3-D and CP emission rates were determined using dynamic flux chambers and the concentrations in soil were measured using a gas sampler. The pest control efficacy for the three treatments was determined using bioassay muslin bags containing soil infested with citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans). The results show that the Thermic treatment had the highest emission rates, followed by the HDPE and VIF treatments and the soil concentrations followed the reverse order. In terms of pest control, covering the beds with Thermic film led to sufficient and improved efficacy against citrus nematodes compared to standard HDPE film. Under HDPE, more than 20% of nematodes survived in the soil at 30 cm depth at 12 days. The VIF treatment substantially reduced the emission loss (2% of the Thermic and 6 % of the HDPE treatments) and eliminated plant parasitic nematodes because of its superior ability to entrap fumigant and heat within soils. The findings imply that not only the film permeability but the synergistic ability to entrap heat should be considered when developing new improved films for fumigation.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 01/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The need to safeguard global food supply has led to an increasing use of chemical pesticides during the last 60 Years. However, this need should be balanced with our responsibility also to safeguard human and environmental health. By definition, chemical pesticides are toxic compounds and can become pollutants of soil, water and air after their application. Such pollution can lead to human risk pathways, e.g. by the presence of pesticide residues in the food we eat, the water we drink, and the air we breathe. Once applied to the surface or subsurface of a soil, the fate of a pesticide compound is governed by its decomposition/degradation, its adsorption onto the solid phase of the soil, its dissolution in the liquid phase with subsequent movement by leaching, and its volatilization to the gas phase with subsequent diffusion through soil pores and/or emission to the atmosphere. Together with environmental variables (e.g. temperature, soil type and structure, soil moisture content), the physical and chemical properties of individual pesticides dictate the extent to which each of these processes acts upon a given compound. The potential for air contamination depends on the extent to which the pesticide converts to the gaseous state, i.e. its volatility. For some pesticides (e.g. the class known as fumigants), almost 100% of the chemical mass is potentially volatile under field conditions. In such a scenario, the potential for emissions from soil, and therefore air contamination, is very high. Research to understand the processes controlling pesticide emissions better can lead to the development of strategies that reduce these emissions; thereby assisting farmers in the protection of air quality and compliance with increasingly stringent air quality regulations. This article describes the extent of pesticide emissions from soil, the environmental and human health concerns of these emissions, and the efforts being made to predict these emissions using model simulations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is not currently being sold in the USA, the recent US registration of the fumigant methyl iodide has led to an increased interest in its environmental fate and transport. Although some work has now considered its volatile emissions from soil, there remains a lack of experimental data regarding its ability to be retained in soil and ultimately become transported with irrigation/rain waters. Using laboratory batch and soil column experiments, we aimed to better understand the phase partitioning of MeI, the ability of soils to retain MeI on the solid phase, and the potential for leaching of MeI and its primary degradation product, iodide, down a soil profile. Results indicated that MeI was retained by the solid phase of soil, being protected from volatilization and degradation, particularly in the presence of elevated organic matter. Retention was greater at lower moisture content, and maximum retention occurred after 56 days of incubation. At higher moisture content, the liquid phase also became important in retaining MeI within soil. Together with low observed K(D) values (0.10 to 0.57 mL g(-1)), these data suggest that MeI may be prone to leaching. Indeed, in a steady-state soil column study, initially retained MeI was transported with interstitial water. The MeI degradation product, iodide, was also readily transported in this manner. The data highlight a potentially significant process by which MeI fate and transport within the environment may be impacted.
Science of The Total Environment 06/2012; 432:122-7. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implicated as a stratospheric ozone-depleting compound, methyl bromide (MeBr) is being phased out despite being considered to be the most effective soil fumigant. Its alternatives, i.e., 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, which includes cis and trans isomers), chloropicrin (CP), and methyl iodide (MeI), have been widely used. High emissions of MeI from fumigated soil likely put farm workers and other bystanders at risk of adverse health effects. In this study, two types of constructed reactive film were tested for their ability to mitigate emissions of 1,3-D, CP, and MeI using laboratory permeability cells. Before activation, these films act as a physical barrier to trap fumigants leaving soil. After activation of the reactive layer containing ammonium thiosulfate solution, the films also act as a sink for the fumigants. Over 97% of trans-1,3-D and 99% of the cis-1,3-D, CP and MeI were depleted when they passed into the reactive film. Half-lives (t(1/2)) of cis-, trans-1,3-D, CP and MeI under activated reactive film were 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.0 h respectively at 40 °C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wastewater from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) frequently contains high concentrations of steroid estrogenic hormones. Release of these hormones into the environment may occur when CAFO wastewater is applied to agricultural lands as a nutrient and water source for crop production. To assess the potential risk of hormone contaminants derived from animal wastewater, we investigated the transformation kinetics and mechanisms of three natural estrogenic hormones (17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone) in aqueous solutions blended with dairy lagoon water under anaerobic conditions. Initial transformations of the three hormones in the dairy lagoon water were dominated by biodegradation and the degradation rates were temperature-dependent. The total amounts of hormones (initial concentration at 5 mg L(-1)) remaining in the solution after 52 days at 35 °C accounted for approximately 85%, 78%, and 77% of the initial amounts of 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone, respectively. This observation suggests that these hormones are relatively stable over time and may accumulate in anaerobic or anoxic environments and anaerobic CAFO lagoons. A racemization reaction between 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol via estrone was observed in aqueous solutions in the presence of CAFO wastewater under anaerobic conditions. The initial hormone concentrations did not affect this degradation mechanism. A reversible reaction kinetic model was applied to fit the observed transformation dynamics. The degradation and regeneration of the parent hormone and its metabolites were successfully simulated by this model. The information in this study is useful for assessing the environmental risk of steroid hormones released from CAFO wastewater and to better understand why these hormone contaminants persist in many aquatic environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volatilization and soil transformation are major pathways by which
pesticides dissipate from treated agricultural soil. Methyl bromide
(MeBr) emissions from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of
the stratospheric ozone layer. This has led to a gradual phase-out of
MeBr and replacement by other halogenated chemicals. However, MeBr
continues to be widely used under Critical Use Exemptions and
development of emission-reduction strategies remains important. Several
methods to reduce emissions of MeBr, and other halogenated soil
fumigants, have been developed and are currently being tested under
field conditions. In this paper, several approaches for reducing
fumigant emissions to the atmosphere are described and include the use
of virtually impermeable films, the creation of reactive soil barriers
and a recently developed reactive film which was designed to limit loss
of MeBr from soil without adding any material to the soil surface.
Ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) was used to create a reactive layer. For a
reactive soil layer, ATS was sprayed on the soil surface or incorporated
to a depth of 1-2 cm. For the reactive film, ATS was placed between two
layers of plastic film. The lower plastic layer was a high-density
polyethylene film (HDPE), which is readily permeable to MeBr. The upper
layer was a virtually impermeable film (VIF) and limits MeBr diffusion.
MeBr diffusion and transformation through VIFs and reactive layers were
tested in laboratory and field experiments. Although ineffective when
dry, when sufficient water was present, reactive barriers substantially
depleted halogenated fumigants, including MeBr. When ATS was activated
in laboratory experiments, MeBr half-life was about 9.0 h (20C) in a
reactive film barrier, and half life decreased with increasing
temperature. When the soil was covered with VIF, less than 10% of the
added MeBr diffused through the film and the remainder was transformed
within the soil. This compares with 60 to 90% emission losses,
respectively, for a soil covered with HDPE or for a bare soil surface.
These findings demonstrate that several methods are available to reduce
atmospheric emissions of MeBr and other halogenated fumigants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the control mechanisms of fumigant movement in soil is a fundamental step for developing management strategies to reduce atmospheric emissions. Most soil fumigants including chloropicrin (CP) are applied by shank injection, and the application process often leaves vertical soil fractures that would potentially cause preferential fumigant movement and increased emissions. This potential transport pathway was evaluated by comparing cumulative emissions and soil air concentrations of CP from direct field measurements with those predicted using analytical and numerical models after assuming either point or rectangle sources for the injected CP. Results clearly showed that shank-injected CP, when treated as vertical rectangle sources, produced cumulative emission losses similar to the field measurements. Treating the shanked CP as point sources caused approximately 50% underprediction than the field measurements. The study also demonstrated that fumigant cumulative emissions can be predicted, with reasonable accuracy, using either analytical or numerical simulations.
Journal of Environmental Quality 09/2011; 40(5):1443-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: State and federal regulatory agencies depend on quality field data for determining the effects of agricultural management practices on fumigant emissions to develop sound, science-based policies and regulations on preplant soil fumigants. Field plot tests, using growers' standard field operation procedures, were used to simultaneously determine the effectiveness of several commonly proposed emission reduction methods, in a trial involving shank injection of Telone II [a.i. 1,3-dichloropropnene (1,3-D)] to a sandy loam soil to a target rate of 372 kg ha(-1). The experiment was conducted in late September 2008 in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Fumigant emissions were captured using dynamic flux chambers. The results showed that virtually impermeable film (VIF) reduced emissions >95% when compared to bare soil, and the glue joints in the film did not significantly affect the tarp performance. The VIF also created a more uniform distribution of gaseous fumigant in the soil profile, which would likely benefit pest control efficacy. Standard high-density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp reduced total 1,3-D emissions about 50% (higher than most reported values) in this trial, whereas postfumigation intermittent water treatments (seals) reduced cumulative emission losses by approximately 20%. Adding 49.4 Mg ha (equivalent to 20 tons per acre) of composted dairy manure to surface soils did not reduce 1,3-D emissions during this experiment. Use of VIF was the most promising technique in reducing emissions and has the potential to allow lower application rates while providing satisfactory pest control.
Journal of Environmental Quality 09/2011; 40(5):1480-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more serious effects on human or environmental health, such as those posed by pesticides and other toxic industrial pollutants. It is recognized that deterioration of the atmosphere is undesirable, but the short- and long-term impacts of specific agricultural activities on air quality are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2009 American Chemical Society Symposium titled . An outcome of this symposium is this special collection of 14 research papers focusing on various issues associated with production agriculture and its effect on air quality. Topics included emissions from animal feeding operations, odors, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, mitigation, modeling, and risk assessment. These papers provide new research insights, identify gaps in current knowledge, and recommend important future research directions. As the scientific community gains a better understanding of the relationships between anthropogenic activities and their effects on environmental systems, technological advances should enable a reduction in adverse consequences on the environment.
Journal of Environmental Quality 09/2011; 40(5):1347-58. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minimizing atmospheric emissions of soil fumigants is critical for protecting human and environmental health. Covering the soil surface with a plastic tarp is a common approach to restrict fumigant emissions. The mass transfer of the fumigant vapors through the tarp is often the rate-limiting factor in fumigant emissions. An approach for standardizing measurements of film permeability is proposed that is based on determining the resistance (R) of films to diffusion of fumigants. Using this approach, values were determined for more than 200 film-chemical combinations under a range of temperature, relative humidity, and film handling conditions. Resistance to diffusion was specific for each fumigant/film combination, with the largest range of values observed for the fumigant chloropicrin. For each fumigant, decreased with increasing temperature. Changes in film permeability due to increases in temperature or field installation were generally less than a factor of five. For one film, values determined under conditions of very high relative humidity (approximately 100%) were at least 100 times lower than when humidity was very low (approximately 2%). This approach simplifies the selection of appropriate films for soil fumigation by providing rapid, reproducible, and precise measurements of their permeability to specific fumigants and application conditions.
Journal of Environmental Quality 09/2011; 40(5):1375-82. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soil fumigation is important for growing many fruits and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions may contaminate the atmosphere. A large-scale field experiment was initiated to test the hypothesis that adding composted municipal green waste to the soil surface in an agricultural field would reduce atmospheric emissions of the 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection at a 133 kg ha(-1) application rate. Three micrometeorological methods were used to obtain fumigant flux density and cumulative emission values. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 d, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 12 to 24 μg m(-2) s(-1). The total 1,3-D mass that volatilized to the atmosphere was approximately 14 to 68 kg, or 3 to 8% of the applied active ingredient. This represents an approximately 75 to 90% reduction in the total emissions compared with other recent field, field-plot, and laboratory studies. Significant reductions in the volatilization of 1,3-D may be possible when composted municipal green waste is applied to an agricultural field. This methodology also provides a beneficial use and disposal mechanism for composted vegetative material.
Journal of Environmental Quality 09/2011; 40(5):1470-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceftiofur is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has been widely used to treat bacterial infections in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Land application of CAFO waste may lead to the loading of ceftiofur residues and its metabolites to the environment. To understand the potential contamination of the antibiotic in the environment, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of ceftiofur in solutions blended with and without the recycled water derived from a beef farm were investigated. The transformation of ceftiofur in aqueous solutions in the presence of the CAFO recycled water was the combined process of hydrolysis and biodegradation. The total degradation rates of ceftiofur at 15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C varied from 0.4-2.8×10(-3), 1.4-4.4×10(-3), 6.3-11×10(-3), and 11-17×10(-3) h(-1), respectively, in aqueous solutions blended with 1 to 5% CAFO recycled water. Hydrolysis of ceftiofur increased with incubation temperature from 15 to 45 °C. The biodegradation rates of ceftiofur were also temperature-dependent and increased with the application amounts of the recycled CAFO water. Cef-aldehyde and desfuroylceftiofur (DFC) were identified as the main biodegradation and hydrolysis products, respectively. This result suggests that the primary biodegradation mechanism of ceftiofur was the cleavage of the β-lactam ring, while hydrolytic cleavage occurred at the thioester bond. Unlike DFC and ceftiofur, cef-aldehyde does not contain a β-lactam ring and has less antimicrobial activity, indicating that the biodegradation of ceftiofur in animal wastewater may mitigate the potentially adverse impact of the antibiotic to the environment.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2011; 59(18):10176-81. · 3.11 Impact Factor