[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) must take advantage of its own proteins with two or more functions to successfully replicate. Although many attempts have been made to determine the function of viral proteins encoded in the HIV-1 genome, the role of the p2 peptide, a spacer between the capsid and the nucleocapsid in HIV-1 Gag in early-phase HIV infection still remains unclarified.
In this study, we show that the p2 peptide enhances HIV-1 acute infection by increasing intracellular ATP production via the activation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (MT-CO) involved in the respiratory chain. We found that cell-permeable p2-peptide-treated cells were more effectively infected by HIV-1 than control cells. To characterize the effect of the p2 peptide on HIV-1 replication in MAGIC-5 cells, various HIV-1 cDNA products were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of the late (R/gag), 2-LTR circular (2-LTR), and integrated (Alu) forms of viral cDNAs increased in the presence of the p2 peptide. Interestingly, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a novel interaction between the p2 peptide and the mitochondrial intermembrane space domain (N(214)-F(235)) of MT-CO subunit I (MT-CO1). Mutational analysis indicated that Gln(6) in the p2 peptide is important for the interaction with MT-CO1. The p2 peptide activated MT-CO1 in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, and fluorescence-microscopy analysis demonstrated that the p2 peptide had a significant effect on mitochondrial targeting. Furthermore, the analysis of HIV-1 lacking a functional p2 peptide demonstrated the inhibition of intracellular ATP production in MT-4 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and a decrease in reverse transcription efficiency following infection of MT-4 cells and MDMs.
These findings provide evidence that the p2 peptide is a viral positive allosteric modulator of MT-CO and the increased intracellular ATP production after HIV infection in a p2-peptide-dependent manner is essential for efficient reverse transcription in early-phase HIV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
One of the major functions of Nef is in the enhancement of the infectivity of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively). However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of viral infectivity by Nef remains unclear. Additionally, studies of mechanisms by which Nef enhances the infectivity of SIV are not as intensive as those of HIV-1.Methods
We generated short-lived Nef constructed by fusing Nef to a proteasome-mediated protein degradation sequence to characterize the Nef role in viral infectivity.ResultsThe apparent expression level of the short-lived Nef was found to be extremely lower than that of the wild-type Nef. Moreover, the expression level of the short-lived Nef increased with the treatment with a proteasome inhibitor. The infectivity of HIV-1 with the short-lived Nef was significantly lower than that with the wild-type Nef. On the other hand, the short-lived Nef enhanced the infectivity of SIVmac239, an ability observed to be interestingly equivalent to that of the wild-type Nef. The short-lived Nef was not detected in SIVmac239, but the wild-type Nef was, suggesting that the incorporation of Nef into SIVmac239 is not important for the enhancement of SIVmac239 infectivity.Conclusions
Altogether, the findings suggest that the mechanisms of infectivity enhancement by Nef are different between HIV-1 and SIVmac239. Lastly, we propose the following hypothesis: even when the expression level of a protein is extremely low, the protein may still be sufficiently functional.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nef is one of the accessory proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Nef is translated from multiple-spliced mRNAs transcribed from the viral genome, whose mRNAs have a relatively long 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Here, we identified a cis element in the 5'UTR of Nef mRNA essential for efficient Nef translation, which was named the Nef-translation essential region (NER). Mutants with a deleted NER in the 5'UTR of the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain showed an almost undetectable Nef expression owing to a low Nef translation efficiency. The NER of the NL4-3 strain was predicted to form putative stem loops. Although the 5'UTR showed significant but relatively low internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity, the mechanism of 5’cap-dependent translation mainly contributed to the Nef translation from its Nef mRNA. Altogether, it was clarified that not only the 5' cap but also the NER in the 5'UTR is an essential cis element for efficient Nef translation, which is not a typical 5'-cap-dependent mechanism, and that there must be an as yet unknown mechanism using the NER for efficient Nef translation.
Current HIV Research 08/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.2174/1570162X12666140701092331 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dimerization of HIV-1 protease (PR) subunits is an essential process for PR's acquisition of proteolytic activity, which plays a critical role in the maturation of HIV-1. Recombinant wild-type PR (PR(WT)) proved to dimerize, as examined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; however, two active site interface PR mutants (PR(T26A) and PR(R87K)) remained monomeric. On the other hand, two termini interface PR mutants (PR(1-C95A) and PR(97/99)) took both monomeric and dimeric forms. Differential scanning fluorimetry indicated that PR(1-C95A) and PR(97/99) dimers were substantially less stable than PR(WT) dimers. These data indicate that intermolecular interactions of two monomers occur first at the active site interface, generating unstable or transient dimers, and interactions at the termini interface subsequently occur, generating stable dimers. Darunavir (DRV), an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, inhibits not only proteolytic activity but also PR dimerization. DRV bound to protease monomers in a one-to-one molar ratio, inhibiting the first step of PR dimerization, whereas conventional protease inhibitors (such as saquinavir) that inhibit enzymatic activity but not dimerization failed to bind to monomers. DRV also bound to mutant PRs containing the transframe region-added PR (TFR-PR(D25N) and TFR-PR(D25N-7AA)), whereas saquinavir did not bind to TFR-PR(D25N) or TFR-PR(D25N-7AA). Notably, DRV failed to bind to mutant PR containing four amino acid substitutions (V32I, L33F, I54M, and I84V) that confer resistance to DRV on HIV-1. To our knowledge, the present report represents the first demonstration of the two-step PR dimerization dynamics and the mechanism of dimerization inhibition by DRV, which should help design further, more potent novel PIs.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2014; 111(33). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1400027111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that Pin1 facilitates the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uncoating by interacting with the capsid (CA) core through the phosphorylated Ser16-Pro17 motif. However, the specific kinase responsible for Ser16 phosphorylation has remained unknown. Here, we show that virion-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates Ser16. The characterization of immature virions produced by exposing of CEM/LAV-1 cells to 10 µM saquinavir indicated that Ser16 is phosphorylated after the initiation of Pr55gag processing. Furthermore, a mass spectrometry-based in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that ERK2 specifically phosphorylated the Ser16 residue in the Ser16-Pro17-motif-containing substrate. The treatment of CEM/LAV-1 cells with the ERK2 inhibitor sc-222229 decreased the Ser16 phosphorylation level inside virions, and the virus partially defective in Ser16 phosphorylation showed an impaired reverse transcription and an attenuated replication owing to an attenuated Pin1-dependent uncoating. Furthermore, the suppression of ERK2 expression by RNA interference in CEM/LAV-1 cells resulted in suppressed ERK2 packaging inside virions and decreased the Ser16 phosphorylation level inside virions. Interestingly, the ERK2-packaging-defective virus showed an impaired reverse transcription and an attenuated HIV-1 replication. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the as yet obscure processes in Pin1-dependent HIV-1 uncoating.
Journal of General Virology 02/2014; 95(Pt_5). DOI:10.1099/vir.0.060053-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of anti-CCR5 and anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (ENV) gp41 antibodies (Abs) at sites of HIV-1 exposure was effective in preventing its transmission to HIV-1-exposed seronegative (ESN) subjects. Here, we design an immunogen that can induce Abs against CCR5 and SIVmac239 ENV simultaneously and show that bovine alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (bAHSG) functions as a booster antigen for efficiently stimulating humoral immune responses to CCR5 and ENV. Initially, we generated a rhesus CCR5-derived cyclopeptide (cDDR5) conjugated with a recombinant trimeric SIVmac239 Env. When inguinally administered to rhesus macaques, the immunogen simultaneously induced both anti-CCR5 and anti-ENV Abs in sera, and the purified serum IgG fraction exerted an inhibitory effect on SIVmac239 infection in vitro. When further boosted with bAHSG, the responses of both Abs were significantly enhanced. To examine the cross-reactivity of bAHSG, it was administered to naïve cynomolgus macaques. The results showed a statistically significant increase in IgG response against cynomolgus CCR5 and SIVmac239 ENV, and the induction of neutralizing activity against SIVmac239. These findings suggest that bAHSG is useful for immune strategies aimed at generating Abs against CCR5 and ENV simultaneously to confer HIV-protective immunity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; 443(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.11.098 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effective uptake of antigens (Ags) by specialized M cells of gut-associated lymphoid tissues is an important step in inducing an efficient intestinal mucosal immune response. In this study, royal jelly (RJ) was found to stimulate the differentiation of M-like cells from human Caco-2 cells in an in vitro M cell model. Furthermore, RJ and protease-treated royal jelly (pRJ) efficiently enhanced transcytosis of FluoSpheres® carboxylate-modified microspheres from the apical side to the basolateral side in the model. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of pRJ to induce efficient mucosal immune responses in an in vivo nonhuman primate. Continuous oral administration of commercially available pRJ resulted in a significant enhacement of the antigen-specific IgA response in stool sample. Interestingly, Caco-2 monolayer assay demonstrated that ether extracts from pRJ efficiently increased the expression level of a universal M cell marker, glycoprotein 2 (gp2). These findings suggest that pRJ exhibits mucosal immunomodulatory properties via stimulation of effective uptake of Ags through M cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Host proteins are incorporated inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions during assembly and can either positively or negatively regulate HIV-1 infection. Although the identification efficiency of host proteins is improved by mass spectrometry, how those host proteins affect HIV-1 replication has not yet been fully clarified.
In this study, we show that virion-associated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) does not allosterically inactivate HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) but decreases the efficiency of reverse transcription reactions by decreasing the packaging efficiency of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) and tRNALys3 into HIV-1 virions. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis demonstrated that some isozymes of GAPDH with different isoelectric points were expressed in HIV-1-producing CEM/LAV-1 cells, and a proportion of GAPDH was selectively incorporated into the virions. Suppression of GAPDH expression by RNA interference in CEM/LAV-1 cells resulted in decreased GAPDH packaging inside the virions, and the GAPDH-packaging-defective virus maintained at least control levels of viral production but increased the infectivity. Quantitative analysis of reverse transcription products indicated that the levels of early cDNA products of the GAPDH-packaging-defective virus were higher than those of the control virus owing to the higher packaging efficiencies of LysRS and tRNALys3 into the virions rather than the GAPDH-dependent negative allosteric modulation for RT. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assay using an anti-GAPDH antibody showed that GAPDH directly interacted with Pr55gag and p160gag-pol and the overexpression of LysRS in HIV-1-producing cells resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of GAPDH packaging in HIV particles. In contrast, the viruses produced from cells expressing a high level of GAPDH showed decreased infectivity in TZM-bl cells and reverse transcription efficiency in TZM-bl cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
These findings indicate that GAPDH negatively regulates HIV-1 infection and provide insights into a novel function of GAPDH in the HIV-1 life cycle and a new host defense mechanism against HIV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nef is one of the accessory proteins of human immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we noted that the relative expression level of NefNL4-3 is much lower than that of NefJR-CSF in HEK293 cells. By evaluating the expression level using a Nef mutant, it was indicated that amino acids 129-206 of NefNL4-3, that is, the C-terminal region named NLAA129-206, could contain the region responsible for the induction of the low protein expression level. In addition, the expression levels of the enhanced green fluorescent protein and Renilla luciferase became extremely low with the fusion of NLAA129-206. Interestingly, the NLAA129-206-corresponding sequences of other Nef variants with relatively high expression levels also induced the extremely low protein expression level by fusion. These results suggest that the C-terminal region of Nef can generally induce an extremely low protein expression level. Here, we propose that the C-terminal region of Nef could become an excellent tool for the induction of an extremely low expression level of arbitrary proteins by attachment as fusion proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human α(1) -acid glycoprotein (AGP), a serum glycoprotein, is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. We recently reported that AGP was mainly incorporated into the liver in mice via a receptor-mediated pathway, although the mechanism for this was largely unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the specific cellular surface protein that recognizes the peptide moiety of AGP. Pharmacokinetic studies of (111) In-AGP and (111) In -recombinant glycan-deficient AGP (rAGP) in mice demonstrated that both AGPs are mainly distributed to the liver and kidney, but hepatic and renal uptake clearance of rAGP was higher than that for AGP. Hepatic uptake of rAGP was inhibited in the presence of 100-fold excess of unlabeled AGP, indicating that the hepatic uptake of rAGP shared a common route with that of AGP and that it recognized the peptide moiety of AGPs. In ligand blotting analyses using crude cellular membrane fraction of mice liver, a band corresponding to a 16 kDa protein was observed to bind to both AGPs. Interestingly, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF-MS and western blotting analyses indicated that this 16 kDa protein is the hemoglobin β-chain (HBB). It, therefore, appears that HBB is associated with the hepatic uptake of AGP via a direct interaction with its peptide moiety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients show the post-transplant progression of the clinical symptoms. Although the presence of recipient-derived cells in transplanted livers has been reported, no studies investigating the functional significance of this post-transplant chimerism in transplanted FAP patients were performed. The aims of this study were to evaluate amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) production of recipient-derived cells and the relationship between the protein from recipient-derived cells and the progression of FAP symptoms after liver transplantation (LT).
Seven FAP ATTR Val30Met patients who underwent LT were included in this study. In one male patient with sex-mismatched donor, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was performed on a liver biopsy sample using DNA probes for visualizing X and Y chromosomes to detect the recipient-derived cells. In three patients including the FISH-analysed patient, ATTR mRNA expression in transplanted livers was evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and realtime quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In five of the seven patients, ATTR in serum protein expression was measured by mass spectrometry.
One FAP patient has 3.1% recipient-derived cells in the transplanted liver. The ATTR mRNA was not expressed in any of the three transplanted livers. The ATTR was not detected in any sera of the sampled patients.
Although the FAP patient had recipient-derived cells in the transplanted liver, the recipient-derived cells did not contribute to the production of ATTR in our specific case. The effect of recipient-derived cells on the post-transplant progression of FAP symptoms may be negligible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The process by which the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) conical core dissociates is called uncoating, but not much is known about this process. Here, we show that the uncoating process requires the interaction of the capsid (CA) protein with the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 that specifically recognizes the phosphorylated serine/threonine residue followed by proline. We found that the HIV-1 core is composed of some isoforms of the CA protein with different isoelectric points, and one isoform is preferentially phosphorylated in the Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif. The mutant virus S16A/P17A shows a severely attenuated HIV-1 replication and an impaired reverse transcription. The S16A/P17A change increased the amount of particulate CA cores in the cytosol of target cells and correlated with the restriction of HIV-1 infection. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays demonstrated a direct interaction between Pin1 and the HIV-1 core via the Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif. Suppression of Pin1 expression by RNA interference in a target cell results in an attenuated HIV-1 replication and increases the amount of particulate CA cores in the cytosol of target cells. Furthermore, heat-inactivated, inhibitor-treated, or W34A/K63A Pin1 causes an attenuated in vitro uncoating of the HIV-1 core. The Pin1-dependent uncoating is inhibited by antisera raised against a CA peptide phosphorylated at Ser(16) or treatment of the HIV-1 core with alkaline phosphatase. These findings provide insights into this obscure uncoating process in the HIV-1 life cycle and a new cellular target for HIV-1 drug development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein is the principal structural component of the HIV particle. Localization of the Pr55(Gag) protein to the plasma membrane initiates virus assembly. Recent studies indicated that d-myo-phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) regulates Pr55(Gag) localization and assembly. We determined the binding affinity between Pr55(Gag) or its N-terminal MA domain and various phosphoinositide derivatives using a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and biotinylated inositol phosphate. The equilibrium dissociation constants obtained using this approach reflected the distinct magnitude of acyl group-based and phosphate group-based interactions. The dissociation constant (K(D)) for Pr55(Gag) complexed with 1,4,5-IP3 (an inositol with divalent phosphate groups and devoid of lipid groups) was 2170 microM, while the K(D) for di-C(8)-PI (a lipid-containing inositol devoid of divalent phosphate groups) was 186 microM, and the K(D) for di-C(8)-PI(4,5)P2 (an inositol with both lipid and divalent phosphate groups) was 47.4 microM. The same trend in affinity was observed when these phosphoinositides were complexed with MA. Our results suggest that the contribution of hydrophobic acyl chains is greater than negatively charged inositol phosphates in Pr55(Gag)/MA binding. Furthermore, each inositol phosphate (devoid of lipid groups) tested showed a distinct Pr55(Gag)-binding affinity depending on the position and number of phosphate groups. However, the position and number of phosphate groups had no effect on MA-binding affinity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon binding to CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 undergoes conformational changes that facilitate subsequent interactions with the chemokine coreceptor CXCR4 on the T cells. Our previous study showed that HIV-1 induces breast cancer cell death through gp120-CXCR4 interaction without CD4-induced conformational change of gp120. To characterize the structural properties of CXCR4 on breast cancer cells, the structural differences in CXCR4 between breast cancer cell lines and T cells were investigated. Immunoblots of whole cell lysates from breast cancer cell and T cell lines demonstrated that the predominant forms of CXCR4 on the breast cancer cell lines and T cell lines were three species (45, 61, 100 kDa) and one species (45 kDa), respectively. Cell surface biotin labeling revealed that the 100-kDa polyubiquitinated form of CXCR4 is specifically expressed on the surface of breast cancer cell line DU4475 but not T cell line Molt4#8. The treatment of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and DU4475 with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin leads to increased surface expression of the 100-kDa polyubiquitinated form of CXCR4 and increases the level of sensitivity to cell death induced by HIV-1. These data suggest that the 100-kDa polyubiquitinated form of CXCR4 plays an important role as a trigger for gp120-induced breast cancer cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) isozymes, i.e., NMT1 and NMT2, are essential host factors for the AIDS-causing human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), by which the viral proteins Pr55(gag) and Nef are N-myristoylated. N-Myristoylation is important for the membrane targeting of modified proteins. Since it is predicted that approximately 0.5% of all proteins in the human genome are N-myristoylated, selective inhibition of closely HIV-1-associated NMT isozymes is thought to be important for the improvement of specificity in the anti-HIV-1 strategy with the inhibition of NMT function. NMT isozymes contain two characteristic structures, the N-terminal region and the catalytic region. Here, it was shown that the N-terminal region of each NMT isozyme is required for isozyme-specific binding to the ribosome. The specific binding of each isozyme to the ribosome was associated with HIV-1 production, in which NMT1 and NMT2 in the ribosome were suggested to be mainly related to Pr55(gag) and Nef, respectively. These results indicate that the N-terminal region that mediates binding to the ribosome can become a target for NMT-isozyme-specific inhibition, which could block HIV-1 production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW 2200) chains were introduced into lysozyme molecule. The resulting pegylated lysozyme formed polypseudorotaxanes with alpha- and gamma-cyclodextrins (alpha- and gamma-CyDs, respectively), by inserting one PEG chain in the alpha-CyD cavity and two PEG chains in the gamma-CyD cavity. The pegylated lysozyme/CyD polypseudorotaxanes were less soluble in water and the release rate of the pegylated protein decreased in the order of the pegylated lysozyme>the gamma-CyD polypseudorotaxane>the alpha-CyD polypseudorotaxane. The enzymatic activity of the pegylated lysozyme released from the polypseudorotaxanes was the same as that of the pegylated protein alone, indicating no decrease in the activity through the polypseudorotaxane formation. The results indicate that the pegylated lysozyme/CyD polypseudorotaxanes can work as a slow-release system, and the polypseudorotaxane formation with CyDs may serve as a new strategy for the preparation of slow-release system of pegylated proteins and peptides.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2009; 374(1-2):26-32. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.02.017 · 3.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective uptake of Ags by specialized M cells of gut-associated lymphoid tissues is an important step in inducing efficient immune responses after oral vaccination. Although stable nontoxic small molecule mimetics of lectins, such as synthetic multivalent polygalloyl derivatives, may have potential in murine M cell targeting, it remains unclear whether synthetic multivalent polygalloyl derivatives effectively target nonhuman and human M cells. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a tetragalloyl derivative, the tetragalloyl-D-lysine dendrimer (TGDK), to target M cells in both in vivo nonhuman primate and in vitro human M-like cell culture models. TGDK was efficiently transported from the lumen of the intestinal tract into rhesus Peyer's patches by M cells and then accumulated in germinal centers. Oral administration of rhesus CCR5-derived cyclopeptide conjugated with TGDK in rhesus macaque resulted in a statistically significant increase in stool IgA response against rhesus CCR5-derived cyclopeptide and induced a neutralizing activity against SIV infection. Furthermore, TGDK was specifically bound to human M-like cells and efficiently transcytosed from the apical side to the basolateral side in the M-like cell model. Thus, the TGDK-mediated vaccine delivery system represents a potential approach for enabling M cell-targeted mucosal vaccines in primates.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2009; 182(10):6061-70. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0802928 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pegylation technology has been widely used to improve therapeutic efficacies of protein drugs and a number of selective- or randomly-substituted pegylated proteins are on the market. In this study, we prepared a insulin derivative substituted randomly with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW about 2200) and its polypseudorotaxanes with cyclodextrins (CyDs). The pegylated insulin formed polypseudorotaxanes with alpha- and gamma-CyDs, by inserting one PEG chain in the alpha-CyD cavity and two PEG chains in the gamma-CyD cavity. The pegylated insulin/CyD polypseudorotaxanes were less soluble in water. The release rate of the pegylated protein from its polypseudorotaxanes decreased in the order of drug alone>the gamma-CyD polypseudorotaxane>the alpha-CyD polypseudorotaxane. The pegylated insulin/gamma-CyD polypseudorotaxane displayed a significantly higher resistance to proteolysis. The results indicated that the CyD polypseudorotaxanes could be formed with randomly-pegylated insulin and work not only as a sustained release system, but also as a stabilizing agent to enzymatic degradations of pegylated insulin.