Francesco Pallone

University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, Latium, Italy

Are you Francesco Pallone?

Claim your profile

Publications (558)3315.78 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Crohn's Disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases involving a genetically determined inappropriate mucosal immune response towards luminal antigens, including resident bacterial flora. Recent studies identified susceptibility genes involved in autophagy.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an emerging family of innate hematopoietic cells producing inflammatory cytokines and involved in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize the tissue distribution of ILCs in celiac disease (CD), a gluten-driven enteropathy, and analyze their role in gut tissue damage. ILC subpopulations were analyzed in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) isolated from duodenal biopsies of CD patients and healthy controls (CTR) and jejunal specimens of patients undergoing gastro-intestinal bypass by flow cytometry. Cytokines and Toll-like receptors (TLR) were assessed in ILCs either freshly isolated or following incubation of control LPMC with peptidoglycan, poly I:C, or CpG, the agonists of TLR2, TLR3, or TLR9 respectively, by flow cytometry. The role of ILCs in gut tissue damage was evaluated in a mouse model of poly I:C-driven small intestine atrophy. Although the percentage of total ILCs did not differ between CD patients and CTR, ILCs producing TNF-α and IFN-γ were more abundant in CD mucosa compared to controls. ILCs expressed TLR2, TLR3 and TLR9 but neither TLR7 nor TLR4. Stimulation of LPMC with poly I:C but not PGN or CpG increased TNF-α and IFN-γ in ILCs. RAG1-deficient mice given poly I:C exhibited increased frequency of TNF-α but not IFN-γ/IL17A-producing ILCs in the gut and depletion of ILCs prevented the poly I:C-driven intestinal damage. Our data indicate that CD-related inflammation is marked by accumulation of ILCs producing TNF-α and IFN-γ in the mucosa. Moreover, ILCs express TLR3 and are functionally able to respond to poly I:C with increased synthesis of TNF-α thus contributing to small intestinal atrophy.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0126291. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126291 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the great success of anti-tumour necrosis factor-based therapies, the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) still remains a challenge for clinicians, as these drugs are not effective in all patients, their efficacy may wane with time, and their use can increase the risk of adverse events and be associated with the development of new immune-mediated diseases. Therefore, new therapeutic targets are currently being investigated both in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. Among the technologies used to build new therapeutic compounds, the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) approach is slowly gaining space in the field of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), and three ASOs have been investigated in clinical trials. Systemic administration of alicaforsen targeting intercellular adhesion molecule-1, a protein involved in the recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed intestine, was not effective in CD, even though the same compound was of benefit when given as an enema to UC patients. DIMS0150, targeting nuclear factor (NF) κB-p65, a transcription factor that promotes pro-inflammatory responses, was very promising in pre-clinical studies and is currently being tested in clinical trials. Oral mongersen, targeting Smad7, an intracellular protein that inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 activity, was safe and well tolerated by CD patients, and the results of a phase II clinical trial showed the efficacy of the drug in inducing clinical remission in patients with active disease. In this leading article, we review the rationale and the clinical data available regarding these three agents, and we discuss the challenge of using ASOs in IBD.
    Drugs 04/2015; 75(7). DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0391-0 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Copy number variations (CNVs) can contribute to genetic variation among individuals and/or have a significant influence in causing diseases. Many studies consider new CNVs' effects on protein family evolution giving rise to gene duplicates or losses. "Unsuccessful" duplicates that remain in the genome as pseudogenes often exhibit functional roles. So, changes in gene and pseudogene number may contribute to development or act as susceptibility alleles of diseases. We report a de novo heterozygous 271 Kb microdeletion at 8q21.2 region which includes the family of REXO1L genes and pseudogenes in a young man affected by global development delay, progeroid signs, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Molecular and cellular analysis showed that the REXO1L1 gene hemizygosity in a patient's fibroblasts induces genetic instability and increased apoptosis after treatment with different DNA damage-induced agents. The present results support the hypothesis that low copy gene number within REXO1L1 cluster could play a significant role in this complex clinical and cellular phenotype.
    BMC Medical Genetics 04/2015; 16(1):20. DOI:10.1186/s12881-015-0164-3 · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-274. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30902-1 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-162. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30543-6 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related tissue damage occurs in areas, which are massively infiltrated with monocytes/macrophages. These cells respond to inflammatory stimuli with enhanced production of cytokines/chemokines. In this study, we analyzed the expression and role of interleukin-34 (IL-34), a regulator of monocyte/macrophage differentiation, survival and function, in IBD. A significant increase in IL-34 mRNA and protein expression was seen in inflamed mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) as compared to the uninvolved areas of the same patients and normal controls. IL-34 was up-regulated in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) isolated from normal colon by TNF-a and toll-like receptor ligands and wasdown-regulated in intestinal biopsies and LPMC of IBD patients upon treatment with Infliximab. Treatment of normal LPMC with IL-34 increased TNF-αexpression in an ERK1/2-dependent fashion and neutralization of IL-34 in IBD mucosal explants reduced TNF-α and IL-6 synthesis. In conclusion, data indicate that IL-34 is up-regulated in IBD and suggest a role for this cytokine in sustaining the inflammatory responses in this disease.
    Clinical Science 03/2015; DOI:10.1042/CS20150132 · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease-related inflammation is characterized by reduced activity of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) due to high levels of SMAD7, an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling. Preclinical studies and a phase 1 study have shown that an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, mongersen, targets ileal and colonic SMAD7. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we evaluated the efficacy of mongersen for the treatment of persons with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 10, 40, or 160 mg of mongersen or placebo per day for 2 weeks. The primary outcomes were clinical remission at day 15, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of less than 150, with maintenance of remission for at least 2 weeks, and the safety of mongersen treatment. A secondary outcome was clinical response (defined as a reduction of 100 points or more in the CDAI score) at day 28. The proportions of patients who reached the primary end point were 55% and 65% for the 40-mg and 160-mg mongersen groups, respectively, as compared with 10% for the placebo group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants reaching clinical remission between the 10-mg group (12%) and the placebo group. The rate of clinical response was significantly greater among patients receiving 10 mg (37%), 40 mg (58%), or 160 mg (72%) of mongersen than among those receiving placebo (17%) (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Most adverse events were related to complications and symptoms of Crohn's disease. We found that study participants with Crohn's disease who received mongersen had significantly higher rates of remission and clinical response than those who received placebo. (Funded by Giuliani; EudraCT number, 2011-002640-27.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2015; 372(12):1104-13. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1407250 · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-21 triggers inflammatory signals that contribute to the growth of neoplastic cells in mouse models of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC). Because most CRCs are sporadic and arise in the absence of overt inflammation we have investigated the role of IL-21 in these tumors in mouse and man. IL-21 was highly expressed in human sporadic CRC and produced mostly by IFN-γ-expressing T-bet/RORγt double-positive CD3+CD8- cells. Stimulation of human CRC cell lines with IL-21 did not directly activate the oncogenic transcription factors STAT3 and NF-kB and did not affect CRC cell proliferation and survival. In contrast, IL-21 modulated the production of protumorigenic factors by human tumor infiltrating T cells. IL-21 was upregulated in the neoplastic areas, as compared with non-tumor mucosa, of Apc(min/+) mice, and genetic ablation of IL-21 in such mice resulted in a marked decrease of both tumor incidence and size. IL-21 deficiency was associated with reduced STAT3/NF-kB activation in both immune cells and neoplastic cells, diminished synthesis of protumorigenic cytokines (that is, IL-17A, IL-22, TNF-α and IL-6), downregulation of COX-2/PGE2 pathway and decreased angiogenesis in the lesions of Apc(min/+) mice. Altogether, data suggest that IL-21 promotes a protumorigenic inflammatory circuit that ultimately sustains the development of sporadic CRC.
    Oncotarget 03/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : The widespread use of thiopurines and anti-tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a rising concern regarding their potential cancer risk. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for articles regarding immunomodulators anti-TNF agents in IBD, hematologic malignancies, and solid tumors. Current evidences support that thiopurines and anti-TNFs used alone or in combination do not increase the overall cancer risk in IBD. Thiopurines use, with or without anti-TNFs, is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, particularly non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in Crohn's disease. Combined treatment significantly increases the risk of a rare hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma, particularly in young male patients with Crohn's disease. An increased risk of nonmelanotic skin cancer is also observed when using thiopurines in IBD, whereas a slightly increased risk of melanoma is observed when using anti-TNFs. The role played by immunomodulators in the development of other cancer types (i.e., urinary) as also by the severity of IBD is under investigation. Although the incidence of specific malignancies (lymphoma, skin cancers) seems to be increased by immunomodulators, their absolute number is low. As thiopurines and anti-TNFs are highly effective in IBD, current evidences support that in appropriate hands, their benefits overwhelm the cancer risk. However, a careful selection of both patients and timing of treatment is mandatory, particularly in young male patients with Crohn's disease. Immunomodulators should therefore be handled by experienced and dedicated gastroenterologists who aware of the potential, although low, cancer risk associated with their use in patients with IBD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 12/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000243 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : The etiologies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the 2 major forms of inflammatory bowel disease in humans, remain unknown, but experimental studies suggest that inflammatory bowel disease results from interaction between environmental and genetic factors, which promotes an exaggerated and inappropriately controlled inflammatory response that is directed against normal components of the gut flora. There is also evidence that tissue damage is due to a dynamic interplay between immune and nonimmune cells, and recruitment of lymphocytes from the blood stream to the gut wall is crucial for amplifying and sustaining the ongoing mucosal inflammation. These advances have led to the development of several compounds blocking gut homing of effector lymphocytes, which have recently been used or are now ready to move into clinical practice. This article summarizes the recent data on the use of integrin-targeting and adhesion molecule-targeting therapeutics to attenuate the detrimental inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 10/2014; 20(10):1885-1889. DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000091 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second cause of cancer-related death. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process, in which environmental and genetic factors interact to activate multiple intracellular signals thus leading to uncontrolled growth and survival of GC cells. One such a pathway is regulated by proteinase activated-receptors (PARs), seven transmembrane-spanning domain G protein-coupled receptors, which comprise four receptors (i.e., PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4) activated by various proteases. Both PAR-1 and PAR-2 are over-expressed on GC cells and their activation triggers and/or amplifies intracellular pathways, which sustain gastric carcinogenesis. There is also evidence that expression of either PAR-1 or PAR-2 correlates with depth of wall invasion and metastatic dissemination and inversely with the overall survival of patients. Consistently, data emerging from experimental models of GC suggest that both these receptors can be important targets for therapeutic interventions in GC patients. In contrast, PAR-4 levels are down-regulated in GC and correlate inversely with the aggressiveness of GC, thus suggesting a negative role of this receptor in the control of GC. In this article we review the available data on the expression and role of PARs in GC and discuss whether manipulation of PAR-driven signals may be useful for interfering with GC cell behavior.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 20(34):11977-11984. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i34.11977 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) often show a dense infiltrate of cytokine-producing immune/inflammatory cells. The exact contribution of each immune cell subset and cytokine in the activation of the intracellular pathways sustaining CRC cell growth is not understood. Herein, we isolate tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from the tumor area and the macroscopically unaffected, adjacent, colonic mucosa of patients who underwent resection for sporadic CRC and show that the culture supernatants of TILs, but not of LPMCs, potently enhance the growth of human CRC cell lines through the activation of the oncogenic transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). Characterization of immune cell complexity of TILs and LPMCs reveals no differences in the percentages of T cells, natural killer T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and B cells. However, T cells from TILs show a functional switch compared with those from LPMCs to produce large amounts of T helper type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines (that is, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6. Individual neutralization of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-α or IL-6 does not change TIL-derived supernatant-driven STAT3 and NF-kB activation, as well as their proproliferative effect in CRC cells. In contrast, simultaneous neutralization of both IL-17A and TNF-α, which abrogates NF-kB signaling, and IL-22 and IL-6, which abrogates STAT3 signaling, reduces the mitogenic effect of supernatants in CRC cells. IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-α and IL-6 are also produced in excess in the early colonic lesions in a mouse model of sporadic CRC, associated with enhanced STAT3/NF-kB activation. Mice therapeutically given BP-1-102, an orally bioavailable compound targeting STAT3/NF-kB activation and cross-talk, exhibit reduced colon tumorigenesis and diminished expression of STAT3/NF-kB-activating cytokines in the neoplastic areas. These data suggest that strategies aimed at the cotargeting of STAT3/NF-kB activation and interaction between them might represent an attractive and novel approach to combat CRC.Oncogene advance online publication, 1 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.286.
    Oncogene 09/2014; DOI:10.1038/onc.2014.286 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: IL-21, a cytokine produced by activated CD4+ cells, activated natural killer T cells and T helper cells in the germinal centers, is involved in the control of the function of both immune and parenchymal cells.Areas covered: IL-21 is overproduced in many chronic inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, and studies in experimental models indicate that IL-21 plays an important role in sustaining tissue-damaging immune responses in such pathologies. However, genetic deficiency of IL-21 associates with inflammatory bowel diseases and blockade of IL-21 in the early phases exacerbates the disease progression in some models of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, thus suggesting a dual role of IL-21 in the control of immune-mediated diseases. IL-21 can exert additional protective functions for the host as it promotes cytotoxic responses against tumors and viruses.Expert opinion: We here review the available data on the role of IL-21 in chronic inflammatory diseases and discuss the therapeutic benefit of IL-21 inhibitors in such diseases as well as the potential risks of such treatments.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 08/2014; 18(11). DOI:10.1517/14728222.2014.945426 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The clinical presentation of organic and functional intestinal disorders can overlap and clinicians often rely on invasive and time-consuming procedures to make a final diagnosis. Regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (Reg3α) is detectable in the circulation of patients with intestinal graft-versus host disease and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).AimTo determine whether serum Reg3α testing is useful for discriminating mucosal enteropathies from functional intestinal disorders.Methods We prospectively included 47 patients with active coeliac disease (ACD), 13 patients with refractory coeliac disease (RCD), seven patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 72 patients with active Crohn's disease, 22 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) and 28 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-related diarrhoea. Sera were also taken from 10 CD patients before and after 6–12 months of a gluten-free diet (GFD) and from 14 patients with IBD before and after induction therapy with Infliximab (IFX). Sera of 119 healthy volunteers were used to determine the cut-off value. Reg3α levels were measured by a commercial ELISA kit.ResultsLevels of Reg3α exceeded the cut-off value of the assay in 43/47(91%) ACD patients, 13/13(100%) RCD patients, 7/7(100%) CVID patients, 65/72(90%) Crohn's disease patients, 17/22(77%) UC patients and one patient with IBS(4%). Reg3α levels distinguished mucosal enteropathies from IBS with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 96%. Reg3α levels significantly decreased in CD patients following a GFD and in IBD patients after treatment with IFX.Conclusion Reg3α is a serum biomarker of intestinal damage that, combined with clinical data, identifies patients who should undergo invasive tests for diagnosing enteropathies.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/2014; 40(8). DOI:10.1111/apt.12920 · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Colonic metaplasia has been described in pouchitis. In a prospective study, we investigated whether colonic phenotype may develop in Crohn's disease (CD) ileum. The expression of sulfomucins (colonic mucin), sialomucins, and CD10 (small intestine mucin and phenotype) was evaluated before and after ileocolonic resection for CD. Methods: From February 2007 to March 2010, 22 patients with CD undergoing surgery were enrolled. Clinical (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and endoscopic recurrence (Rutgeerts score >= 1) rates were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Ileal samples were taken at surgery (T0), at 6 (T1), and 12 months (T2) for histology, histochemistry (High Iron Diamine-Alcian Blue), and immunohistochemistry (anti-CD10). Results: In 22 patients, recurrence was assessed at 6 and 12 months (clinical recurrence 9% and 18%; endoscopic recurrence 73% and 77%). In all 22 patients, ileal samples were taken at 6 and 12 months (involved area in patients with recurrence). In 19 of 22 (86.3%) patients, the involved ileum was also studied at surgery. At T0, T1, and T2, the expression of sialomucins and CD10 (small intestine mucin and phenotype) was comparable and higher (P < 0.0001) than the expression of sulfomucins (colonic mucin) (mean [range], T0: 82 [35-100] versus 75 [0-100] versus 16 [0-50]; T1: 96 [60-100] versus 94.7 [50-100] versus 3.89 [0-40]; T2: 93.3 [60-100] versus 88.1 [25-100] versus 6.6 [0-40]). The expression of small-intestine mucin and phenotype was higher at T1 (P = 0.025) versus T0 (P = 0.026). Differently, the expression of colonic mucin was lower at T1 versus T0 (P = 0.027). Conclusions: In CD, the ileum involved by severe/established lesions develops a "metaplastic" colonic mucosa phenotype. Differently, CD ileum with no lesions or with early recurrence maintains the "native" small intestine type mucin secretion and phenotype.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 07/2014; 20(9). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000127 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of hematopoietic cells devoid of antigen receptors that have important functions in lymphoid organogenesis, in the defense against extracellular pathogens, and in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier. Three distinct groups of ILCs have been identified on the basis of phenotypic and functional criteria and termed ILCs1, ILCs2, and ILCs3. Specifically, ILCs1 express the transcription factor T-bet and secrete T helper type-1- (Th1-) related cytokines, ILCs2 are dependent on the transcription factor RORα and express Gata-3 and the chemokine receptor homologous molecule (CRTH2) and produce Th2-related cytokines, and ILCs3 express the transcription factor RORγt and synthesize interleukin- (IL-) 17, IL-22, and, under specific stimuli, interferon-γ. ILCs represent a relatively small population in the gut, but accumulating evidence suggests that these cells could play a decisive role in orchestrating both protective and detrimental immune responses. In this review, we will summarize the present knowledge on the distribution of ILCs in the intestinal mucosa, with particular focus on their role in the control of both infections and effector cytokine response in immune-mediated pathologies.
    Mediators of Inflammation 07/2014; 2014:235460. DOI:10.1155/2014/235460 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2014; 73(Suppl 2):211-212. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-eular.3625 · 9.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), tissue damage is driven by an excessive immune response, poorly controlled by counter-regulatory mechanisms. SIRT1, a class III NAD+-dependent deacetylase, regulates negatively the expression of various proteins involved in the control of immune-inflammatory pathways, such as Stat3, Smad7, and NF-κB. Here we examined the expression, regulation, and function of SIRT1 in IBD. SIRT1 RNA and protein expression was less pronounced in whole biopsies and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) of IBD patients in comparison with normal controls. SIRT1 expression was downregulated in control LPMC by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-21, and upregulated in IBD LPMC by neutralizing TNF-α and IL-21antibodies. Consistently, SIRT1 expression was increased in mucosal samples taken from IBD patients successfully treated with Infliximab. Treatment of IBD LPMC with Cay10591, a specific SIRT1 activator, reduced NF-κB activation and inhibited inflammatory cytokine synthesis, whereas Ex527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased interferon (IFN)-γ in control LPMC. SIRT1 was also reduced in mice with colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid or oxazolone. Cay10591 prevented and cured experimental colitis whereas Ex527 exacerbated disease by modulating T cell-derived cytokine response. Data indicate that SIRT1 is downregulated in IBD patients and colitic mice and suggest that SIRT1 activation can help attenuate inflammatory signals in the gut.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 21 May 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.35.
    Mucosal Immunology 05/2014; 7(6). DOI:10.1038/mi.2014.35 · 7.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the gut is massively infiltrated with B cells and plasma cells, but the role of these cell types in the pathogenesis of gut tissue damage remains largely unknown. Human B cells express granzyme B (GrB) when cultured with IL-21, a cytokine overproduced in CD and UC mucosa. We therefore examined whether mucosal B cells express GrB and have cytotoxic activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GrB-expressing CD19(+) and IgA(+) cells were seen in the normal intestinal mucosa, but they were significantly more frequent in both CD and UC. In contrast, only a minority of CD19(+) and IgA(+) cells expressed perforin with no difference between IBD and controls. GrB-producing CD19(+) cells expressed CD27 and were CD38(high) and CD20 negative. CD19(+) B cells from IBD patients induced HCT-116 cell death. IL-21 enhanced GrB expression in control CD19(+) B cells and increased their cytotoxic activity. These data indicate that IBD-related inflammation is marked by mucosal accumulation of cytotoxic, GrB-expressing CD19(+) and IgA(+) cells, suggesting a role for these cells in IBD-associated epithelial damage.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 05/2014; 192(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302238 · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
3,315.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      • • Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi
      • • Centro di Eccellenza per lo Studio del Rischio Genomico in Patologie Complesse Multifattoriali
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1981–2013
    • The American University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2009
    • Università Degli Studi Roma Tre
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2007
    • Policlinico Tor Vergata
      • Medicina Interna
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1991–2007
    • Universita' degli Studi "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy
  • 2004
    • Yamaguchi University
      Yamaguti, Yamaguchi, Japan
  • 2002
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
    • Università degli Studi Europea di Roma
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2001
    • LIUCBM Libera Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1984–2000
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Experimental Medicine
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1995–1998
    • Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria
      Reggio di Calabria, Calabria, Italy
    • Università della Calabria
      Rende, Calabria, Italy
  • 1990
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1985
    • Umberto I Policlinico di Roma
      Roma, Latium, Italy