Lars Edvinsson

Copenhagen University Hospital, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (290)932.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sex differences are well known in cerebral ischemia and may impact the effect of stroke treatments. In male rats, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduces ischemia-induced endothelin type B (ETB) receptor upregulation, infarct size and improves acute neurologic function after experimental stroke. However, responses to this treatment in females and long-term effects on outcome are not known. Initial experiments used in vitro organ culture of cerebral arteries, confirming ERK1/2 activation and increased ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in female cerebral arteries. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, 120 minutes) was induced in female Wistar rats, with U0126 (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle administered at 0 and 24 hours of reperfusion, or with no treatment. Infarct volumes were determined and neurologic function was assessed by 6-point and 28-point neuroscores. ETB receptor-mediated contraction was studied with myograph and protein expression with immunohistochemistry. In vitro organ culture and tMCAO resulted in vascular ETB receptor upregulation and activation of ERK1/2 that was prevented by U0126. Although no effect on infarct size, U0126 improved the long-term neurologic function after experimental stroke in female rats. In conclusion, early prevention of the ERK1/2 activation and ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the cerebral vasculature after ischemic stroke in female rats improves the long-term neurologic outcome.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.217.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 12/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background It has been suggested that transcriptional upregulation of cerebral artery contractile endothelin (ETB) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptors play an important role in the development of late cerebral ischemia and increased vasoconstriction after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) may reduce cerebral vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin and serotonin receptors and improve neurological outcome after experimental SAH.MethodsSAH was induced in adult rats by injection of 250 ¿L autologous blood into the basal cisterns. The CaMKII activity in cerebral vessels was studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The vasomotor responses of middle cerebral and basilar arteries were measured in a sensitive myograph system. The functional outcome was examined by the rotating pole test 2 and 3 days after SAH.ResultsSAH induced a rapid early increase in phosphorylated CaMKII protein at 1 h that was attenuated by cisternal administration of the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 (0.501 ¿g/kg) 45 min prior and immediately after SAH as evaluated by Western blot. Application of KN93 at 1 h and every 12 h post-SAH significantly reduced vascular CaMKII immunoreactivity at 72 h. In addition, contractile responses of cerebral arteries to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxycarboxamide (5-CT) were increased at this time-point. KN93 treatment significantly attenuated the contraction induced by ET-1 and 5-CT. Importantly, treatment with the CaMKII inhibitor prevented SAH-induced deficits in neurological function, as evaluated by the rotating pole test, and similar sensorimotor scores were seen in sham-operated animals.Conclusions The present study has shown that SAH is associated with increased contractile responses to ET-1 and 5-CT in cerebral arteries and enhanced early activation of CaMKII. Treatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 attenuated the contractile responses and prevented impaired sensorimotor function after SAH.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 12/2014; 11(1):207. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased expression of endothelin receptor type B (ETBR), a vasoactive receptor, has recently been implied in the reduced cerebral blood flow and exacerbated neuronal damage after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The study explores the regulatory mechanisms of ETBR to identify drug targets to restore normal cerebral artery contractile function as part of successful neuroprotective therapy. We have employed in vitro methods on human and rat cerebral arteries to study the regulatory mechanisms and the efficacy of target selective inhibitor, Mithramycin A (MitA), to block the ETBR mediated contractile properties. Later, middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats were used to substantiate the observations. Quantative PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and wire myograph methods were employed to study the expression and contractile properties of cerebral arteries. Increased expression of specificity protein (Sp1) was observed in human and rat cerebral arteries after organ culture, strongly correlating with the ETBR upregulation. Similar observations were made in MCAO rats. Treatment with MitA, a Sp1 specific inhibitor, significantly downregulated the ETBR mRNA and protein levels. It also significantly reduced the ETBR mediated cerebrovascular contractility. Detailed analysis indicated that ERK1/2 mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 might be essential for ETBR transcription. Transcription factor Sp1 regulates the ETBR mediated vasoconstriction in focal cerebral ischemia via MEK-ERK signaling, which is also conserved in humans. The results show that MitA can effectively be used to block ETBR mediated vasoconstriction as a supplement to an existing ischemic stroke therapy.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113624. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have demonstrated anti-migraine efficacy. One remaining question is where do these blockers act? We hypothesized that the trigeminal ganglion could be one possible site. We examined the binding sites of a CGRP receptor antagonist (MK-3207) and related this to the expression of CGRP and its receptor in rhesus trigeminal ganglion. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and glutamate were examined and related to the CGRP system. Furthermore, we examined if the trigeminal ganglion is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Autoradiography was performed with [(3)H]MK-3207 to demonstrate receptor binding sites in rhesus trigeminal ganglion (TG). Immunofluorescence was used to correlate binding and the presence of CGRP and its receptor components, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and the distribution of PACAP and glutamate in rhesus and rat TG. Evans blue was used to examine large molecule penetration into the rat TG. High receptor binding densities were found in rhesus TG. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of CGRP, CLR and RAMP1 in trigeminal cells. CGRP positive neurons expressed PACAP but not glutamate. Some neurons expressing CLR and RAMP1 co-localized with glutamate. Evans blue revealed that the TG is not protected by BBB. This study demonstrates CGRP receptor binding sites and expression of the CGRP receptor in rhesus and rat TG. The expression pattern of PACAP and glutamate suggests a possible interaction between the glutamatergic and CGRP system. In rat the TG is outside the BBB, suggesting that molecules do not need to be CNS-penetrant to block these receptors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain Research 11/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Gro K Povlsen, Lars Edvinsson
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm and late cerebral ischemia (LCI) remain leading causes of mortality in patients experiencing a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This occurs typically 3 to 4 days after the initial bleeding and peaks at 5 to 7 days. The underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Because SAH is associated with elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), focus has been on counteracting endothelin receptor activation with receptor antagonists like clazosentan, however, with poor outcome in clinical trials. We hypothesize that inhibition of intracellular transcription signaling will be an effective approach to prevent LCI. Here, we compare the effects of clazosentan versus the MEK1/2 blocker U0126 in a rat model of SAH. Although clazosentan directly inhibits the contractile responses in vivo to ET-1, it did not prevent SAH-induced upregulation of ET receptors in cerebral arteries and did not show a beneficial effect on neurologic outcome. U0126 had no vasomotor effect by itself but counteracts SAH-induced receptor upregulation in cerebral arteries and improved outcome after SAH. We suggest that because SAH induces elevated expression of several contractile receptor subtypes, it is not sufficient to block only one of these (ET receptors) but inhibition of transcriptional MEK1/2-mediated upregulation of several contractile receptors may be a viable way towards alleviating LCI.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.205.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 11/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    Kristian Agmund Haanes, Lars Edvinsson
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    ABSTRACT: The dura mater and its vasculature have for decades been central in the hypothesis of migraine and headache pathophysiology. Although recent studies have questioned the role of the vasculature as the primary cause, dural vessel physiology is still relevant in understanding the complex pathophysiology of migraine. The aim of the present study was to isolate the middle meningeal artery (MMA) from rodents and characterize their purinergic receptors using a sensitive wire myograph method and RT-PCR. The data presented herein suggest that blood flow through the MMA is, at least in part, regulated by purinergic receptors. P2X1 and P2Y6 receptors are the strongest contractile receptors and, surprisingly, ADPβS caused contraction most likely via P2Y1 or P2Y13 receptors, which is not observed in other arteries. Adenosine addition, however, caused relaxation of the MMA. The adenosine relaxation could be inhibited by SCH58261 (A2A receptor antagonist) and caffeine (adenosine receptor antagonist). This gives one putative molecular mechanism for the effect of caffeine, often used as an adjuvant remedy of cranial pain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression data for the receptors correlate well with the functional findings. Together these observations could be used as targets for future understanding of the in vivo role of purinergic receptors in the MMA.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108782. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients with moderate or severe migraine headache had elevated PACAP in the external jugular vein during headache (n = 15), that was reduced 1 h after treatment with sumatriptan 6 mg (n = 11), and further reduced interictally (n = 9). The data suggest PACAP, or its receptors, are a promising target for migraine therapeutics.
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist telcagepant might be effective for migraine prevention.
    Neurology 08/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • Kristian Agmund Haanes, Lars Edvinsson
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular UDP-glucose can activate the purinergic P2Y14 receptor. The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological importance of P2Y14 receptors in the vasculature. The data presented herein show that UDP-glucose causes contraction in mouse coronary and basilar arteries. The EC50 values and immunohistochemistry illustrated strongest P2Y14 receptor expression in the basilar artery. In the presence of pertussis toxin, UDP-glucose inhibited contraction in coronary arteries and in the basilar artery it surprisingly caused relaxation. After organ culture of the coronary artery, the EC50 value decreased and an increased staining for the P2Y14 receptor was observed, showing receptor plasticity.
    FEBS Letters 06/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral ischemia induces transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory genes in the brain parenchyma and in cerebral arteries, thereby contributing to the infarct development. The present study was designed to evaluate the involvement of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) II and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) on inflammatory mediators in rat cerebral arteries using organ culture as a method for inducing ischemic-like vascular wall changes.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 05/2014; 11(1):90. · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Lars Edvinsson
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and its receptors (PAC1 , VPAC1 and VPAC2 ) are present in sensory neurons and in vascular smooth muscle related to the trigeminovascular system, a key factor in migraine pain. Recent data point to an involvement of PACAP, and in particular the PAC1 receptor, in the pathophysiology of migraine. Available data are discussed in relation to a study by Walker in this issue of the Journal with the goal of identifying possibilities for the development of novel antagonists and to further define the role of PACAP in migraine pathophysiology and as a new target for antimigraine therapeutics.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Migraine attacks occur spontaneously in those who suffer from the condition, but migraine-like attacks can also be induced artificially by a number of substances. Previously published evidence makes the meninges a likely source of migraine related pain. This article investigates the effect of several vasodilators on meningeal arteries in order to find a connection between the effect of a substance on a meningeal vessel and its ability to artificially induce migraine. A myograph setup was used to test the vasodilator properties of the substances acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sildenafil, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38 (PACAP-38), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and NaCl buffer on meningeal arteries from human and rat. An unpaired t-test was used to statistically compare the mean Emax(%) at the highest concentration of each substance to the Emax(%) of NaCl buffer. In the human experiments, all substances except PACAP-38 had an Emax(%) higher than the NaCl buffer, but the difference was only significant for SNP and CGRP. For the human samples, clinically tested antimigraine compounds (sumatriptan, telcagepant) were applied to the isolated arteries, and both induced a significant decrease of the effect of exogenously administrated CGRP. In experiments on rat middle meningeal arteries, pre-contracted with PGF2alpha, similar tendencies were seen. When the pre-contraction was switched to K+ in a separate series of experiments, CGRP and sildenafil significantly relaxed the arteries. Still no definite answer can be given as to why pain is experienced during an attack of migraine. No clear correlation was found between the efficacy of a substance as a meningeal artery vasodilator in human and the ability to artificially induce migraine or the mechanism of action. Vasodilatation could be an essential trigger, but only in conjunction with other unknown factors. The vasculature of the meninges likely contributes to the propagation of the migrainal cascade of symptoms, but more research is needed before any conclusions can be drawn about the nature of this contribution.
    The Journal of Headache and Pain 04/2014; 15(1):22. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest is associated with increased cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, contributing to delayed neuronal cell death and neurological detriments in affected patients. We hypothesize that upregulation of contractile ETB and 5-HT1B receptors, previously demonstrated in cerebral arteries after experimental global ischemia, are a key mechanism behind insufficient perfusion of the post-ischemic brain, proposing blockade of this receptor upregulation as a novel target for prevention of cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischemia. The aim was to characterize the time-course of receptor upregulation and associated neuronal damage after global ischemia and investigate whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and thereby improve functional outcome after global cerebral ischemia. Incomplete global cerebral ischemia was induced in Wistar rats and the time-course of enhanced contractile responses and the effect of U0126 in cerebral arteries were studied by wire myography and the neuronal cell death by TUNEL. The expression of ETB and 5-HT1B receptors was determined by immunofluorescence. Enhanced vasoconstriction peaked in fore- and midbrain arteries 3 days after ischemia. Neuronal cell death appeared initially in the hippocampus 3 days after ischemia and gradually increased until 7 days post-ischemia. Treatment with U0126 normalised cerebrovascular ETB and 5-HT1B receptor expression and contractile function, reduced hippocampal cell death and improved survival rate compared to vehicle treated animals. Excessive cerebrovascular expression of contractile ETB and 5-HT1B receptors is a delayed response to global cerebral ischemia peaking 3 days after the insult, which likely contributes to the development of delayed neuronal damage. The enhanced cerebrovascular contractility can be prevented by treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, diminishes neuronal damage and improves survival rate, suggesting MEK1/2 inhibition as a novel strategy for early treatment of neurological consequences following global cerebral ischemia.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92417. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is normally present in low levels in the circulation, but it is elevated in parallel with the degree of congestion in heart failure subjects (CHF). BNP has natriuretic effects and is a potent vasodilator. It is suggested that BNP could be a therapeutic alternative in CHF. However, we postulated that the high levels of circulating BNP in CHF may downregulate the response of microvascular natriuretic receptors. This was tested by comparing 15 CHF patients (BNP > 3000 ng/L) with 10 matched, healthy controls. Cutaneous microvascular blood flow in the forearm was measured by laser Doppler Flowmetry. Local heating (+44°C, 10 min) was used to evoke a maximum local dilator response. Non-invasive iontophoretic administration of either BNP or acetylcholine (ACh), a known endothelium-dependent dilator, elicited an increase in local flow. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, l-N-Arginine- methyl-ester (L-NAME), blocked the BNP response (in controls). Interestingly, responses to BNP in CHF patients were reduced to about one third of those seen in healthy controls (increase in flow: 251% in CHF vs. 908% in controls; P < 0.001). In contrast, the vasodilator responses to ACh and to local heating were only somewhat attenuated in CHF patients. Thus, dilator capacity and nitric oxide signalling were not affected to the same extent as BNP-mediated dilation, indicating a specific downregulation of the latter response. The findings show for the first time that microvascular responses to BNP are markedly reduced in CHF patients. This is consistent with the hypothesis of BNP receptor function is downregulated in CHF.
    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 03/2014; 11(1):50-6. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular mechanisms behind increased cerebral vasospasm and local inflammation in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly elucidated. Using system biology tools and experimental SAH models, we have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor as a possible major regulatory molecule. On the basis of the presence of transcription factor binding sequence in the promoters of differentially regulated genes (significant enrichment PE: 6 × 10(5)) and the consistent expression of STAT3 (mRNA, P=0.0159 and Protein, P=0.0467), we hypothesize that unphosphorylated STAT3 may directly DNA bind and probably affect the genes that are involved in inflammation and late cerebral ischemia to influence the pathologic progression of SAH.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 12 February 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.15.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 02/2014; · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most often followed by a delayed phase of cerebral ischemia which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The causes underlying this delayed phase are still unsettled, but are believed to include cerebral vasospasm, cortical spreading depression, inflammatory reactions, and microthrombosis. Additionally, a large body of evidence indicates that vascular plasticity plays an important role in SAH pathophysiology, and this review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells of the cerebral vasculature following SAH. In light of the emerging view that the whole cerebral vasculature and the cells of the brain parenchyma should be viewed as one integrated neurovascular network, phenotypical changes are discussed both for the cerebral arteries and the microvasculature. Furthermore, the intracellular signaling involved in the vascular plasticity is discussed with a focus on the Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway which seems to play a crucial role in SAH pathology.
    Translational Stroke Research 01/2014;
  • Yaping Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lars Edvinsson, Cang-Bao Xu
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) causes endothelial dysfunction in the initial stage of atherogenesis. The present study was designed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. Rat mesenteric arteries were organ cultured in presence of different concentrations of ApoB or LDL. Vasodilation induced by acetylcholine was monitored by a sensitive myograph. Nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin (PGI2) pathways were characterized by using specific pathway inhibitors. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy were used to examine alteration of mRNA and protein expressions for NO synthases (eNOS and iNOS) and cycloxygenase (COX), respectively. Lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In presence of either LDL or ApoB for 24h concentration-dependently attenuated the endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Immunohistochemistry staining of endothelial cell marker CD31 were weaker in presence of LDL, indicating that LDL induced damage to the endothelium. Using the pathway specific inhibitors demonstrated that LDL-induced impairing vasodilation was mainly due to attenuation of NO pathway. This was supported by decreasing mRNA (real-time PCR) and protein expression (immunohistochemistry) for eNOS and iNOS, but not COX, in presence of LDL. In addition, the levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased in presence of LDL for 24h. In conclusion, ApoB of LDL impairs vasodilation with damaging the endothelium and attenuating the NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation, which might associate with lipid peroxidation and contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease.
    European journal of pharmacology 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ETB) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ETB receptor expression and if extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways are involved in this process. Rat mesenteric artery segments were organ cultured in presence and absence of LDL with or without inhibitors for MAPK kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), p38 and transcription. The upregulation of vasoconstrictive ETB receptor expression was studied using a sensitive myograph, real-time PCR and Western blot. LDL (11, 22 and 44mg protein/L) concentration-dependently induced upregulation of vasoconstrictive ETB receptor expression with increase in the receptor-mediated vasoconstriction, elevated levels of the ETB receptor mRNA and protein expressions, and activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Blockage of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathways using MEK1/2 inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) or p38 inhibitors (SB203580 and SB239063) significantly abolished the LDL-induced upregulation of vasoconstrictive ETB receptor expression. Actinomycin D (general transcriptional inhibitor) almost completely inhibited the LDL effects. In conclusion, LDL induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ETB receptor expression through activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathways-dependent transcriptional mechanisms.
    Vascular Pharmacology 12/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • Ivan Dimitrijevic, Lars Edvinsson
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is a locally produced vasoactive peptide with proinflammatory capabilities. Systemic levels of ET-1 seem elevated in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the endothelin system in patients with GPA using nasal mucosal biopsies. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded nasal mucous membranes from eight patients with GPA and eight controls were analyzed for ET-1 type A receptor (ETAR) and type B receptor (ETBR) expression using immunohistochemistry. ETAR immunostaining was localized only to a few inflammatory cells and to multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) in the nasal mucosa in GPA subjects. Intense ETBR immunostaining was localized to lymphocytes and MGC in the nasal granulomatous lesions in GPA. CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD68(+) lymphocytes expressed ETBRs in GPA subjects. This observation shows that ETBR(+) lymphocyte expression predominates in nasal granulomatous lesions in GPA compared with ETAR. ETBR immunostaining is located to T cells, CD68(+) cells, and MGCs. ETBR may play an active role in the progression of granulomatous lesions in GPA.
    American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 11/2013; 27(6):444-50.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
932.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1980–2014
    • Lund University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Clinical Pharmacology
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2013
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Farmacology and Vascular Medicine
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2010–2013
    • Fourth Military Medical University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Xi’an, Liaoning, China
  • 2000–2013
    • Glostrup Hospital
      • • Department of Clinical Experimental Research
      • • Department of Neurology
      Glostrup, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2012
    • Region Hovedstaden
      Hillerød, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Szeged
      • Department of Neurology
      Szeged, Csongrad megye, Hungary
  • 2005–2011
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009
    • Windsor Regional Hospital
      Windsor, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006–2009
    • Skåne University Hospital
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2007–2008
    • Rigshospitalet
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Neurology
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2005–2006
    • Xi'an Jiaotong University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Xi’an, Shaanxi Sheng, China
  • 2001–2006
    • Malmö University
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
    • New York State
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Danish Archaea Centre (DAC)
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1999
    • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
      Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
  • 1993–1994
    • Prince Henry's Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1990
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte
      Hellebæk, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1985
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom