E E A Simpson

University of Ulster, Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom

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Publications (10)23.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An increased rate of bone turnover increases risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D that contributes to an elevated rate of bone turnover in older adults is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biochemical markers of bone turnover in an older, pan-European cohort. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum markers of bone-formation (osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) were assessed by ELISA, while urinary markers of bone-resorption (pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline) were assessed by HPLC. Six percent, 36 %, and 64 % of subjects had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations < 25, < 50, and < 80 nmol/L throughout the year, respectively. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly and inversely correlated with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.119; p = 0.022) and urinary pyridinoline (r = 0.207; p < 0.0001) and deoxypyridinoline (r = 0.230; p < 0.0001). Stratification on the basis of tertiles [T] of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (< 47.6 [T(1)]; 47.6 - 85.8 [T₂]; > 85.8 [T₃] nmol/L), showed that urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were significantly lower in subjects in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) compared to the 1(st) tertile (p < 0.015). Low vitamin D status (< 50 nmol/L) was associated with an increased rate of bone turnover in this older pan-European cohort.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 09/2011; 81(5):277-85. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data from human studies that have investigated the association between vitamin D status and cognitive function in elderly adults are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status (reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) in older European subjects (n=387; aged 55-87 years) and examine its association with measures of cognitive function. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas measures of cognitive function were assessed using a comprehensive Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB). In all, 12, 36 and 64% of subjects had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30, <50 and <80 nmol/l, respectively, throughout the year. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely correlated with four assessments within the spatial working memory (SWM) test parameter (SWM between errors (r=-0.166; P=0.003); SWM between errors 8 boxes (r=-0.134; P=0.038); SWM strategy (r=-0.246; P<0.0001); and SWM total errors (r=-0.174; P<0.003)). When subjects were stratified on the basis of tertiles (T) of serum 25(OH)D (<47.6 (T(1)); 47.6-85.8 (T(2)); and >85.8 (T(3)) nmol/l), fewer errors in SWM test scores occurred in subjects in the third T when compared with the first T (P<0.05-0.084). Stratification by sex showed that these differences between tertiles strengthened (P<0.001-0.043) in the females, but the differences were not significant (P>0.6) in males. Vitamin D insufficiency, but not deficiency, is widespread in the older population of several European countries. Low vitamin D status was associated with a reduced capacity for SWM, particularly in women.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2010; 64(10):1172-8. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to provide descriptive information on anthropometric status, pathological conditions, cognitive impairment and lifestyle in apparently healthy elderly Italian people. In order to recruit the volunteers for the ZENITH study, 359 Italian participants (167 men and 192 women), aged between 70 and 85 years, free living in Rome, were selected. Volunteers underwent a full clinical examination, anthropometric measurements (height, weight), a lifestyle questionnaire and mental health assessment (cognitive impairment and depression). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was high (57% and 22% in men; 43% and 27% in women). Obesity was associated with low socio-economic profile in about 40% of participants. Although the sample was selected by family doctors and was apparently healthy, after medical screening the presence of several pathologies, particularly diabetes in 21% of participants was observed. There was a low prevalence of cognitive impairment in 4% of men and 7% of women and possible depression in 9% of men and 19% of women. The lifestyle questionnaire showed that most of their time was spent in light activities such as reading, watching TV or playing cards and significant differences between sex and BMI categories were observed (P=0.000). The results confirm the increasingly sedentary lifestyle of modern populations and demonstrate the need for sensitive and individualised strategies to design appropriate health promotion and disease prevention programs for older adults.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2007; 11(2):165-74. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe health and lifestyle factors of participants in the ZENITH study. A prospective multicentre intervention study employing a randomised double-blind design. Community dwelling older adults (n = 387), aged 55-87 y were recruited from regions in France, Italy and the UK. A self-report questionnaire comprising socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, physical activity in the home, at work and recreation. Participants differed with regards dietary habits and physical activity for each region. Recreational activity was higher in France and women generally tend to perform less hours of recreational activity per week than men. The differences found for these regions of Europe in relation to lifestyle factors will affect health and well-being within these countries and may mediate the impact of zinc supplementation on various biological and psychological parameters.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2005; 59 Suppl 2:S13-21. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the quality of positive and negative affect (mood) in an ageing European sample. Mood quality has important implications for both physical and mental wellbeing. Poor quality moods are associated with deficits in the diverse areas of cognitive function, health, and social relationships. The ageing process presents a number of potential challenges to successful mood regulation that could have wider implications. The current study examines the quality of positive and negative affect in 387 healthy participants from three European countries. Moods were measured four times a day for 4-7 d with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) mood scales. Measures of zinc (Zn) status were taken also. Two centres concentrated on 55-70 yr olds (Coleraine, N.Ireland, n = 93 and Clermont-Ferrand, France, n = 95), and two centres concentrated on 70-87 yr olds (Rome, Italy, n = 108, and Grenoble, France, n = 91). Positive affect scores for the centre in Rome were significantly (P < 0.01) lower than for the other three centres, and the Grenoble centre had significantly (P < 0.05) higher scores on negative affect than the other three centres. Mood was not related to measures of zinc status (all Ps > 0.05). The two centres with the oldest participants showed deficits in mood quality that may have implications for broader well-being.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2005; 59 Suppl 2:S22-5. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related decline in taste acuity may be both a cause and an effect of depleted zinc and/or increased zinc requirement. The aim of this study was to explore associations between zinc status and taste acuity in healthy older European adults aged 55-90 y. Volunteers were recruited within Italy (n = 108 aged 70-90 y), the United Kingdom (UK) (n = 93 aged 55-70) and two regions of France (n = 186), Grenoble (aged 70-90 y) and Clermont-Ferrand (aged 55-70 y). A signal detection theory approach was adopted, employing a three-alternative, forced-choice procedure. The data were converted to R-indices and bivariate correlations were computed to explore relationships between serum zinc, erythrocyte zinc and taste acuity. ANOVA was undertaken to determine regional differences in zinc status. Higher erythrocyte zinc status was associated with better acuity for salt (sodium chloride) taste in the sample as a whole (P = 0.012) (n = 385). Higher serum zinc levels were associated with greater sensitivity to sour taste (citric acid) (P = 0.015) only in the older groups (aged 70-90 y). There were no apparent associations between serum or erythrocyte zinc status and acuity for bitter (quinine) or sweet (sucrose) tastes irrespective of age. These results agree with those previously suggesting that age-related detriment in sensitivity for salt taste may be associated with depleted zinc.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2005; 59 Suppl 2:S31-6. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc is known to be essential for a great number of biochemical activities and physiological and cognitive functions. The objective of Zenith study was to investigate the effects of Zn, as a nutritional supplement, on psychological and behavioural factors and on surrogate markers that are indicative of trends towards better health in order to evaluate the need for dietary recommendations specific to the studied population. We report in this paper the summary of baseline results obtained before Zn supplementation.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2005; 59 Suppl 2:S5-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baseline data are reported from a study of the effects of zinc supplementation on cognitive function in older adults as assessed by the CANTAB computerised test battery. This is a multicentre prospective intervention study employing a randomised double-blind design. European community-based study. There are 387 healthy adults aged 55-87 y from centres in France, Italy and Northern Ireland. Measures of visual memory, working memory and attention were obtained at baseline (prior to supplementation). Younger adults (<70 y) performed significantly better than older adults (>70 y) on all tests, with minimal differences between centres. In addition, men outperformed women on tests of spatial span, pattern recognition memory and reaction times, although these gender differences varied somewhat between centres. The results are generally consistent with previous age- and gender-related effects on cognitive functioning.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2005; 59 Suppl 2:S26-30. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the rational, design, recruitment, baseline characteristics and preliminary overview of volunteers in the ZENITH study. A multicentre prospective intervention study employing a randomised double-blind design. Clermont-Ferrand, Theix (France), Coleraine (Northern Ireland), Grenoble (France), Rome (Italy). Healthy men and women middle-aged (55-70 y) and older volunteers (70-87 y). At baseline (prior to zinc (Zn) supplementation), all volunteers underwent a full clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, health and lifestyle questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, and biochemistry profile. In total, 842 volunteers (378 men and 464 women) were invited to take part in the study. A total of 49% of these volunteers were excluded on the basis of inclusion/exclusion criteria. In total, 433 participants were admitted to the Zn supplementation for 6 months. During this period, about 10% of volunteers dropped out from the study. A total of 387 subjects (197 male and 190 female subjects) successfully completed the supplementation phase of the ZENITH study.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2005; 59 Suppl 2:S8-12. · 2.76 Impact Factor