J Grant Collins

Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Publications (78)321.94 Total impact

  • Fangfei Li · J. Grant Collins · F. Richard Keene
    ChemInform 07/2015; 46(27). DOI:10.1002/chin.201527298
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    ABSTRACT: Ruthenium(II) complexes containing the tetradentate ligand bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane ("bbn "; n=10 and 12) have been synthesised and their geometric isomers separated. All [Ru(phen)(bbn )](2+) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) complexes exhibited excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but only the cis-α-[Ru(phen)(bb12 )](2+) species showed good activity against Gram-negative species. In particular, the cis-α-[Ru(phen)(bb12 )](2+) complex was two to four times more active than the cis-β-[Ru(phen)(bb12 )](2+) complex against the Gram-negative strains. The cis-α- and cis-β-[Ru(phen)(bb12 )](2+) complexes readily accumulated in the bacteria but, significantly, showed the highest level of uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, the accumulation of the cis-α- and cis-β-[Ru(phen)(bb12 )](2+) complexes in P. aeruginosa was considerably greater than in Escherichia coli. The uptake of the cis-α-[Ru(phen)(bb12 )](2+) complex into live P. aeruginosa was confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy. The water/octanol partition coefficients (log P) were determined to gain understanding of the relative cellular uptake. The cis-α- and cis-β-[Ru(phen)(bbn )](2+) complexes exhibited relatively strong binding to DNA (Kb ≈10(6) M(-1) ), but no significant difference between the geometric isomers was observed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500385 · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Fangfei Li · J Grant Collins · F Richard Keene
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major advances in medical science has been the development of antimicrobials; however, a consequence of their widespread use has been the emergence of drug-resistant populations of microorganisms. There is clearly a need for the development of new antimicrobials - but more importantly, there is the need for the development of new classes of antimicrobials, rather than drugs based upon analogues of known scaffolds. Due to the success of the platinum anticancer agents, there has been considerable interest in the development of therapeutic agents based upon other transition metals - and in particular ruthenium(ii/iii) complexes, due to their well known interaction with DNA. There have been many studies of the anticancer properties and cellular localisation of a range of ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells over the last decade. However, only very recently has there been significant interest in their antimicrobial properties. This review highlights the types of ruthenium complexes that have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and discusses the relationship between chemical structure and biological processing - including site(s) of intracellular accumulation - of the ruthenium complexes in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
    Chemical Society Reviews 02/2015; 44(8). DOI:10.1039/c4cs00343h · 30.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Confocal microscopy was used to study the intracellular localisation of a series of inert polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with three eukaryotic cells lines – baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (Hep-G2). Co-staining experiments with the DNA-selective dye DAPI demonstrated that the di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridyl)]-1,12-dodecane bridging ligand (“bb12”) showed a high degree of selectivity for the nucleus of the eukaryotic cells. Additional co-localisation experiments with the general nucleic acid stain SYTO 9 indicated that the ruthenium complexes showed a considerable preference for the RNA-rich nucleolus, rather than chromosomal DNA. No significant differences were observed in the intracellular localisation between the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex. Cytotoxicity assays carried out over 72 hours indicated that the ruthenium complexes, particularly the tri- and tetra-nuclear species, were significantly toxic to the eukaryotic cells. However, when the activity of the least cytotoxic compound (the ΔΔ enantiomer of the dinuclear species) was determined over a 24 hour period, the results indicated that the ruthenium complex was approximately a 100-fold less toxic to liver and kidney cells than to Gram positive bacteria. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of the ΔΔ and ΛΛ enantiomers of the dinuclear complex on the solution conformations of RNA and DNA. The CD experiments indicated that the RNA maintained the A-type conformation, and the DNA the B-type structure, upon binding by the ruthenium complexes.
    Dalton Transactions 10/2014; 44(8). DOI:10.1039/C4DT02575J · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of inert tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane ligand ("bbn" for n = 10, 12 and 16) have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. Due to the modular nature of the synthesis of the oligonuclear complexes, it was possible to make both linear and non-linear tetranuclear ruthenium species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ruthenium(ii) complexes were determined against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In order to gain an understanding of the relative antimicrobial activities, the cellular uptake and water-octanol partition coefficients (log P) were determined for a selection of the ruthenium complexes. Although the trinuclear complexes were the most lipophilic based upon log P values and showed the greatest cellular uptake, the linear tetranuclear complexes were generally more active, with MIC values <1 μM against the Gram positive bacteria. Similarly, although the non-linear tetranuclear complexes were slightly more lipophilic and were taken up to a greater extent by the bacteria, they were consistently less active than their linear counterparts. Of particular note, the cellular accumulation of the oligonuclear ruthenium complexes was greater in the Gram negative strains compared to that in the Gram positive S. aureus and MRSA. The results demonstrate that the lower antimicrobial activity of polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes towards Gram negative bacteria, particularly P. aeruginosa, is not strongly correlated to the cellular accumulation but rather to a lower intrinsic ability to kill the Gram negative cells.
    Dalton Transactions 10/2014; 43(44). DOI:10.1039/c4dt02139h · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes that contain labile chlorido ligands, [{Ru(tpy)Cl}2{μ-bbn}]2+ {designated Cl-Rubbn; tpy = 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine, bbn = bis[4(4′-methyl-2,2′-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 7, 10, 12, 14 or 16)} and derivatives containing nitro substituents on the tpy ligand and/or secondary amines within the bbn linking chain have been synthesised and their potential as anticancer agents examined. Some of the Cl-Rubbn species showed good anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, with the Cl-Rubb12 complex being four-times more active than cisplatin. Inclusion of nitro substituents on the tpy ligands of Cl-Rubb12 resulted in significantly decreased anticancer activity. The incorporation of amine groups into the linking ligand did not increase the anticancer activity of the Cl-Rubbn complexes. The Cl-Rubbn complexes and those containing amine groups in the linking chain aquated at approximately the same rate, with 50% aquation within 120 minutes. By comparison, the complexes containing nitro substituents on the tpy ligand aquated extremely slowly, with 60% of the chlorido complex remaining 24 hours after they were dissolved in water. Cyclic voltammetry with the model mononuclear complex [Ru{(NO2)3tpy}(Me2bpy)Cl]+ {(NO2)3tpy = 4,4′,4′′-trinitro-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine} showed that the nitro substituents exerted a strong effect on the ruthenium centre, with the anodic peak corresponding to the Ru(III/II) couple shifted positively by 300 mV compared to that from the non-nitrated parent complex [Ru(tpy)(Me2bpy)Cl]+. 1H NMR studies of the reaction of the Cl-Rubbn complexes with GMP indicated that the ruthenium complexes covalently bound the nucleotide slowly, with 33% bound in 24 hours. However, the results of this study suggest that the cytotoxicity of the dinuclear ruthenium complexes is a combination of covalent and reversible binding with DNA.
    New Journal of Chemistry 06/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1039/C4NJ00545G · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wide-field fluorescence microscopy at high magnification was used to study the intracellular binding site of Rubb16 in Escherichia coli. Upon incubation of E. coli cells at the minimum inhibitory concentration, Rubb16 localised at ribosomes with no significant DNA binding observed. Furthermore, Rubb16 condensed the ribosomes when they existed as polysomes. It is postulated that the condensation of polysomes would halt protein production, and thereby inhibit bacterial growth. The results of this study indicate that the family of inert dinuclear ruthenium complexes Rubbn selectively target RNA over DNA in vivo. Selective RNA targeting could be advantageous for the development of therapeutic agents, and because of differences in ribosome structure between bacteria and eukaryotic cells, the Rubbn complexes could be selectively toxic to bacteria. In support of this hypothesis, the toxicity of Rubb16 was found to be significantly less to liver and kidney cell lines than against a range of bacteria.
    Chemical Science 01/2014; 5(2):685. DOI:10.1039/c3sc52166d · 8.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the energy dependency of and the contribution of the membrane potential to the cellular accumulation of the dinuclear complexes [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bbn}](4+) (Rubbn) and the mononuclear complexes [Ru(Me4phen)3](2+) and [Ru(phen)2(bb7)](2+) in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and to examine their effect on the bacterial membrane. The accumulation of the ruthenium complexes in bacteria was determined using flow cytometry at a range of temperatures. The cellular accumulation of the ruthenium complexes was also determined in cells that had been incubated with the metal complexes in the presence or absence of metabolic stimulators or inhibitors and/or commercial dyes to determine the membrane potential or membrane permeability. The accumulation of ruthenium complexes in the two bacterial strains was shown to increase with increasing incubation temperature, with the relative increase in accumulation greater with E. coli, particularly for Rubb12 and Rubb16. No decrease in accumulation was observed for Rubb12 in ATP-inhibited cells. While carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) did depolarize the cell membrane, no reduction in the accumulation of Rubb12 was observed; however, all ruthenium complexes, when incubated with S. aureus at concentrations twice their MIC, depolarized the membrane to a similar extent to CCCP. Except for the mononuclear complex [Ru(Me4phen)3](2+), incubation of any of the other ruthenium complexes allowed a greater quantity of the membrane-impermeable dye TO-PRO-3 to be taken up by S. aureus. The results indicate that the potential new antimicrobial Rubbn complexes enter the cell in an energy-independent manner, depolarize the cell membrane and significantly permeabilize the cellular membrane.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2013; DOI:10.1093/jac/dkt279 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of human serum on the minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations of the potential antimicrobial agents ΔΔ-[{Ru(phen)2}2(μ-bbn)](4+) {ΔΔ-Rubbn; where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bbn = 1,n-bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-alkane for n = 12 and 16} against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - has been determined. The results demonstrated that the ruthenium(ii) complexes have significantly decreased in vitro activity in serum. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to confirm that the decrease in antimicrobial activity was due to the strong binding of the ruthenium complexes with the serum proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and transferrin. A series of ruthenium complexes showed stronger binding to HSA than apo-transferrin but comparable or less than with holo-transferrin, with the binding affinity to all three proteins decreasing in the order trinuclear > dinuclear > mononuclear. The dinuclear complex ΔΔ-Rubb12 displaced warfarin from HSA, tentatively suggesting that the ruthenium complexes bind at or near the warfarin-binding site, Sudlow's site 1. The binding of ΔΔ-Rubb12 and ΔΔ-Rubb16 to the macrocyclic host molecule cucurbit[10]uril (Q[10]) was examined by NMR spectroscopy. The large upfield (1)H NMR chemical shift changes observed for the methylene protons in the bridging ligands upon addition of Q[10], coupled with the observation of a range of intermolecular ROEs in ROESY spectra, indicated that the dinuclear complexes bound Q[10] with the bridging ligand within the cavity and the metal centres positioned outside the portals. NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the Q[10]-encapsulated ruthenium complexes directly bound HSA, and with similar affinity to the corresponding free metal complexes.
    Dalton Transactions 05/2013; 42(24). DOI:10.1039/c3dt50551k · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of polypyridyl-ruthenium(ii) and -iridium(iii) complexes that contain labile chlorido ligands, [{M(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](2/4+) {Cl-Mbb(n); where M = Ru or Ir; tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; and bb(n) = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 7, 12 or 16)} have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the series of metal complexes against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) - have been determined. All the ruthenium complexes were highly active and bactericidal. In particular, the Cl-Rubb(12) complex showed excellent activity against all bacterial cell lines with MIC values of 1 μg mL(-1) against the Gram positive bacteria and 2 and 8 μg mL(-1) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The corresponding iridium(iii) complexes also showed significant antimicrobial activity in terms of MIC values; however and surprisingly, the iridium complexes were bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. The inert iridium(iii) complex, [{Ir(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(12)}](6+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it could not cross the bacterial membrane. The mononuclear model complex, [Ir(tpy)(Me(2)bpy)Cl]Cl(2) (where Me(2)bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), was found to aquate very rapidly, with the pK(a) of the iridium-bound water in the corresponding aqua complex determined to be 6.0. This suggests the dinuclear complexes [Ir(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) aquate and deprotonate rapidly and enter the bacterial cells as 4+ charged hydroxo species.
    Dalton Transactions 01/2013; 42(13). DOI:10.1039/c3dt32775b · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A convenient synthetic strategy is reported for the series of complexes [Ir(pp)(3)](3+) (where pp phen, Me(2)phen and Me(4)phen) through the intermediacy of the appropriate [Ir(pp)(2)(CF3SO3)(2)](+) species. In the case of [Ir(phen)(3)](3+), the cation was resolved into its enantiomeric forms, for which the absolute configurations were determined by X-ray diffraction. The availability for the first time of the CD spectra allowed comparison with computed CD spectra. Measurement of the antimicrobial activity of the [Ir(pp)(3)](3+) species {and the [Ir(pp)(2)X-2](+) (X=Cl-, CF3SO3-) precursors involved in their synthesis}, as well as cell uptake studies with the four bacterial strains S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), E. coli, and P. aeruginosa, indicated that they showed little activity compared with their Ru (II) analogues. The results suggest that it is unfavourable for an individual metal centre with a 3+ charge to pass across the bacterial cell membrane.
    Australian Journal of Chemistry 01/2013; 66(9):1065. DOI:10.1071/CH13264 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the in vitro susceptibility and cellular uptake for a series of dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes [{Ru(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) (Rubb(n)), and the mononuclear complexes [Ru(Me(4)phen)(3)](2+) and [Ru(phen)(2)(bb(7))](2+) against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro susceptibility was determined by MIC and MBC assays, and time-kill curve experiments, while the cellular uptake was evaluated by monitoring the fluorescence of the complexes remaining in the supernatant of the cultures after incubation for various periods of time, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Rubb(12) and Rubb(16) are highly active, with MIC and MBC values of 1-2 mg/L (0.5-1 μM) for the two Gram-positive strains and 2-4 mg/L for E. coli and 16-32 mg/L for P. aeruginosa. Rubb(16) showed equal or better activity (on a molar basis) to gentamicin and ampicillin for all strains apart from P. aeruginosa. The relative MBC to MIC values indicated that Rubb(12) and Rubb(16) are bactericidal, and from the time-kill curve experiments, the ruthenium complexes can kill the bacteria within 2-6 h. The cellular uptake studies demonstrated that the observed antimicrobial activity is correlated with the level of uptake of the ruthenium complexes. Confocal microscopy confirmed the cellular uptake of Rubb(16), and tentatively suggested that the ruthenium complex is localized in the bacteria. The inert dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes Rubb(12) and Rubb(16) have potential as new antimicrobial agents. The structure of the dinuclear ruthenium complexes can be readily further modified in order to increase their selectivity for bacteria over human cells.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2012; 67(11):2686-95. DOI:10.1093/jac/dks291 · 5.44 Impact Factor
  • Anthony Ivan Day · J. Grant Collins
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    ABSTRACT: The relatively new family of molecular host–guest macrocycles known as cucurbit[n]uril is discussed in the context of a drug delivery system. In less than a decade, cucurbit[n]uril and cucurbit[n]uril-based supramolecular structures have emerged as promising vehicles for drug delivery. For the first time, this review brings together the results of cucurbit[n]uril-drug studies and provides a general understanding of the relationship between drugs and this new type of molecular host.Numerous examples are discussed that highlight the advantages and disadvantages that cucurbit[n]uril can offer, these include improvements in bioavailability and protection, increased stability, reduction in toxicity, and targeted delivery. The current knowledge of toxicology and pharmokinetics of cucurbit[n]uril is also evaluated. Finally, as a drug delivery vehicle, a number of mechanisms are discussed as to the release of the drug. Drug activity results are presented that indicate that there are generally minimal negative effects and there are significant advantages to drug encapsulation involving cucurbit[n]uril. General methods for the preparation of encapsulated drugs are provided, together with a convenient method of characterization using 1H NMR.Keywords:cucurbituril;drug delivery;encapsulation;drug release mechanism;cucurbituril toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The binding of ΔΔ/ΛΛ-[{Ru(phen)(2)}(2)(μ-bb(n))](4+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bb(n) = 1,n-bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-alkane (ΔΔ/ΛΛ-Rubb(n))} to the non-self complementary oligonucleotide 5'-d(CGCGATAAGCCGC·5'-GCGGCATTACGCG) (3-DB) has been examined using a 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) displacement assay. The 3-DB oligonucleotide contains two single adenine bulge nucleotides that are separated by three base pairs. (1)H NMR spectroscopy data demonstrated that the adenine bases are intra-helical and that the segment containing the two bulge nucleotides and the three A·T base pairs between the bulges forms a destabilised segment within the stable duplex oligonucleotide. The DAPI displacement assay demonstrated that ΔΔ-Rubb(7)-bound 3-DB with higher affinity than the other members of the ΔΔ/ΛΛ-Rubb(n) series. Molecular models suggested that the seven-carbon chain length in ΔΔ-Rubb(7) was ideal to span the distance between the two bulge sites. The binding of ΔΔ-Rubb(7) to 3-DB was also studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The selective changes in chemical shifts for the resonances from 3-DB upon addition of ΔΔ-Rubb(7) suggested that the metal complex specifically bound at the destabilised segment between A(5) and A(19). Observation in NOESY spectra of NOE cross peaks between 3-DB and ΔΔ-Rubb(7) confirmed that one of the ruthenium centres bound at the A(5) bulge site, with the other metal centre positioned at the A(19) bulge. In addition, ΔΔ-Rubb(7) was found to bind chromosomal DNA extracted from a suspension of Staphylococcus aureus that had been incubated with the ruthenium(ii) complex. As inert dinuclear ruthenium(ii) complexes are capable of being transported into a bacterial cell and bind chromosomal DNA, it is possible that they could be developed into anti-microbial agents that specifically target destabilised segments of DNA that are recognised by essential DNA-binding proteins.
    Dalton Transactions 02/2012; 41(21):6528-35. DOI:10.1039/c2dt12146h · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solution NMR studies of the interaction between the hexanucleotide d(GTCGAC)(2), β-cyclodextrin and a boronated 2,2':6',2''-terpyridineplatinum(II) complex containing 1,12-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane(12) (1,12-closo-carborane) reveal the formation of a remarkable ternary supramolecular system in which the terpyridine ligand is intercalated between the C(3) and G(4) bases, whilst the closo-carborane moiety is encapsulated by the cyclic sugar.
    Chemical Communications 12/2011; 48(6):880-2. DOI:10.1039/c1cc15552k · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation, uptake mechanism, cytotoxicity, cellular localisation of-and mode of cell death induced by-dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes ΔΔ/ΛΛ-[{Ru(phen)(2) }(2) {μ-bb(n) }](4+) (Rubb(n)), where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, bb(n) is bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n=2, 5, 7, 10, 12 or 16), and the corresponding mononuclear complexes containing the bb(n) ligands, were studied in L1210 murine leukaemia cells. Cytotoxicity increased with linker chain length, and the ΔΔ-Rubb(16) complex displayed the highest cytotoxicity of the series, with an IC(50) value of 5 μM, similar to that of carboplatin in the L1210 murine leukaemia cell line. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that the complexes accumulate in the mitochondria of L1210 cells, with the magnitude of cellular uptake and accumulation increasing with linking chain length in the bb(n) bridge of the metal complex. ΔΔ-Rubb(16) entered the L1210 cells by passive diffusion (with a minor contribution from protein-mediated active transport), inducing cell death via apoptosis. Additionally, metal-complex uptake in leukaemia cells was approximately 16-times that observed in healthy B cells highlighting that the bb(n) series of complexes may have potential as selective anticancer drugs.
    ChemMedChem 05/2011; 6(5):848-58. DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201100053 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of a series of synthetic inert polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes against four strains of bacteria--Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa)--have been determined. The results demonstrate that for the dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes ΔΔ/ΛΛ-[{Ru(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; bb(n) = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 2, 5, 7, 10, 12 or 16)} the complexes linked by the bb(12), bb(14) and bb(16) ligands are highly active, with MIC values of 1 μg mL(-1) against both S. aureus and MRSA, and 2-4 and 8-16 μg mL(-1) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The mononuclear complex [Ru(Me(4)phen)(3)](2+) showed equal activity (on a mole basis) against S. aureus compared with the Rubb(12), Rubb(14) and Rubb(16), but was considerably less active against MRSA and the two Gram negative bacteria. For the dinuclear Rubb(n) family of complexes, the antimicrobial activity was related to the octanol-water partition coefficient (logP). However, the highly lipophilic mononuclear complex Δ-[Ru(phen)(2)(bb(16))](2+) was significantly less active than Rubb(16), highlighting the importance of the dinuclear structure. Preliminary toxicity assays were also carried out for the ΔΔ isomers of Rubb(7), Rubb(10), Rubb(12) and Rubb(16) against two human cells lines, fresh red blood cells and THP-1 cells. The results showed that the dinuclear ruthenium complexes are significantly less toxic to human cells compared to bacterial cells, with the HC(50) and IC(50) values 100-fold higher than the MIC for the complex that showed the best potential--ΔΔ-Rubb(12).
    Dalton Transactions 03/2011; 40(18):5032-8. DOI:10.1039/c1dt10250h · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The paper reports the synthesis and characterisation of a series of flexible di-bidentate bridging ligands in which two 4-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine groups are linked at the 4'-position by polymethylene (bb(n)), linear polyether (bbO(n)) or linear alkylamine (bbN(n)) chains of varying length (n). The enantiomers (ΔΔ/ΛΛ) of the rac forms of the ruthenium(ii) dinuclear complexes incorporating these ligands -i.e. [{Ru(phen)(2)}(2)(μ-BL)](4+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; BL = bb(n), bbO(n) or bbN(n)) - have been isolated by reaction of Δ- or Λ-[Ru(phen)(2)(py)(2)](2+) (py = pyridine) with the respective bridging ligands. Mononuclear species - in which only one of the bidentate moieties of the bridging ligand is coordinated - have also been isolated, as well as trinuclear and tetranuclear species involving the bb(7) bridge. Fluorescence displacement studies of the DNA-binding of the dinuclear complexes containing the bbO(n) and bbN(n) bridges generally revealed a lower affinity than their bb(n) analogues for an oligonucleotide containing a single bulge site; the mononuclear complexes showed a lower affinity - and the trinuclear and tetranuclear complexes a higher affinity - than the dinuclear species, revealing an interesting interplay of lipophilicity, electrostatics and size in the complex/nucleic acid interaction. Cytotoxicity studies of these complexes against a murine leukaemia cell line revealed that the presence of the polyether or polyamine links in the chain lowered the cytotoxicity compared with their polymethylene analogues, and that the bb(7)-bridged trinuclear and tetranuclear complexes showed considerably enhanced cytotoxicity compared with the dinuclear Rubb(7) analogue.
    Dalton Transactions 02/2011; 40(7):1510-23. DOI:10.1039/c0dt01250e · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Damian P. Buck · J. Grant Collins
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    ABSTRACT: The study of the interaction between inert transition metal complexes and nucleic acids has developed from the early work of Dwyer [1], Lippard [2], Nordén [3] and Barton [4] to the point that it is now a central theme in bio-inorganic chemistry. While there has been considerable interest in metal complexes that bind nucleic acids, the interaction of metallointercalators with DNA and RNA has received the most attention [5, 6]. Square-planar platinum(II) complexes have demonstrated significant anticancer activity [7], and octahedral ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) complexes have been used as probes of nucleic acid structure and as a means to study electron transfer reactions mediated by the heteroaromatic bases [5, 6]. While a range of techniques is available to study the nucleic acid binding of metal complexes, NMR spectroscopy (particularly 1H NMR) has proven to be the most useful. NMR spectroscopy can provide a detailed, atom level resolution, picture of the metal complex binding, and if the quality of the data is sufficient, a threedimensional structure of the metal complex bound to the oligonucleotide can be determined. The strategies used to assign the 1H NMR spectrum of an oligonucleotide [8-10], the extension of these methods to study the interaction of metal complexes with DNA and the use of molecular modelling will be presented in this chapter.
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    ABSTRACT: The binding of the anticancer drug pixantrone (6,9-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione dimaleate) to the octanucleotide duplexes d(ACGATCGT)(2) and the corresponding C-5 methylated cytosine ((5Me)C) analogue d(A(5Me)CGAT(5Me)CGT)(2) has been studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The large upfield shifts observed for the resonances from the aromatic protons of pixantrone upon addition to either d(ACGATCGT)(2) or the corresponding (5Me)C analogue is consistent with the drug binding the octanucleotides by intercalation. The selective reduction in the sequential NOEs between the C(2)-G(3) and C(6)-G(7) nucleotides in NOESY spectra of either octanucleotide with added pixantrone confirms the intercalative binding mechanism. Strong NOEs from the side-chain ethylene protons of pixantrone to the H5 protons and the 5-CH(3) protons of the C(2) and C(6) residues of d(ACGATCGT)(2) and d(A(5Me)CGAT(5Me)CGT)(2), respectively, indicate that pixantrone predominantly intercalates from the DNA major groove at the 5'-CG and 5'-(5Me)CG sites. Simple molecular models based on the conclusions from the NMR experiments indicated that the (5Me)C groups do not represent a steric barrier to intercalation from the major groove. However, the observation of weak NOEs from the ethylene protons of pixantrone to a variety of minor groove protons from either octanucleotide suggests that the drug can also associate in the minor groove.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 12/2010; 8(23):5359-66. DOI:10.1039/c0ob00295j · 3.49 Impact Factor

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2k Citations
321.94 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–2015
    • Australian Defence Force Academy
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 1989–2007
    • University of New South Wales
      • • School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences
      • • School of Chemistry
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1998–2003
    • University of Western Sydney
      Penrith, New South Wales, Australia