[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein (hsp) 60 that provides "danger signal" binds to the surface of resting endothelial cells (EC) but its receptor has not yet been characterized. In mitochondria, hsp60 specifically associates with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. We therefore examined the possible interaction between hsp60 and ATP synthase on EC surface.
Using Far Western blot approach, co-immunoprecipitation studies and surface plasmon resonance analyses, we demonstrated that hsp60 binds to the β-subunit of ATP synthase. As a cell surface-expressed molecule, ATP synthase is potentially targeted by anti-EC-antibodies (AECAs) found in the sera of patients suffering vasculitides. Based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting techniques with F1-ATP synthase as substrate, we established the presence of anti-ATP synthase antibodies at higher frequency in patients with primary vasculitides (group I) compared with secondary vasculitides (group II). Anti-ATP synthase reactivity from group I patients was restricted to the β-subunit of ATP synthase, whereas those from group II was directed to the α-, β- and γ-subunits. Cell surface ATP synthase regulates intracellular pH (pHi). In low extracellular pH medium, we detected abnormal decreased of EC pHi in the presence of anti-ATP synthase antibodies, irrespective of their fine reactivities. Interestingly, soluble hsp60 abrogated the anti-ATP synthase-induced pHi down-regulation.
Our results indicate that ATP synthase is targeted by AECAs on the surface of EC that induce intracellular acidification. Such pathogenic effect in vasculitides can be modulated by hsp60 binding on ATP synthase which preserves ATP synthase activity.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e14654. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the antiphospholipid syndrome, beta2-gpI interacts with phospholipids on endothelial cell (EC) surface to allow the binding of autoantibodies. However, induced-pathogenic intracellular signals suggest that beta2-gpI associates also with a receptor that is still not clearly identified. TLR2 and TLR4 have long been suspected, yet interactions between TLRs and beta2-gpI have never been unequivocally proven. The aim of the study was to identify the TLR directly involved in the binding of beta2-gpI on EC surface. beta2-gpI was not synthesized and secreted by ECs in vitro, but rather taken up from FCS. This uptake occurred through association with TLR2 and TLR4 which partitioned together in the lipid rafts of ECs. After coimmunoprecipitation, mass-spectrometry identification of peptides demonstrated that TLR2, but not TLR4, was implicated in the beta2-gpI retention. These results were further confirmed by plasmon resonance-based studies. Finally, siRNA were used to obtain TLR2-deficient ECs that lost their ability to bind biotinylated beta2-gpI and to trigger downstream phosphorylation of kinases and activation of NFkappaB. TLR4 may upregulate TLR2 expression, thereby contributing to beta2-gpI uptake. However, our data demonstrate that direct binding of beta2-gpI on EC surface occurs through direct interaction with TLR2. Furthermore, signaling for anti-beta2-gpI may be envisioned as a multiprotein complex concentrated in lipid rafts on the EC membrane.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 185(3):1550-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein (HSP) 60, up-regulated by endothelial cells (ECs) to resist stress, is the target of a subgroup of apoptosis-inducing anti-EC autoantibodies (Abs) in human vasculitides. Given that HSP60 is not a transmembrane protein, the mechanism by which these auto-Abs induces apoptosis is unclear. EC membrane proteins were analyzed using bidimensional electrophoresis and Far Western blot, and the HSP60 receptor was identified by mass spectrometry. Heat stress-dependent synthesis of HSP60 and receptor was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR, and expression was examined by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence. Interaction was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitations. Lipid rafts were purified to evaluate specific localization, and the apoptotic response was investigated by blocking monoclonal Ab. Mitochondrial HSP70 (mtHSP70) was identified as an HSP60 receptor. Stress was required for ECs to up-regulate mRNA and express mtHSP70 on their surface. HSP60 and mtHSP70 colocalized and interacted within lipid rafts. They were associated with chemokine CC motif receptor 5 (CCR5), also induced at the mRNA and protein levels in stressed ECs. CCR5 was involved in the anti-HSP60-triggered apoptosis of ECs. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which anti-EC auto-Abs from vasculitides induce apoptosis of ECs.
The FASEB Journal 05/2009; 23(8):2772-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-endothelial cell (EC) antibodies (AECA) are a heterogeneous group of antibodies directed against a variety of EC membrane proteins. A pathogenic role for AECA in diseases that involve the vascular system has not been clearly demonstrated. Induction of EC apoptosis appears to be one of the mechanisms by which AECA may exert their effect. AECA from some patients trigger the translocation of anionic phospholipids, most notably phosphatidylserine, from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, and thereafter activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, hallmarks of apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death generates oxidatively modified moieties, which can induce autoimmune and local inflammatory responses. While a sole AECA target involved in the apoptotic process of ECs has not been identified, some evidence suggests that Heat Shock Proteins may be an outstanding antigen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and pathological manifestations present as heterogeneous in vasculitides. Thus, inflammation can affect arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins toward major body regions. One common feature of vascular diseases appears to be the presence of anti-HSP60 autoantibodies arising either consecutively to infection and molecular mimicry reaction with bacterial HSP60, or following recognition of endogenous HSP60 translocated or bound onto the surface of stressed endothelial cells. Because their levels are very low in some diseases but strikingly upregulated in others, and because their frequencies vary from one vasculitis to another, anti-HSP60 autoantibodies might play a role in the pathological mechanisms that likely differ among the vascular diseases. Identification of the variety of HSP60 epitope specificities along with each vasculitis would help to understand such discrepancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat-shock protein (Hsp) family is made up of heterogeneous proteins of which Hsp60 members are the most studied. It is now generally admitted that Hsp60 is not only a mitochondrial component but can be localized on the membrane cell surface. Considered as a signal danger following infections, Hsp60 can induce the production of anti-Hsp60 antibodies as defense mechanisms against pathogens. However, endogenous Hsp60 is also a target of autoantibodies in autoimmune disorders, atherosclerosis and vascular diseases, in which anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) are generated. Hsp60 is one of the endothelial cell autoantigens able to trigger cytotoxic and apoptotic responses when recognized by the related autoantibodies. Depending on the Hsp60 epitope specificity, it appears that AECA with Hsp60 reactivity may differ in their functional effects. These observations suggest that new therapeutic approach to avoid endothelial cell damages due to anti-Hsp60 autoantibodies would be successful provided that specific Hsp60 epitopes would have been precisely characterized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECAs), which recognize a number of endothelial antigens, are seen in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, more often in the presence of vasculitis than in its absence. Some AECAs induce apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs), but their target antigens remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether Hsp60 is a target antigen and whether AECAs induce apoptosis in ECs.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis and conventional Western blotting techniques were used to characterize AECA targets. Hsp60 reactivity was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Hsp60 was shown to be targeted by a proportion of AECAs. The level of reactivity was higher in patients with systemic autoimmune disease and vasculitis than in those without vasculitis and in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than in patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases. Hsp60 was expressed on the plasma membrane of heat-stressed ECs, and this followed Hsp60 messenger RNA transcription, confinement of the protein to the cytoplasm, and translocation of the protein to the surface. Shedding of Hsp60 from ECs was induced by stress and resulted in the binding of soluble Hsp60 to the surface of ECs, particularly stressed ECs. Apoptosis of ECs was triggered by anti-Hsp60-containing AECA-positive sera and was inhibited by preincubation of the ECs with recombinant Hsp60.
Our data support the notion that Hsp60 is an important target for AECAs and that such an interaction contributes to pathogenic effects, especially in vasculitis-associated systemic autoimmune disease.