ABSTRACT: Two common factors, cigarette smoking and appendectomy, have been found to play a role in ulcerative colitis (UC). Data on their role in the development of extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) are scarce.
The relationship between cigarette smoking, appendectomy, and EIM was examined in a prospective study involving 535 (M/F = 319/216) consecutive UC patients followed up for 18 yr. We considered the major EIM: seronegative spondyloarthropathy, pyoderma gangrenosum/erythema nodosum, acute anterior uveitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We excluded patients with a history of EIM or those colectomized before study entry, ex-smokers, and those who started to smoke during the course of UC.
In UC patients, seronegative spondyloarthropathy and dermatologic complications were found increased in smokers (p < 0.0001; p = 0.001) or in subjects with appendectomy (p = 0.0003; p = 0.02), while acute anterior uveitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis did not differ. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 18-yr rates for EIM of 71% in smokers and 45% in nonsmokers (log-rank test, p = 0.0001), and of 85% in patients with appendectomy and 48% in those without (p = 0.0001). Cox proportional-hazard model showed that cigarette smoking and appendectomy are independent factors promoting EIM. In smokers with appendectomy the adjusted hazard ratio (3.197, 95% CI 1.529-6.684) was higher than in patients with appendectomy alone (2.617, 95% CI 1.542-4.442) or smoking alone (1.947, 95% CI 1.317-2.879).
In UC patients, appendectomy and cigarette smoking are prognostic factors for the development of EIM. The unfavorable effect of cigarette smoking on EIM is additive to that of appendectomy.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2004; 99(2):327-34. · 7.28 Impact Factor