ABSTRACT: Concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy develops early in orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) recipients. To compare the effects of a calcium channel blocker, felodipine, versus diuretics on LV hypertrophy and LV systolic function repeated magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed in OHT recipients. Cyclosporine levels and neurohormones were also measured to explore potential interactions with treatment.
Twenty-two patients were randomized at baseline (2 months after OHT) to receive felodipine or diuretic treatment. Before and after 4 months of treatment (n = 19), LV dimensions and LV mass (Simpson's rule) were measured. The relationship between circumferential fiber shortening (two-shell cylindrical model) and end-systolic wall stress was used as a measure of load-independent LV contractility. Neurohormones were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period, and cyclosporine levels and blood pressures were additionally measured during treatment.
At baseline, the felodipine and diuretic groups did not differ in LV mass, wall stress, and fiber shortening. During felodipine treatment LV mass decreased (p < 0.01) and tended to increase during diuretics treatment (p = 0.06). Afterload-corrected fiber shortening did not change during felodipine treatment, but decreased (p < 0.01) with diuretics. Changes in LV mass were positively correlated with cyclosporine levels (r = 0.70) in the diuretics group, but not in the felodipine group.
In OHT recipients during diuretic treatment, progression of LV hypertrophy occurs in relation to cyclosporine plasma levels and is accompanied by impairment of systolic contractile function. Felodipine induces regression of LV hypertrophy, while systolic contractile function is preserved. During felodipine treatment, regression of LV hypertrophy is unrelated to cyclosporine levels. Thus, felodipine seems to attenuate the hypertrophic effect of cyclosporine on transplanted hearts.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 10/1999; 18(10):1003-13. · 4.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated how variations in atrioventricular (AV) delay affect hemodynamic function in patients with refractory heart failure being supported with intravenous inotropic and intravenous or oral inodilating agents.
Although preliminary data have suggested that dual-chamber pacing with short AV delays may improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure, detailed Doppler and invasive hemodynamic assessment of patients with refractory New York Heart Association class IV heart failure has not been performed.
Nine patients with functional class IV clinical heart failure had Doppler assessment of transvalvular flow and right heart catheterization performed during pacing at AV delays of 200, 150, 100 and 50 to 75 ms.
Systemic arterial, pulmonary artery, right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, stroke volume index, left ventricular stroke work index (SWI) and arteriovenous oxygen content difference demonstrated no significant changes during dual-chamber pacing with AV delays of 200 to 50 to 75 ms. There were also no changes in the Doppler echocardiographic indexes of systolic or diastolic ventricular function. The study was designed with SWI as the outcome variable. Assuming a clinically significant change in the SWI of 5 g/min per m2, a type I error of 0.05 and the observed standard deviation from our study, the observed power of our study is 85% (type II error of 15%).
Changes in AV delay between 200 and 50 ms during dual-chamber pacing do not significantly affect acute central hemodynamic data, including cardiac output and systolic or diastolic ventricular function in patients with severe refractory heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/1997; 30(5):1295-300. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study attempted to determine whether cardiac sympathetic reinnervation occurs late after orthotopic heart transplantation.
Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is taken up by myocardial sympathetic nerves. Iodine-123 (I-123) MIBG cardiac uptake reflects intact myocardial sympathetic innervation of the heart. Cardiac transplant recipients do not demonstrate I-123 MIBG cardiac uptake when studied < 6 months from transplantation. However, physiologic and biochemical studies suggest that sympathetic reinnervation of the heart can occur > 1 year after transplantation.
We performed serial cardiac I-123 MIBG imaging in 23 cardiac transplant recipients early (< or = 1 year) and late (> 1 year) after operation. In 16 subjects transmyocardial norepinephrine release was measured late after transplantation.
No subject had visible I-123 MIBG uptake on imaging < 1 year after transplantation. However, 11 (48%) of 23 subjects developed visible cardiac I-123 MIBG uptake 1 to 2 years after transplantation. Only 3 (25%) of 12 subjects with a pretransplantation diagnosis of idiopathic cardiomyopathy demonstrated I-123 MIBG uptake compared with 8 (73%) of 11 with a pretransplantation diagnosis of ischemic or rheumatic heart disease (p = 0.04). All 10 subjects with a net myocardial release of norepinephrine had cardiac I-123 MIBG uptake; all 6 subjects without a net release of norepinephrine had no cardiac I-123 MIBG uptake.
Sympathetic reinnervation of the transplanted human heart can occur > 1 year after operation, as assessed by I-123 MIBG imaging and the transmyocardial release of norepinephrine. Reinnervation is less likely to occur in patients with a pretransplantation diagnosis of idiopathic cardiomyopathy than in those with other etiologies of congestive heart failure.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/1995; 25(4):927-31. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether sodium dichloroacetate improves hemodynamic performance and mechanical efficiency in congestive heart failure.
Congestive heart failure is associated with impaired hemodynamic performance and reduced mechanical efficiency. Dichloroacetate stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, which results in inhibition of free fatty acid metabolism and stimulation of high respiratory quotient glucose and lactate consumption by the heart. Facilitation of glucose and lactate consumption with dichloroacetate should improve mechanical efficiency of the failing ventricle.
Ten patients with New York Heart Association functional class III to IV congestive heart failure were studied. Dichloroacetate (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered intravenously for 30 min, with measurements of hemodynamic variables, coronary sinus blood flow and blood gas, glucose and lactate levels for 2 h. The same patients were also given dobutamine (5 to 12.5 micrograms/kg per min) for comparison.
Therapeutic levels of dichloroacetate were achieved (100 to 160 micrograms/liter of plasma). Myocardial consumption of lactate was stimulated from 29% to 37.4%. Forward stroke volumes increased (+5.3 ml/beat, p < 0.02), as did left ventricular stroke work (+1.8 g-m/m2 per beat, p < 0.02) and left ventricular minute work (from 1.38 to 1.55 kg-m/m2 per min, p < 0.01). Myocardial oxygen consumption decreased (from 19.3 to 16.5 ml/min, p = 0.06) as left ventricular minute work increased. Left ventricular mechanical efficiency thus improved from 15.2% to 20.6% (p = 0.03). Dobutamine administration resulted in the opposite trend with respect to myocardial lactate extraction (from 34% to 15.3%, p < 0.02). Stroke volume increased (+7.4 ml/beat, p = NS vs. dichloroacetate), as did left ventricular minute work (from 1.29 to 1.59 g-m/m2 per min, p < 0.01 vs. dichloroacetate) and myocardial oxygen consumption (from 18.6 to 21.0 ml/min, p = 0.06 vs. dichloroacetate). Left ventricular mechanical efficiency did not change with dobutamine administration (from 16.4% to 15.8%, p = NS).
Dichloroacetate administration stimulates myocardial lactate consumption and improves left ventricular mechanical efficiency. Forward stroke volume and left ventricular minute work increase significantly, with a simultaneous reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption. Dobutamine administration results in similar hemodynamic improvements but with no change in left ventricular mechanical efficiency and with opposite effects on lactate metabolism. The opposing metabolic actions, yet similar hemodynamic responses, of dichloroacetate and dobutamine suggest that these agents may be complementary in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/1994; 23(7):1617-24. · 14.16 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the importance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen-haemoglobin binding to oxygen transport in patients with congestive heart failure.
In 30 patients with severe congestive heart failure, arterial, mixed venous, and coronary sinus venous blood concentrations of 2,3-DPG were measured and systemic output and coronary sinus blood flow were measured by a thermodilution technique. Oxygen-haemoglobin affinity was expressed as the oxygen tension in mm Hg at which blood is 50% saturated with oxygen (P50).
Compared with normal values, 2,3-DPG was high in arterial blood (2.58 mumol/ml, p = 0.01; 20.8 mumol/g haemoglobin, p < 0.0001). Significant gradients between arterial, mixed venous, and coronary sinus blood 2,3-DPG concentrations were also found (mixed venous = 2.40 mumol/ml, p = 0.05 v arterial blood; coronary sinus venous blood = 2.23 mumol/ml, p < 0.04 v arterial blood). P50 was correspondingly high compared with the accepted normal value (mean 29.7 mm Hg, normal 26.6 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Systemic oxygen transport (351 ml O2/min/m2) varied directly with the forward cardiac index (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001). There was no relation between systemic oxygen transport and arterial oxygen content. Similarly, myocardial oxygen transport was found to vary directly with coronary sinus blood flow. Calculations of changes in cardiac index and coronary sinus blood flow at normal oxygen-haemoglobin binding indicate that a considerable increase in cardiac index and coronary blood flow would be required to maintain similar systemic and myocardial oxygen transport.
In patients with severe heart failure increased 2,3-DPG and reduced oxygen-haemoglobin binding may be compensatory mechanisms that maintain adequate systemic and delivery of oxygen to myocardial tissue.
Heart 11/1993; 70(5):443-7.
ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1, a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide, has recently been shown to be elevated in heart transplant recipients and may be a participant in posttransplantation vasculopathy.
We measured peripheral venous endothelin-1 concentrations in eight heart transplant recipients and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Subsequently, in 21 transplant recipients, right atrial, aortic, and coronary sinus plasma was obtained and endothelin-1 levels were measured. Potential correlations to donor and recipient age, cyclosporine levels, hemodynamic parameters, donor heart ischemic time, time from transplantation, and serum creatinine were examined. In eight more patients, right atrial levels of endothelin-1 were measured before and after endomyocardial biopsy to examine the effect of this procedure on endothelin-1 concentrations.
Peripheral endothelin-1 concentrations were significantly higher in heart transplant recipients (45.6 +/- 1.8 versus 25.8 +/- 2.3, p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between right atrial endothelin-1 and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.48), as well as serum creatinine (r = 0.52). No relation to blood pressure, right atrial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, recipient age, cyclosporine levels, or donor heart ischemic time was observed. In 11 patients, a 38% +/- 7% fall in endothelin-1 levels across the pulmonary bed was observed, suggesting extraction across the lung in these subjects. Nine patients had net release of endothelin-1 (95% +/- 26% rise) across the coronary vascular bed, whereas 12 patients showed net extraction (24% +/- 4% fall). Endomyocardial biopsy had no influence on endothelin-1 levels (prebiopsy: 48.3 +/- 1.7; postbiopsy: 42.3 +/- 2.34; p = Not significant).
These findings suggest that endothelin-1 levels in transplant recipients may be influenced by renal function and may contribute to pulmonary hypertension. The significance of transcardiac release of endothelin in some patients is unclear: further studies are needed to determine the pathophysiologic significance of endothelin-1 in heart transplant recipients.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 14(2):230-5. · 4.33 Impact Factor