[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of injury risk in the taekwondo community. Members of the taekwondo community (N=298) completed an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury across a range of different sports, including taekwondo. Overall, the respondents perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts, judo, and karate. Males (odds ratio 0.50; P=0.006) and instructors/coaches (odds ratio 0.34; P<0.001) perceived the risk of injury to be significantly less compared to their female and athlete counterparts. Because behaviour is determined by perceived rather than actual risk, underestimation of injury risk and concomitant overestimation of ability to negotiate risk may lead to an increased frequency of injury. Therefore, a comprehensive injury prevention strategy for combat sports such as taekwondo should ensure that erroneous beliefs and attitudes about injury risk among participants are addressed.
International journal of sport psychology 05/2015; 46(3):244-257. DOI:10.7352/IJSP2015.46.244 · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher’s exact test. The vast majority (81.5%) of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9) per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4) per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9) per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3%) of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.
Biology of Sport 04/2015; 32(3):213-218. DOI:10.5604/20831862.1150303 · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the level of adherence by transport cyclists to road rules in traffic situations and their reasons for non-adherence.
Design The Safer Cycling Study was a prospective cohort study of transport and recreational cyclists. Over 2000 cyclists were recruited between March and November 2011.
Subjects and Setting 770 Transport cyclists aged 18 years and older, who lived in New South Wales, Australia. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire plus provided data during a further six survey weeks over 12 months. In one of their survey weeks, cyclists were asked how often they infringed road rules and what contributory factors led to their road rule infringement. Data were collected via web-based online questionnaires.
Methods Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data were analysed to identify themes derived from the text.
Results Riding on the footpath and red light infringement were the most commonly reported road rule breaches. Poor infrastructure design was the most frequently identified contributing factor to road rule breaches, followed by the speed of motorised traffic and the behaviour of other road users.
Conclusions A transport network needs to facilitate cyclists of all capabilities to reach their required destination in a safe and timely manner, and encourage compliance with the road rules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The “Mayday Safety Procedure” (MSP) is included in the Australian Rugby Union (ARU) Medical and Safety Recommendations and the mandatory SmartRugby training for coaches. Previous research indicates that translating the MSP into practice among community rugby coaches is challenging. This study investigated whether MSP translation could be enhanced by systematically planning and implementing a range of theory-informed and context-specific diffusion strategies.
A controlled before-and-after study.
Coaches of senior community rugby teams in five zones in New South Wales (Australia) were invited to complete a questionnaire about their MSP knowledge and practice at the end of the 2010 and 2011 rugby seasons. During 2011, coaches in the intervention zone were exposed to a range of strategies to promote MSP diffusion which were planned by following Step 5 of the Intervention Mapping protocol. Coaches in the other four zones were exposed to usual strategies to promote MSP diffusion
Using the RE-AIM evaluation framework, statistically significant improvements were found among intervention zone coaches in: knowledge of most MSP key criteria; the number of coaches recognising their zone policy requiring them to train players in the MSP; frequency of provision of MSP training to players; coach perceptions of the quality of MSP training for players; and in confidence that referees could implement the MSP during a game if required.
The findings suggest that the translation of injury prevention policy into community practice can be enhanced by developing and implementing a theory-informed context-specific diffusion plan, undertaken in partnership with key stakeholders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routinely collected hospitalisation data are widely used to monitor injury trends, provide estimates of the burden of injury and healthcare costs, and to inform policy. This study examined the impact of different ICD-10 based case selection criteria commonly used by Australian and international reporting bodies on the number and nature of burn-related hospitalisations identified. METHODS: Burn cases from a state-wide administrative hospitalisation dataset were identified and compared using three different case selection criteria: (1) principal diagnosis code of burn 'T20-T31', (2) first external cause code denoting burn 'X00-X19' and (3) both principal diagnosis code of community acquired injury 'S00-T98' and first external cause code denoting burn 'X00-X19'. RESULTS: Principal diagnosis codes 'T20-T31' and first external cause codes 'X00-X19' identified a similar number of cases, however only 78% of these were captured by both definitions. Principal diagnosis codes identified chemical, electrical and contact burns not identified as burns using external cause codes. First external cause codes identified readmission cases which were not identified by principal diagnosis codes. Using principal diagnosis codes of community acquired injury combined with external cause code of burn under-numerated hospitalisations by forty percent. CONCLUSION: The development, implementation and evaluation of health policy and prevention measures rely on good quality, consistent data. Current methods for identifying burn cases in hospitalisation data provide wide differences in estimation of number and nature of cases. It is important for clinicians to understand the implications of coding on the epidemiology and measurement of the burden of burn.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 05/2013; 39(7). DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2013.04.006 · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIM: The main purposes of this study were to determine the injury incidence and severity in Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, and to investigate potential risk factors for injury in competition taekwondo. METHODS: Data were collected at New South Wales State Championships in 2010 and 2011. Injuries were diagnosed by onsite sports medicine personnel and the actual number of days lost from full participation was used to determine injury severity. Injury incidence rates were calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (injury incidence rate (IIR(AE))) and per 1000 min of exposure (IIR(ME)) and presented with 95% CI. RESULTS: The overall IIR(AE) and IIR(ME) were 59.93 (95% CI 51.16 to 69.77) and 16.32 (95% CI 13.93 to 19.00), respectively. Children under 10 years had significantly lower IIR(AE) compared with older age groups and black belts had significantly higher IIR(AE) compared with yellow belts, however, after accounting for the exposure time it was revealed that 10-year-olds to 14-year-olds and red belts incurred higher IIR(ME). This study highlights the importance of including IIRs that account for exposure-time. In contrast with previous estimates, the current data indicated that one-third of injuries were moderate to severe. Relative to other body regions the upper limb had a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe injuries, and compared with the lower limb there was a disproportionate number of upper limb injuries resulting in fractures. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the impact of injury on taekwondo athletes is significant, and should serve as an impetus to stakeholders to develop and implement injury prevention activities within the sport.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2013; 47(7):441--446. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091666 · 5.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia.
Methods Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation.
Results Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory.
Conclusions This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher–practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 12/2012; 48(2). DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091551 · 5.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Methods Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Results Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. Conclusions This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher–practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 12/2012; · 5.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional.
Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 09/2012; 34(3). DOI:10.1097/BCR.0b013e318257d827 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pedestrian and pedal cycle injuries are important causes of child morbidity and mortality. The combination of Bayesian methods and geographical distribution maps may assist public health practitioners to identify communities at high risk of injury.
Data were obtained on all hospitalizations of children from NSW (Australia), for pedestrian and pedal cycle injuries, from 2000-2001 to 2004-2005. Using Bayesian methods, posterior expected rate ratios (as an estimate of smoothed standardized hospitalization ratios for each injury mechanism) were mapped by local government area (LGA) across the state.
There were over 7,000 hospitalizations for pedestrian and pedal cycle injuries. High risk LGAs accounted for more than one third of hospitalized pedestrian and pedal cycle injuries in NSW.
LGAs at high risk for pedestrian injury tended to be urbanized metropolitan areas with a high population density, while high risk LGAs for pedal cycle injury tended to be either in urban regional areas, or on the margin of urbanized metropolitan areas. Geospatial analyses can assist policymakers and practitioners to identify high risk communities for which public health interventions can be prioritized.
International Journal of Public Health 01/2012; 57(3):467-75. DOI:10.1007/s00038-012-0331-7 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the level of translation of the Australian Rugby Union 'Mayday' safety procedure into practice among community rugby union coaches in New South Wales (Australia).
All registered coaches of senior community rugby union teams in five zones/associations in the north-eastern region of the state were invited to complete a short online questionnaire at the end of the 2010 rugby season. The questionnaire was designed around the five RE-AIM dimensions and assessed: Reach, perceived Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance of the Mayday procedure.
Seventy (39%) coaches participated. There was a high level of awareness of the Mayday procedure, and most coaches believed it was effective in preventing injuries. The majority reported training their players in the procedure, although training was generally infrequent. Coaches were confident that their own players could implement the procedure appropriately if required to do so, but less confident that other teams or referees could do so. Barriers to providing training included not enough players at training, players not taking training seriously and technical difficulties (eg, verbalisation of instructions for physical tasks).
The findings suggest that the translation of the Mayday 'policy' could be improved by building individual coach, and club or zone organisational capacity by ensuring that coaches have the resources and skills in 'how' to train their players to complement their existing knowledge on 'what' to train them; setting expectations that encourage coaches to provide regular training for players; and regular monitoring of player competency to perform the procedure appropriately.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 12/2011; 46(8):585-90. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090469 · 5.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the current level of knowledge of first aid for a burn injury and sources of this knowledge among the general population of New South Wales.
People aged 16 years or older were interviewed as part of the 2007 NSW Population Health Survey, a continuous telephone survey of NSW residents.
Weighted proportion of the population with optimal first aid knowledge for burns.
In total, 7320 respondents were asked questions related to burn injuries and first aid. Of the surveyed population, 82% reported that they would cool a burn with water, and 9% reported that they would cool the burn for the recommended 20 minutes. Few respondents reported that they would remove the patient's clothing and keep the injured person warm. The most common sources of first aid information were a first aid book (42%) and the internet (33%). Speaking a language other than English at home, and being over 65 years of age were associated with a lack of first aid knowledge.
A minority of people living in NSW know the optimal time for cooling a burn injury and other appropriate first aid steps for burns. This study demonstrates a gap in the public's knowledge, especially among non-English speaking people and older people, and highlights the need for a clear, consistent first aid message.
The Medical journal of Australia 10/2011; 195(8):465-8. DOI:10.5694/mja11.10836 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are clear personal, social and environmental benefits of cycling. However, safety concerns are among the frequently cited barriers to cycling. In Australia, there are no exposure-based measures of the rates of crash or 'near miss' experienced by cyclists.
A prospective cohort study over 12 months, with all data collected via web-based online data entry.
Two thousand adults aged 18 years and older, living in New South Wales (Australia), who usually bicycle at least once a month, will be recruited from March to November 2011.
In the 12 months following enrolment, cyclists will be surveyed on six occasions (weeks 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 from the week of the enrolment survey). In these survey weeks, cyclists will be asked to provide daily reports of distance travelled; time, location and duration of trips; infrastructure used; crashes, near misses and crash-related injuries. Information on crashes and injuries will also be sought for the intervening period between the last and current survey. A subsample of participants will receive bicycle trip computers to provide objective measurement of distance travelled.
This study protocol describes the prospective cohort study developed to assess near misses, crashes and injuries among cyclists by time and distance travelled and by type of infrastructure used, with recruited participants entering data remotely using the internet. We expect to be able to calculate event rates according to exposure overall and for different infrastructure types and to report in-depth information about event causation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sports injuries are an important public health issue. A multi-agency key stakeholder partnership was formed to develop a state-wide response to sports injury prevention in New South Wales, Australia. This study evaluated the partnership approach to injury prevention policy development. The partnership approach to policy development was evaluated pre- and post-partnership using semi-structured telephone interviews and questionnaire data gathered from participants. Participants were satisfied with the partnership operation and outcomes. Challenges included: maintaining focus and efficiency; time constraints; sector diversity limiting the likelihood of addressing needs and reaching consensus; and ensuring commitment from all relevant organisations. Potential benefits included: a sense of policy ownership; a broad-based approach across the sector and savings from resource sharing. Policy resulted from a shared understanding of the injury problem, and of an appropriate response. A credible industry leader, investment in partnership management and a consultative approach facilitated the success of the partnership.
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 08/2011; 19(2):115-22. DOI:10.1080/17457300.2011.603153 · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To understand the conditions under which a group of women recruited from antenatal, mental health, and substance abuse services disclose abuse in response to routine screening for intimate partner violence and their constructions of the impact of routine screening. Method: In-depth interviews with 20 women followed up 6 months after disclosing abuse in response to screening. Results: Women were in diverse situations relating to trajectories of abuse that included continued abuse despite interventions and abuse cessation within relationship. Women disclosed their abuse after making active judgments about safety on three dimensions: from the abuser, from shame and from relinquishing control. Most women described valued impacts from screening, though this was less common for those who had previous contact with statutory agencies. The process of asking shaped constructions of abuse, giving name to it. Health workers' responses to disclosures often helped to create a sense of connection. Conclusions: These effects align with Herman's work identifying naming and reconnection as important steps in recovery from trauma. The diversity of women's situations may explain difficulties in achieving significant findings by RCTs on screening impacts. Screening can bring about important changes for some women and is not simply a strategy for identification and referral. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Violence 03/2011; 1(2):150-162. DOI:10.1037/a0023136 · 1.83 Impact Factor