[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MenBvac and MeNZB are safe and efficacious vaccines against serogroup B meningococcal disease. MenBvac is prepared from a B:15:P1.7,16 meningococcal strain (strain 44/76), and MeNZB is prepared from a B:4:P1.7-2,4 strain (strain NZ98/254). At 6-week intervals, healthy adults received three doses of MenBvac (25 microg), MeNZB (25 microg), or the MenBvac and MeNZB (doses of 12.5 microg of each vaccine) vaccines combined, followed by a booster 1 year later. Two-thirds of the subjects who received a monovalent vaccine in the primary schedule received the other monovalent vaccine as a booster dose. The immune responses to the combined vaccine were of the same magnitude as the homologous responses to each individual vaccine observed. At 6 weeks after the third dose, 77% and 87% of the subjects in the combined vaccine group achieved serum bactericidal titers of > or = 4 against strains 44/76 and NZ98/254, respectively, and 97% and 93% of the subjects achieved a fourfold or greater increase in opsonophagocytic activity against strains 44/76 and NZ98/254, respectively. For both strains, a trend of higher responses after the booster dose was observed in all groups receiving at least one dose of the respective strain-specific vaccine. Local and systemic reactions were common in all vaccine groups. Most reactions were mild or moderate in intensity, and there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. The safety profile of the combined vaccine was not different from those of the separate monovalent vaccines. In conclusion, use of either of the single vaccines or the combination of MenBvac and MeNZB may have a considerable impact on the serogroup B meningococcal disease situation in many countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MenBvac and Menjugate are safe and efficacious vaccines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of the combination (MenB/C) of the lyophilized active components of the conjugated group C vaccine Menjugate when reconstituted with the full liquid group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine MenBvac compared to MenBvac and Menjugate given separately. At 6-week intervals, healthy adults were given one dose of MenB/C followed by two doses of MenBvac (MenB/C group), three doses of MenBvac (MenB group), or one dose of Menjugate and two doses of placebo (MenC group). Injection site reactions were frequent in all groups. However, most reactions were short lasting and mild or moderate in intensity, and the vaccines were found to be well tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. MenB/C was immunogenic with regard to both serogroup B and C meningococci. Both the serum bactericidal assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses showed that the immune responses of the combination vaccine were similar to the immune responses of its separate components MenBvac and Menjugate for both serogroup B and C. In conclusion, the combined MenB/C vaccine is safe and immunogenic. The two vaccines do not interact negatively with each other and can easily be administered in the same syringe. The induced immune responses suggest that the combined vaccine is likely to confer protection against systemic group B disease caused by the vaccine strain as well as against group C meningococcal disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-eight healthy adult volunteers were immunized intranasally with an inactivated whole-virus influenza vaccine based on the strain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), either in saline or mixed with formaldehyde-inactivated Bordetella pertussis as a mucosal adjuvant, or in a thixotropic vehicle with mucoadhesive properties. After four doses, all groups of vaccinees developed significant IgG- and IgA-antibody responses, measured by ELISA, in respectively serum and nasal secretions. None of the volunteers had demonstrable hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies in serum before being immunized, whereas more than 80% of them reached HAI titers>or=40, considered protective, after immunizations. In addition, cellular immune responses, measured as significant increases in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and granzyme B-producing cytotoxic T-cells, were detected against the vaccine strain as well as against heterologous virus strains (H3N2). However, no additive effect on these responses could be demonstrated with use of B. pertussis or the thixotropic substance in the present vaccines. It appeared, actually, that the mucoadhesive vehicle containing the thixotropic substance was less efficient than were the two other formulations. An influenza vaccine made as a simple particulate formulation of inactivated virus, and given repeatedly onto the nasal mucosa, may thus be an attractive alternative to currently available vaccines.
Human vaccines 03/2005; 1(2):85-90. DOI:10.4161/hv.1.2.1718 · 3.64 Impact Factor