[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors present the results of a single centre study of 587 liver transplants performed in 522 adults during the period 1984-2002. Results have improved significantly over time due to better pre-, peri- and post-transplant care. One, five, ten and fifteen year actuarial survivals for the whole patient group are 81.2; 69.8; 58.9 and 51.2%. The high incidence of de novo tumors (12.3%), of cardiovascular diseases (7.5%) and of end-stage renal function (3.6%) should be further incentives to tailor the immunosuppression to the individual patient and to direct the attention of the transplant physician to the long-term quality of life of the liver recipient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between 1984 and 1996, the authors performed 499 liver transplants in 416 children less than 15 years old. The overall patient survival at 10 years was 76.5%. It was 71.3% for the 209 children grafted in 1984-1990; 78.5% for biliary atresia (n = 286), 87.3% for metabolic diseases (n = 59), and 72.7% for acute liver failure (n = 22). The 5-year survival was 73.6% for the 209 children grafted in 1984-1990 and 85% for the 206 grafted in 1991-1996. Scarcity of size-matched donors led to the development of innovative techniques: 174 children who electively received a reduced liver as a first graft in our center had a 5-year survival of 76% while 168 who received a full-size graft had a survival of 85% (NS). Results of the European Split Liver Registry showed 6-month graft survival similar to results obtained with full-size grafts collected by the European Liver Transplant Registry. Extensive use of these techniques allowed the mortality while waiting to be reduced from 16.5% in 1984-1990 to 10% in 1991-1992. It rose again to 17% in 1993, leading the authors to develop a program of living related liver transplantation (LRLT). The legal and ethical aspects are analyzed. Between July 1993 and October 1997, the authors performed 53 LRLTs with 90% survival. In elective cases, a detailed analysis was made of the 45 children listed for LRLT between July 1993 and March 1997 and the 79 registered on the cadaveric waiting list during the same period. Mortality while waiting was 2% and 14.5% for the LRLT and cadaveric lists, respectively. The retransplantation rate was 4.6% and 16.1% for LRLT and cadaveric transplants, respectively. Overall post-transplant survival was 88% and 82% for children who received a LRLT or a cadaveric graft, respectively. Overall survival from the date of registration was 86% and 70% (P < 0.05) for LRLT or cadaveric LT respectively. The 2-year post-transplant survival in children less than 1 year of age at transplantation was 88.8% and 80. 3% with a LRLT or cadaveric graft, respectively; patient survival after 3 months post-transplant was 95.8% and 91.9% for stable children waiting at home, 93.7% and 93.7% in children hospitalized for complications of their disease, and 89.5% and 77.7% for children hospitalized in an intensive care unit at the time of transplantation for children who received a LRLT or cadaveric graft, respectively. It is concluded that LRLT seems to be justified for multidisciplinary teams having a large experience with reduced and split liver grafting.
Pediatric Surgery International 07/1998; 13(5-6):308-18. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1984 to 1989, 175 esophageal cancer patients, 10 patients admitted for severe caustic esophagitis, and 1 patient with pyothorax due to iatrogenic perforation of the esophagus underwent an esophageal resection or bypass operation. One hundred sixty-eight esophageal resections were performed on 167 patients; 13 were total, 106 subtotal and 49 distal. Nineteen digestive transplants were pulled up to the neck to bypass the esophagus or re-establish continuity after an esophagectomy made elsewhere. Digestive continuity was restored by a long gastric transplant in 120 patients, a colon segment in 17, a jejunal loop in 35, and a short gastric transplant after limited esophago-gastrectomy in 14 patients. Thirty day mortality was 0 in the whole group. Hospital mortality was 1.2% in the resection group and 10.5% in the bypass group (p = 0.048). Nonfatal postoperative complications consisted of respiratory distress in 33 patients, recurrent nerve palsy in 10, anastomotic fistula in 10 (cervical in 8 and intrathoracic in 2) and anastomotic stenosis in 18 patients. Respiratory complications were more frequent in patients with a cancer of the thoracic esophagus (29/111) than in those operated on for a cancer located in the esophago-gastric junction (4/50) (p less than 0.01). Anastomotic stenosis occurred more frequently in the neck (17/137) than in the chest (1/49) (p less than 0.05). Nine patients were reoperated on for a technical complication; intraabdominal hemorrhage (1), thoracic duct injury (2), acute cholecystitis (1), tight stricture of the esophageal anastomosis (2), jejuno-duodenal anastomotic fistula (2), or stridor related to recurrent nerve palsy (1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
World Journal of Surgery 01/1991; 15(5):635-41. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors review the indications and outcome of liver transplantation for hepatic cirrhosis of various aetiologies in adults, on the basis of their experience and that of the literature. Up to 1989, they performed 107 liver transplantations in 93 adults, including 70 patients with cirrhosis: primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in 20, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in 2, secondary biliary cirrhosis in 1, post-necrotic cirrhosis in 35, alcoholic cirrhosis in 5, metabolic cirrhosis in 7. The best indications are PBC with rising bilirubinemia (greater than 5 mg/dl) or portal hypertension and PSC with severe and diffuse lesions. The outcome of transplantation was satisfactory in patients with PBC: 16 survived with a mean follow-up of 23 months. In patients transplanted for postnecrotic cirrhosis the outcome might be better if HBS is associated preoperatively with delta antigen: 6 patients of this group survived with a mean follow-up of 12.6 months while in the group of 8 patients with HBS not associated preoperatively with delta antigen, 6 patients survived with a mean follow-up of 12.8 months. There was a trend toward a higher hospital mortality after transplantation in cirrhotic patients with pulmonary arterio-venous shunts in comparison with cirrhotic patients without significant pulmonary arterio-venous shunts preoperatively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report our experience in the management of children after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). From 03/84 to 04/87 50 patients (pts) were transplanted. Mean age was 4 3/12 years (8/12 to 13 2/12) and mean body weight 14.7 kg (5.8 to 40). Hospital mortality was 14%. Problems related to the surgery included: Abdominal complications: bleeding (8 pts), infection (18 pts), ascites and fistula (1 pt), need for secondary abdominal surgery (10 patients). Respiratory problems: lobar atelectasis (11 pts), right diaphragmatic paralysis (2 pts) and right pleural effusion (11 pts). Problems related to immunosuppression included: Bacterial infection (29 pts) fungal infection (5 pts), one patient died of disseminated cytomegalovirus infection. Side effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) were systemic blood hypertension (S.B.H.) (47 pts), sinusal bradycardia (37 pts), associated to SBH (24 pts), hypertensive encephalopathy (2 pts). Generalized seizures (2 pts in the absence of SBH). Renal side effects of CsA were hypercreatininemia, decreased sodium bicarbonate and hyperkaliemia. The nephrotoxicity of CsA was favoured by the use of other nephrotoxic drugs such as aminoglycosides, amphotericin B. Edematous pancreatitis was observed in 3 patients and related to the use of large doses of steroids. Problems related to the functioning of the graft included: Primary non-function of the graft (4 pts), hepatic artery thrombosis (8 pts) and severe acute rejection unresponsive to therapy (1 pt); these situations needed to be recognised early in order to organize a second OLT. Other causes of hepatic dysfunction were: portal vein thrombosis (1 pt), biliary tract obstruction (2 pts), angiocholitis (3 pts), right hepatic lobe necrosis (2 pts). Acute hepatic insufficiency in 7 children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Intensive Care Medicine 02/1989; 15 Suppl 1:S71-2. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The children's liver transplantation program at the University of Louvain Medical School in Brussels has been organized with a multidisciplinary pediatric approach. The age distribution of the first 139 patients transplanted between March 1984 and June 1989 is characterized by the distinct preponderance of infants and small children (62.5% younger than 3 years, 16 younger than 1 year). Biliary atresia unalleviated by the Kasai portoenterostomy or its modifications was the single most frequent indication (101 cases) followed by the heterogenous group of metabolic diseases (17 cases). Two children underwent combined liver and kidney transplantation. A prominent feature of this series is the routine use of the reduced-size liver (40% of the 171 grafts) to alleviate the shortage of size-matched pediatric donors. The actuarial survival rate of the 139 children was 75.8% at 1 year and 72.4% at 2 years and thereafter. For patients who received 1 graft electively, the 1-year survival rates were 85.2% and 92.5% for those who received a full-size or a reduced-size liver with the same proportion (83%) of long-term surviving patients having normal liver tests. Long-term survival rates were not influenced by age, except for infants younger than 1 year with 62.4% surviving at 1-year posttransplantation. This latter group included a vast majority (14 of 16) of severely debilitated biliary atresia cases in preterminal condition. Graft loss from rejection was kept at a low rate of 5.2% (acute in 5-2.9% and chronic in 4-2.3%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric liver transplantation in Europe has expanded rapidly during the last four years. The survival rate of the 254 children less than 15 years recorded in the European Registry on December 31, 1987 was 68% at one year and 61% at three years; nineteen centers have contributed to this activity, of which 11 had performed less than 5 cases each while two thirds of the experience was concentrated in three centers (Brussels, Cambridge, Hannover). The results obtained in the first 100 children (65% were younger than 3 years) who received a liver graft at the University of Louvain Medical Center in Brussels between March 1, 1984 and July 31, 1988 are reported. The survival rates (79% at one year and 73% at three year) which do not differ with regard to the age, the indication of the technical modalities (whole liver or reduced size livers) are strongly influenced by the clinical condition (84% vs 50% at one year in elective and emergency transplantations respectively). One third of the 122 grafts transplanted by the authors were reduced livers harvested from older and often adult donors. This technique provides results of equal quality and does not entail an increased rate of technical complications; on the contrary, the incidence of arterial thrombosis has been significantly reduced. Transplantation of a reduced size liver is safe and should be recommended even in elective conditions, in view of the dire shortage of small pediatric donors.
Archives françaises de pédiatrie 02/1988; 45 Suppl 1:719-25.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight children 1 to 13 years old, were submitted to OLT. Six patients had normal liver function and complete rehabilitation 4 to 17 months after OLT. Two patients died during their ICU course respectively on day 15 and 34 after operation. The ICU management of the surviving patients is compared to the two fatal cases. At the time of admission in the ICU, there was no difference between the two groups, except for age. All patients were physiologically stable and needed essentially continuous monitoring and nursing care. All were rapidly weaned off artificial ventilation. During the first week after operation, surviving patients demonstrate improvement of liver function test, absence of infection, normal renal function and short ICU stay. They all suffered from systemic hypertension easily controlled by drugs. The two fatal cases were less than 15 months old and did not show improvement of their liver function. They suffered from severe infection, renal failure and protracted systemic hypertension and needed prolonged invasive monitoring and therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation has become a clinical therapeutic modality for end stage liver diseases. The results achieved in children are better than in adults: in T.E. Starzl unique experience in Pittsburgh, USA, the survival rate at one and four years are 75 and 70% respectively. Complete rehabilitation of these children can nowadays be expected. Between March 1984 and June 1985, 8 children received an orthotopic liver transplantation at the University of Louvain Medical School in Brussels, Belgium; one child received two transplantations after acute and irreversible rejection of a first ABO incompatible graft. The indications were biliary atresia in five (polysplenia in one), biliary hypoplasia in one, alpha-1-antitrypsine deficiency in one and Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I in one. The age of the patients at the time of liver replacement was 12 to 18 months in four, 8 to 13 years in four. Six patients are alive after 17, 14, 12, 10, 3 and 3 months; the two youngest children deceased during the first postoperative month. The Kaplan-Meyer one year survival rate is 75%; all surviving children are in excellent clinical condition with a normal liver function. The 9 transplanted livers were harvested from multiorgan cerebral death donors with the exception of one neonate whose liver alone was removed; 4 were retrieved locally, the five others were offered by foreign hospitals through the organ procurement agencies (Eurotransplant, France-Transplant, U.K. Transplant). Due to appropriate logistics with air flight transportation of the harvesting team when indicated, the total ischaemia time was kept below 6 hours in every case. Two small children underwent a left lobe orthotopic transplantation after ex vivo right trisegmentectomy of the liver retrieved from an older donor with one long term survival. The indications for liver transplantation in children are end-stage liver diseases consisting of a) cholestatic diseases among which the most frequent is biliary atresia after unsuccessful Kasai procedure followed by familial cholestasis (Byler syndrome) and the paucity of the intrahepatic bile ducts of the syndromatic (Alagille syndrome) or non syndromatic type. b) the metabolic diseases resulting either in cirrhosis with liver failure (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson disease, glycogen storage disease type I and IV, protoporphyria) or in extrahepatic complications of enzymatic deficiency of an otherwise normally functioning liver (Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, familial hypercholesterolemia and perhaps oxalosis). c) the hepatocellular diseases either chronic with cirrhosis of various origin or acute, eg. toxic hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of lactate in peritoneal fluid has been suggested to be of great value in the early diagnosis of peritoneal infection . However, this value is affected by multiple systemic factors producing lactic acidosis; these contributed to the high rate of false positive results, obtained in that study. In our study, a better correlation has been found between the peritoneal fluid to blood lactate gradient levels and the presence or absence of peritoneal infection. A threshold gradient level of 2.2 mmol/l in a total of 37 infected and 48 non-infected samples gave the best prediction with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 96%.
Intensive Care Medicine 02/1984; 10(6):301-4. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of standardized operative and peri-operative care on the outcome of liver transplantation in a single center series of 395 adult patients.
Between February 1984 and December 31, 1998, 451 orthotopic liver transplantations were performed in 395 adult patients (> or = 15 years) at the University Hospitals St-Luc in Brussels. Morbidity and mortality of the periods 1984-1990 (Gr I--174 pat.) and 1991-1998 were compared (Gr II--221 pat.). During the second period anti-infectious chemotherapy and perioperative care were standardized and surgical technique changed from classical orthotopic liver transplantation with recipients' vena cava resection (and use of veno-venous bypass) towards liver implantation with preservation of the vena cava (without use of bypass). Immunosuppression was cyclosporine based from 1984 up to 1996 and tacrolimus based during the years 1997 and 1998. Immunosuppression was alleviated during the second period due to change from quadruple to triple and even double therapy and due to the introduction of low steroid dosing and of steroid withdrawal, once stable graft function was obtained. Indications for liver grafting were chronic liver disease (284 pat--71.9%), hepatobiliary tumor (52 pat--13.2%), acute liver failure (40 pat--10.1%) and metabolic disease (19 pat--4.8%). Regrafting was necessary because of graft dysfunction (21 pat), technical failure (12 pat), immunological failure (18 pat) and recurrent viral allograft disease (5 pat); three of these patients were regrafted at another institution. Follow-up was complete for all patients with a minimum of 9 months.
Actuarial 1, 5 and 10 years survival rates for the whole group were 77.9%, 65.7% and 58.3%. These survival rates were respectively 77.3%, 69.7%, 62.5% and 73.2%, 59.6% 51.4% for benign chronic liver disease and acute liver failure; those for malignant liver disease were 80.6%, 44.3% and 36.7%. Early (< 3 months) and late (> 3 months) posttransplant mortalities were. 14.4% (57 pat) and 21.2% (84 pat). Early mortality lowered from 20% in Gr I to 9.4% in Gr II (p < 0.02); this was due to a significant reduction during the second period of bacterial (99/174 pat.--56.9% vs 82/221 pat.--37.1%), fungal (14 pat.--8% vs 7 pat.--3.2%) and viral (87 pat.--50% vs 49 pat.--22.2%) infections (p < 0.05) as well as of perioperative bleeding (92 pat.--52.9% vs 39 pat.--17.6%--p < 0.001). Late mortality remained almost identical throughout the two periods as lethal outcome was mainly caused by recurrent allograft diseases, cardiovascular and tumor problems. Morbidity in these series was important considering that almost, half of the patients had a technical complication, mostly related to bleeding (131 pat--33.2%) and biliary problems (66 pat--16.7%). Retransplantation index was 1.1 (54 pat.--14%). Early retransplantation mortality was 24%; it lowered, although not yet significantly, during the second period (8/25 pat.--32% vs. 5/29 pat.--17.2%).
Despite a marked improvement of results, liver transplantation remains a major medical and surgical undertaking. Standardization of operative and perioperative care, less haemorraghic surgery and less aggressive immunosuppression are the keys for further improvement.