[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 07/2012; 29(9):1475-88.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the most important sociodemographic determinants of age at introduction of complementary foods in infancy. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort with increased risk of type 1 diabetes, recruited between 1996 and 2004. The families completed at home a follow-up form on the age at introduction of new foods and, for each clinic visit, a structured dietary questionnaire with 3 d food records. SETTING: Data from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Project, Finland. SUBJECTS: A cohort of 5991 infants (77 % of those invited) belonging to the DIPP Nutrition Study. RESULTS: Sixty-three per cent of the infants were introduced to complementary foods, including infant formula, before the age of 4 months. The median age at introduction of infant formula was 1·5 months (range 0-18 months) and that of the first other complementary food 3·5 months (range 0·7-8 months). All sociodemographic and lifestyle factors studied were associated with the age at introduction of infant formula and/or first other complementary food. Female sex of the infant, being born in the southern region of Finland, living in a rural municipality, the presence of siblings, the mother or the father being a high-school graduate, high maternal professional education and maternal non-smoking during pregnancy predicted later introduction of complementary foods. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance was relatively poor with the current recommendations for the age of introducing complementary foods. Small-sized young families with less well-educated parents were most prone to introduce complementary foods early.
Public Health Nutrition 05/2012; · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxic agent, and consumption of contaminated fish is the principal environmental source of MeHg exposure in humans. Children are more susceptible to adverse effects than adults. No previous specific data exist for intake by Finnish children of methylmercury from fish. We estimated fish consumption and MeHg intakes from species most commonly consumed by Finnish children aged 1-6years. The total mercury concentrations were determined in fish species consumed, and age-specific methylmercury intakes were derived. We also examined safety margins and the proportion of children exceeding the tolerable daily intakes set by international expert bodies. The daily intake of MeHg ranged from 0 to 0.33μg/kg bw. The strictest reference value 0.1μg/kg bw/day for MeHg, proposed by USEPA, was exceeded by 1-15% of the study population, and FAO/WHO JECFA provisional tolerable weekly intake of 1.6μg/kg bw was exceeded by 1% of boys and 2.5% of girls aged 6years. Intakes of 1-year old girls were higher than of boys, whereas for 3-year olds they were the opposite. The highest intakes were observed for 6-year-old boys and girls. There was great variation in the estimated MeHg intakes among Finnish children.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2012; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and immunological studies suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy might affect the development of allergic diseases in the offspring. The authors set out to study the effect of maternal food consumption during pregnancy on the emergence of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based allergic outcomes: asthma, allergic rhinitis, and wheeze by the 5 yr of age.
Data from 2441 children at 5 yr of age were analyzed within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition Study, a population-based birth cohort study. Maternal diet was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.
In multiple regression models adjusted for known confounders, low maternal consumption of leafy vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.98), malaceous fruits (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.84), and chocolate (aOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.70) were positively associated with the risk of wheeze in children. High maternal consumption of fruit and berry juices was positively associated with the risk of allergic rhinitis (aOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.90) in children. No associations were observed between maternal food consumption and asthma.
Development of allergic diseases in preschool children may be influenced by intrauterine exposure to maternal diet.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 03/2012; 23(2):186-94. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence for the role of food consumption during childhood in the development of β cell autoimmunity is scarce and fragmentary.
We set out to study the associations of longitudinal food consumption in children with the development of advanced β cell autoimmunity.
Children with advanced β cell autoimmunity (n = 232) (ie, with repeated positivity for antibodies against islet cells) together with positivity for at least one of the other 3 antibodies analyzed or clinical type 1 diabetes were identified from a prospective birth cohort of 6069 infants with HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes who were born in 1996-2004, with the longest follow-up to the age of 11 y. Repeated 3-d food records were completed by the families and daycare personnel. Diabetes-associated autoantibodies and diets were measured at 3-12-mo intervals. Four control subjects, who were matched for birth date, sex, area, and genetic risk, were randomly selected for each case.
In the main food groups, only intakes of cow-milk products (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and fruit and berry juices (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.12) were significantly, although marginally, associated with advanced β cell autoimmunity. The consumption of fresh milk products and cow milk-based infant formulas was related to the endpoint, whereas no evidence was shown for consumption of sour milk products and cheese. The intake of fat from all milk products and protein from fresh milk products was associated with risk of advanced β cell autoimmunity.
Intakes of cow milk and fruit and berry juices could be related to the development of advanced β cell autoimmunity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as number NCT00223613.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2012; 95(2):471-8. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acids (FA) are known to have a number of immunological effects and, accordingly, may play a role in the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effect of maternal intake of FA during pregnancy on the risk of allergic rhinitis, wheeze and atopic eczema in children aged 5 years. The present study analysed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study, a population-based birth cohort study with a 5-year follow-up. Complete information on maternal diet (assessed by a validated FFQ) and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood-based allergic outcomes was available for 2441 children. Cox proportional regression and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, high maternal consumption of butter and butter spreads (hazard ratio (HR) 1.33; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.71) and higher ratio of n-6:n-3 FA (HR 1.37; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.77) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in the offspring by 5 years of age. High maternal intakes of total PUFA (HR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52, 0.96) and α-linolenic FA (HR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.54, 0.98) were associated with a decreased risk of allergic rhinitis. However, these results lost their significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Overall, our data suggest that maternal consumption of butter, the ratio of n-6:n-3 FA and intake of PUFA and α-linolenic FA during pregnancy may be potential determinants of allergic rhinitis in the offspring.
The British journal of nutrition 11/2011; 108(4):720-32. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acid concentrations in blood are potential biomarkers of dietary fat intake, but methodological studies among children are scarce. The large number of fatty acids and their complex interrelationships pose a special challenge in research on fatty acids. Our target was to assess the interrelationships between the total fatty acid profiles in diet and serum of young children. The study subjects were healthy control children from the birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. A 3-day food record and a frozen serum sample were available from 135 children at the age of 1 year, from 133 at 2 years, and from 92 at 3 years. The relationship between dietary and serum fatty acid profiles was analysed using canonical correlation analysis. The consumption of fatty milk correlated positively with serum fatty acids, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at all ages. Correlations between dietary and serum eicosapentaenoic and/or docosahexaenoic acid were observed at 2 and 3 years of age. Serum linoleic acid was positively associated with the consumption of infant formula at the age of 1 year, and with the consumption of vegetable margarine at 2 and 3 years. The results indicate a high quality of the 3-day food records kept by parents and other caretakers of the children, and suitability of non-fasting, un-fractioned serum samples for total fatty acid analyses. The correlation between intake of milk fat and serum proportion of CLA is a novel finding.
Maternal and Child Nutrition 11/2011; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unborn children are exposed to environmental pollutants via the placenta, and there is a causal relationship between maternal intake of pollutants and fetal exposure. Placental examination is an effective way for acquiring data for estimating fetal exposure. We analyzed the concentrations of 104 congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data indicates that fetal exposure to dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and methylmercury depends on the mother's parity, and age. We also conclude that sources of the above four pollutants are similar but differ from the sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2011; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The duration of the period of time during which diet should be recorded for sufficiently accurate results on the usual intake of an individual is an especially challenging issue in prospective studies among children. We set out to describe nutrient intake variability in preschoolers and to determine the number of record days required (D) to estimate intake of energy and thirty-two nutrients. The diet and the use of dietary supplements were assessed with three consecutive daily food records including one weekend day in 1639 children participating in the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Project (DIPP) in Finland. Variance ratios and D stratified by sex and age groups were calculated for 455 (1-year-old), 471 (3-year-old) and 713 (6-year-old) children (born between 1998 and 2003). Within:between variance ratios and D increase with increasing age, and are slightly higher for girls. Vitamin A, cholesterol, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, β-carotene and folate intakes require the most replicates. Including supplemental intake has an impact on the variance estimates according to the proportion of supplement users. In the DIPP Nutrition Study with 3 d food records, the correlation coefficients between observed and true intakes of energy and thirty-two nutrients averaged 0·91 in 1-year-old children, 0·79 in 3-year-old children and 0·74 in 6-year-old children. For providing accurate nutrient intake estimates, three replicates of food records are reasonable in 1-year-old children but must be questioned for several nutrients in 3- and 6-year-old children. The accuracy of ranking boys is greater than that for girls.
The British journal of nutrition 07/2011; 106(1):130-40. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A deterministic exposure assessment using the Nusser method that adjusts for within-subject variation and for nuisance effects among Finnish children and adults was carried out. The food consumption data covered 2038 adults (25-74 years old) and 1514 children of 1, 3 and 6 years of age, with the data on foods' acrylamide content obtained from published Finnish studies. We found that acrylamide exposure was highest among the 3-year-old children (median = 1.01 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 97.5th percentile = 1.95 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and lowest among 65-74-year-old women (median = 0.31 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 97.5th percentile = 0.69 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1)). Among adults, the most important source of acrylamide exposure was coffee, followed by casseroles rich in starch, then rye bread. Among children, the most important sources were casseroles rich in starch and then biscuits and, finally, chips and other fried potatoes. Replacing lightly roasted coffee with dark-roasted, swapping sweet wheat buns for biscuits, and decreasing the acrylamide content of starch-based casseroles and rye bread by 50% would result in a 50% decrease in acrylamide exposure in adults. Among children, substituting boiled potatoes for chips and other friend potatoes and replacing biscuits with sweet wheat buns while lowering the acrylamide content of starch-based casseroles by 50% would lead to acrylamide exposure that is only half of the original exposure. In conclusions, dietary modifications could have a large impact in decreasing acrylamide exposure.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2011; 28(11):1483-91.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential immune functions related to the damages induced by oxygen-free radicals suggest that antioxidants may have a role in the development of allergies. The objective was to investigate the association between maternal intake of antioxidants during pregnancy and the risk of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 5-year-old children.
This study was on the basis of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study, a population-based birth cohort study with 5-year follow-up. Complete information on maternal food frequency questionnaire data and ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood)-based allergic outcomes were available for 2441 children. Cox proportional regression and logistic regression were used for the analyses.
Maternal intake of any of the antioxidants was not significantly associated with the risk of asthma, rhinitis or eczema in the offspring, except for dietary intake of magnesium, which was independently associated with protection against eczema (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.62-0.97).
Maternal intake of dietary magnesium during pregnancy may protect against the risk of eczema in the offspring. We did not confirm previous observations concerning other antioxidants. This may be due to the variable amount of antioxidant intake across studies and also indicative of the hypothesis that there may be a critical time window in pregnancy during which antioxidants might modify the risk of allergies in the offspring.
European journal of clinical nutrition 05/2011; 65(8):937-43. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early introduction of supplementary foods has been implicated to play a role in the development of ß-cell autoimmunity. We set out to study the effects of breastfeeding and age at introduction of supplementary foods on the development of ß-cell autoimmunity.
A prospective birth cohort of 6069 infants with HLA-DQB-conferred susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes was recruited between 1996 and 2004. Antibodies against islet cells, insulin, glutamate dehydroxylase and islet antigen 2 were measured at 3- to 12-month intervals. The families recorded at home the age at introduction of new foods and, for each visit, completed a structured dietary questionnaire. The endpoint was repeated positivity for islet cell antibodies plus at least one other antibody and/or clinical Type 1 diabetes (n = 265).
Early introduction of root vegetables (by the age of 4 months) was related to increased risk of developing positivity for the endpoint [hazard ratio (95% CI) for the earliest third 1.75 (1.11-2.75) and for the middle third 1.79 (1.22-2.62) compared with the last third (> 4 months), likelihood ratio test P = 0.006], independently of the introduction of other foods and of several putative socio-demographic and perinatal confounding factors. Introducing wheat, rye, oats and/or barley cereals (P = 0.013) and egg (P = 0.031) early was related to an increased risk of the endpoint, but only during the first 3 years of life.
Early introduction of root vegetables during infancy is independently associated with increased risk of ß-cell autoimmunity among Finnish children with increased genetic susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes.
Diabetic Medicine 03/2011; 28(8):965-71. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence for a putative role of maternal diet during pregnancy in the development of β-cell autoimmunity in the child is scarce. The authors study the association of food consumption during pregnancy and the development of β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring.
A prospective Finnish birth cohort of 4297 infants with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and their mothers. Blood samples were collected from the children at 3-12 months intervals to measure type 1 diabetes-associated antibodies: antibodies against islet cells (ICA), insulin, glutamate dehydroxylase, and islet antigen 2. The mothers completed a validated food frequency questionnaire. The end-point was repeated positivity for ICA together with at least one of the other three antibodies. Piecewise-exponential survival models were used. The effective sample size was 3723, with 138 end-points. The median follow-up time was 4.4 years.
Maternal consumption of butter, low-fat margarines, berries, and coffee were inversely associated with the development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring, adjusted for genetic risk group and familial diabetes. These associations for low-fat margarines (use vs. non-use HR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38-0.93, p = 0.02), berries (continuous variable HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98, p = 0.02) and coffee (highest quarter vs. lowest HR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.97, p = 0.04), remained significant when adjusting for potential confounding sociodemographic, perinatal, and other dietary factors.
In this study assessing total food consumption of the mother during pregnancy, only few among the 27 food groups tested were weakly related to the development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in Finnish children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To cite this article: Nwaru BI, Erkkola M, Ahonen S, Kaila M, Lumia M, Prasad M, Haapala A-Maija, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Veijola R, Ilonen J, Simell O, Knip M, Virtanen SM. Maternal diet during lactation and allergic sensitization in the offspring at age 5 years. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 334–341.AbstractThe objective of this study was to examine the effect of maternal dietary intake during lactation on allergic sensitization at the age of 5 in children carrying HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. We analyzed data for 652 consecutively born children with complete information on maternal diet and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurements who are participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition and allergy study. Analysis was performed using logistic regression. In models that included the significant uncorrelated dietary variables, maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids was associated with increased risk, while margarine was associated with a decreased risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarine and low-fat spreads were associated with decreased risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes decreased the risk, while vitamin C and eggs increased the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. Maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids during lactation may increase the risk, while margarines may decrease the risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarines may decrease the risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes may decrease the risk, while vitamin C and eggs may increase the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. These effects may persist regardless of maternal or parental allergic status.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if women with gestational diabetes (GD) modify their diet and nutrient intake in late pregnancy and gain more weight during pregnancy compared with women without GD.
Food and nutrient intake of 3613 pregnant women was studied using food frequency questionnaires from the Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study.
D was reported in 4.8% of the participating women (n=174). Women with GD gained less weight during pregnancy than those unaffected by GD (mean 9.4 vs 12.6 kg, P<0.001). Women with GD consumed more milk products (84 vs 76 g/MJ, P=0.002), cereal products (21 vs 18 g/MJ, P<0.001), vegetables (32 vs 22 g/MJ, P<0.001) and meat (16 vs 14 g/MJ, P<0.001) than unaffected women. The intake of protein (18 vs 16 percent of total daily energy intake, P<0.001) and dietary fibre (3.1 vs 2.4 g/MJ, P<0.001) was higher, whereas the intake of sugars (13.3 vs 15.0 g/MJ, P<0.001) and saturated fatty acids (3.49 vs 3.98 g/MJ, P<0.001) was lower among women with GD. The nutrient density of the diet was higher in women with GD with higher intakes of vitamins A and D, folate and iron.
The late pregnancy diet of women with GD differed considerably from that of unaffected women. Women with GD had a higher body weight at the beginning of the pregnancy, but they gained less weight during pregnancy. These findings indicate that abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy encourages women to modify their dietary habits towards healthier food choices.
European journal of clinical nutrition 12/2010; 64(12):1433-40. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer among male smokers.
The study consisted of 27,111 male smokers, aged 50-69 years, without history of cancer. They were participants of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in Finland. The men completed a validated dietary questionnaire and a questionnaire on general background characteristics (including smoking habits) at baseline. Incident cases of cancer were identified through the national Finnish Cancer Registry.
During an average 10.2 year follow-up, 1,703 lung cancers, 799 prostate cancers, 365 urothelial cancers, 316 colorectal cancers, 224 stomach cancers, 192 pancreatic cancers, 184 renal cell cancers, and 175 lymphomas were diagnosed. Dietary acrylamide intake was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer; relative risk (RR) in the highest versus the lowest quintile in the multivariable-adjusted model was 1.18 ((95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.38, p for trend 0.11). Other cancers were not associated with acrylamide intake.
High acrylamide intake is associated with increased risk of lung cancer but not with other cancers in male smokers.
Cancer Causes and Control 12/2010; 21(12):2223-9. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The basic treatment for cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the elimination of all cow's milk proteins (CMP) from the diet. This study aimed at characterizing the diet of children with a diagnosis of CMA, to assess the degree of adherence to the elimination diet and to evaluate the factors associated with the adherence and age of recovery.
From a birth cohort study, food records of 267 children diagnosed with CMA were studied to define how strictly the elimination diet was adhered to. Subsequent food records were studied to assess the age at reintroduction of milk products in the child's diet.
The families adhered to the elimination diet of the child with extreme accuracy in 85% of the cases. Older and monosensitized children had more often small amounts of CMP in their diet, possibly because of the absence of nutritional information by a dietitian/nutritionist. Adherence to the diet was neither related to any other sociodemographic factor studied nor to the age at reintroduction of milk products into the diet.
The therapeutic elimination diet of children diagnosed with CMA was well adhered to. Low intakes of vitamin D, calcium, and riboflavin are of concern in children who follow or have followed a cow's milk-free diet.
European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2010; 64(10):1080-5. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess and compare the food consumption and nutrient intake between 3-year-old children cared for at home full-time and those attending day care outside the home. Nutrient intake on weekdays and weekends was also studied.
Cross-sectional sample of children invited to the nutrition study within the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort born in 2001. Families returned 3-d food record completed close to the child's third birthday.
A total of 471 pre-school children aged 3 years of whom 285 had only been cared for at home during the recording time and 186 had attended day care outside the home.
Among the children cared for outside the home, there were more consumers of recommendable foods as fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, rye bread, fish, skimmed milk and vegetable margarines, than among those cared for at home. The day-care group had higher intake of protein, dietary fibre, thiamine, potassium and magnesium, and lower intake of sucrose compared with the group cared for at home. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors did not change the results. In all children, food consumption was more varied on weekdays compared with weekends. On weekdays, children had higher intake of dietary fibre and protein and lower intake of sucrose compared to weekends.
The type of day care was associated with food consumption and nutrient intake among pre-school children and hence might have an impact on their nutrition and health. The diet of the children attending day care outside the home was more balanced and closer to the national recommendations.
Public Health Nutrition 06/2010; 13(6A):957-64. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish children aged 1-6 years and to assess the effect of age and sex on food consumption and nutrient intake.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort study in Finland.
The study population comprised healthy children recruited in the nutrition study within the DIPP study in 1998-2003. Three-day food records (2535 in total) from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-year-old children were kept between the years 2003 and 2005.
The energy-adjusted consumption of fruits and berries, cereal products, infant formulas and meat dishes was higher and the consumption of vegetables, salads, breads, dairy products, fat spreads, drinks, sweets and sugar was lower among 1-year-old children than older age groups (P for all <0.05). The mean daily energy intake increased with age and was higher among boys than girls in all age groups, except among the 2-year-olds (P for all <0.05). The diet of the 2-6-year-old children contained too much saturated fat and sucrose, and too little PUFA compared with the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The intakes of most vitamins and minerals met the recommendations. However, the intakes of vitamin D, E and iron fell below the recommended levels. The nutrient density of the diet decreased after the age of 1 year at the time that the children adapted to the regular family diet.
In order to improve the diet of young children, it is essential to evaluate the diet of the whole family.
Public Health Nutrition 06/2010; 13(6A):947-56. · 2.25 Impact Factor