[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine, and is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that plays an important role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, and cell-fate determination. In the present study, we found that cantharidin repressed the invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression through multiple pathways, including ERK, JNK, PKC, NF-κB, and β-catenin. Interestingly, transcriptional activity of the MMP2 promoter increased after treatment with PP2A inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of a posttranscriptional mechanism. By using an mRNA stability assay, we found accelerated degradation of MMP2 mRNA after treatment of cantharidin. Microarray analyses revealed that multiple genes involved in the 3'→5' decay pathway were upregulated, especially genes participating in cytoplasmic deadenylation. The elevation of these genes were further demonstrated to be executed through ERK, JNK, PKC, NF-κB, and β-catenin pathways. Knockdown of PARN, RHAU, and CNOT7, three critical members involved in cytoplasmic deadenylation, attenuated the downregulation of MMP2. Hence, we present the mechanism of repressed invasion by cantharidin and other PP2A inhibitors through increased degradation of MMP2 mRNA by elevated cytoplasmic deadenylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays an important role in the control of the cell cycle. We previously reported that the PP2A inhibitors, cantharidin and okadaic acid (OA), efficiently repressed the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PP2A inhibitors arrested the cell cycle at the G2 phase through a mechanism that was dependent on the JNK pathway. Microarrays further showed that PP2A inhibitors induced expression changes in multiple genes that participate in cell cycle transition. To verify whether these expression changes were executed in a PP2A-dependent manner, we targeted the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) using siRNA and evaluated gene expression with a microarray. After the cross comparison of these microarray data, we identified that CDK1 was potentially the same target when treated with either PP2A inhibitors or PP2Ac siRNA. In addition, we found that the down-regulation of CDK1 occurred in a JNK-dependent manner. Luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that repression of the transcription of CDK1 was executed through the JNK-dependent activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. By constructing deletion mutants of the CDK1 promoter and by using ChIP assays, we identified an element in the CDK1 promoter that responded to the JNK/Sp1 pathway after stimulation with PP2A inhibitors. Cantharidin and OA also up-regulated the expression of p21, an inhibitor of CDK1, via autophagy rather than PP2A/JNK pathway. Thus, this present study found that the PP2A/JNK/Sp1/CDK1 pathway and the autophagy/p21 pathway participated in G2/M cell cycle arrest triggered by PP2A inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) varies greatly among patients in sepsis/septic shock. The genetic and biochemical reasons for the difference are not fully understood. G protein coupled receptor family C group 5 member A (GPRC5A), a retinoic acid target gene, is predominately expressed in the bronchioalveolar epithelium of lung. We hypothesized that Gprc5a is important in controlling the susceptibility to ALI or ARDS. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of wild-type and Gprc5a-knockout (ko) mice to induced ALI. Administration of endotoxin LPS induced anincreased pulmonary edema and injury in Gprc5a-ko mice, compared to wild-type counterparts. Consistently, LPS administration induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and chemokine (KC) in Gprc5a-ko mouse lungs than in wild-type. The enhanced pulmonary inflammatory responses were associated with dysregulated NF-κB signaling in the bronchioalveolar epithelium of Gprc5a-ko mouse lungs. Importantly, selective inhibition of NF-κB through expression of the super-repressor IκBα in the bronchioalveolar epithelium of Gprc5a-ko mouse lungs alleviated the LPS-induced pulmonary injury, and inflammatory response. Thus, Gprc5a is critical for lung homeostasis, and Gprc5a deficiency confers the susceptibility to endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and injury, mainly through NF-κB signaling in bronchioalveolar epithelium of lung.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inheritable epigenetic regulation is integral to the dynamic control of gene expression under different stimuli for cellular homeostasis and disease progression. Histone methylation is a common and important type of chromatin modification. LSD1, the first known histone lysine-specific demethylase, operates as a key component of several corepressor complexes during development and in disease states. In this review, we focus on the regulation of LSD1 in mammary carcinogenesis. LSD1 plays a role in promoting mammary tumor metastasis and proliferation and in maintaining mammary cancer stem cells. Therefore, LSD1 represents a viable therapeutic target for effective treatment of mammary carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetraspanin CD151 interacts with laminin-binding integrins (i.e., α3β1, α6β1 and α6β4) and other cell surface molecules to control diverse cellular and physiological processes, ranging from cell adhesion, migration and survival to tissue architecture and homeostasis. Here, we report a novel role of CD151 in maintaining the branching morphogenesis and activity of progenitor cells during the pubertal development of mammary glands. In contrast to the disruption of laminin-binding integrins, CD151 removal in mice enhanced the tertiary branching in mammary glands by 2.4-fold and the number of terminal end buds (TEBs) by 30%, while having minimal influence on either primary or secondary ductal branching. Consistent with these morphological changes are the skewed distribution of basal/myoepithelial cells and a 3.2-fold increase in proliferating Ki67-positive cells. These novel observations suggest that CD151 impacts the branching morphogenesis of mammary glands by upregulating the activities of bipotent progenitor cells. Indeed, our subsequent analyses indicate that upon CD151 removal the proportion of CD24(Hi)CD49f(Low) progenitor cells in the mammary gland increased by 34%, and their proliferating and differentiating activities were significantly upregulated. Importantly, fibronectin, a pro-branching extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposited underlying mammary epithelial or progenitor cells, increased by >7.2-fold. Moreover, there was a concomitant increase in the expression and nuclear distribution of Slug, a transcription factor implicated in the maintenance of mammary progenitor cell activities. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that integrin-associated CD151 represses mammary branching morphogenesis by controlling progenitor cell activities, ECM integrity and transcription program.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twist is a key transcription activator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). It remains unclear how Twist induces gene expression. Here we report a mechanism by which Twist recruits BRD4 to direct WNT5A expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Twist contains a "histone H4-mimic" GK-X-GK motif that is diacetylated by Tip60. The diacetylated Twist binds the second bromodomain of BRD4, whose first bromodomain interacts with acetylated H4, thereby constructing an activated Twist/BRD4/P-TEFb/RNA-Pol II complex at the WNT5A promoter and enhancer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the Twist-BRD4 association reduced WNT5A expression and suppressed invasion, cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, and tumorigenicity of BLBC cells. Our study indicates that the interaction with BRD4 is critical for the oncogenic function of Twist in BLBC.
Cancer cell 02/2014; 25(2):210-25. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.01.028 · 23.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LSD1 is a critical chromatin modulator that controls cellular pluripotency and differentiation through the demethylation of H3K4me1/2. Overexpression of LSD1 has been observed in many types of tumors and is correlated with its oncogenic effects in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism leading to LSD1 upregulation in tumors remains unclear. Using an unbiased siRNA screening against all the human deubiquitinases, we identified USP28 as a bona fide deubiquitinase of LSD1. USP28 interacted with and stabilized LSD1 via deubiquitination. USP28 overexpression correlated with LSD1 upregulation in multiple cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Knockdown of USP28 resulted in LSD1 destabilization, leading to the suppression of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics in vitro and inhibition of tumorigenicity in vivo, which can be rescued by ectopic LSD1 expression. Our study reveals a critical mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation by USP28 and provides another treatment approach against breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances cancer invasiveness and confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics. We show that the Snail-G9a-Dnmt1 complex, which is critical for E-cadherin promoter silencing, is also required for the promoter methylation of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (FBP1) in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Loss of FBP1 induces glycolysis and results in increased glucose uptake, macromolecule biosynthesis, formation of tetrameric PKM2, and maintenance of ATP production under hypoxia. Loss of FBP1 also inhibits oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production by suppressing mitochondrial complex I activity; this metabolic reprogramming results in an increased CSC-like property and tumorigenicity by enhancing the interaction of β-catenin with T-cell factor. Our study indicates that the loss of FBP1 is a critical oncogenic event in EMT and BLBC.
Cancer cell 02/2013; 23(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.01.022 · 23.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancers are highly heterogeneous but can be grouped into subtypes based on several criteria, including level of expression of certain markers. Claudin-low breast cancer (CLBC) is associated with early metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy, while gene profiling indicates it is characterized by the expression of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) - a phenotypic conversion linked with metastasis. Although the epigenetic program controlling the phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT remains unclear, one contributor may be methylation of the E-cadherin promoter, resulting in decreased E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of EMT. Indeed, reduced E-cadherin often occurs in CLBC and may contribute to the early metastasis and poor patient survival associated with this disease. Here, we have determined that methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is critical for promoter DNA methylation of E-cadherin in three TGF-β-induced EMT model cell lines, as well as in CLBC cell lines. Further, Snail interacted with G9a, a major euchromatin methyltransferase responsible for H3K9me2, and recruited G9a and DNA methyltransferases to the E-cadherin promoter for DNA methylation. Knockdown of G9a restored E-cadherin expression by suppressing H3K9me2 and blocking DNA methylation. This resulted in inhibition of cell migration and invasion in vitro and suppression of tumor growth and lung colonization in in vivo models of CLBC metastasis. Our study not only reveals a critical mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of EMT but also paves a way for the development of new treatment strategies for CLBC.
The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2012; 122(4):1469-86. DOI:10.1172/JCI57349 · 13.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snail has moved into the fast lane of development and cancer biology with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) emerging as one of the hottest topics in medical science within the past few years. Snail not only acts primarily as a key inducer of EMT but also plays an important role in cell survival, immune regulation and stem cell biology. This review focuses on the regulation of Snail and discusses the EMT-dependent and -independent functions of Snail in development and disease. Understanding the regulation and functional roles of Snail will shed new light on the mechanism of tumor progression and the development of novel cancer therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transdifferentiation programme. The mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of EMT remains unclear. In this study, we identified that Snail1 interacted with histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). We demonstrated that the SNAG domain of Snail1 and the amine oxidase domain of LSD1 were required for their mutual interaction. Interestingly, the sequence of the SNAG domain is similar to that of the histone H3 tail, and the interaction of Snail1 with LSD1 can be blocked by LSD1 enzymatic inhibitors and a histone H3 peptide. We found that the formation of a Snail1-LSD1-CoREST ternary complex was critical for the stability and function of these proteins. The co-expression of these molecules was found in cancer cell lines and breast tumour specimens. Furthermore, we showed that the SNAG domain of Snail1 was critical for recruiting LSD1 to its target gene promoters and resulted in suppression of cell migration and invasion. Our study suggests that the SNAG domain of Snail1 resembles a histone H3-like structure and functions as a molecular hook for recruiting LSD1 to repress gene expression in metastasis.
The EMBO Journal 04/2010; 29(11):1803-16. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2010.63 · 10.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for appropriate embryo implantation, embryogenesis, wound healing, tissue
regeneration, and organ development. During this EMT process, epithelial cells lose the adherent and tight junctions. They
gain a mesenchymal cell phenotype that enables them to invade and migrate over long distances and resist apoptosis. A similar
process is also detected in tumor metastasis, suggesting that the tumor cells hijack this developmental pathway for tumor
progression. Here, we review three different types of EMT in physiological and pathological conditions with special focus
on the new development on type 3 EMT in metastasis. We summarize the recent new findings on tumor microenvironment, signaling
pathways, and mechanisms underlying the regulation of EMT at metastasis. Understanding the biology of EMT will open new avenues
for controlling fibrosis and cancer progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been increasingly recognized that tumor microenvironment plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Inflammatory component is present and contributes to tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis and resistance to hormonal and chemotherapy. This review highlights the role of inflammation in the tumor metastasis. We focus on the function of proinflammatory factors, particularly cytokines during tumor metastasis. Understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation contributes to metastasis will lead to innovative approach for treating cancer. How tumor spread remains an enigma and has received great attention in recent years, as metastasis is the major cause of cancer mortality. The complex and highly selective metastatic cascade not only depends on the intrinsic properties of tumor cells but also the microenvironment that they derive from. An inflammatory milieu consisting of infiltrated immune cells and their secretory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors contribute significantly to the invasive and metastatic traits of cancer cells. Here, we review new insights into the molecular pathways that link inflammation in the tumor microenvironment to metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increased motility and invasiveness of tumor cells are reminiscent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which occurs during embryonic development, wound healing, and metastasis. In this study, we found that Snail is stabilized by the inflammatory cytokine TNFalpha through the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. We demonstrated that NF-kappaB is required for the induction of COP9 signalosome 2 (CSN2), which, in turn, blocks the ubiquitination and degradation of Snail. Furthermore, we showed that the expression of Snail correlated with the activation of NF-kappaB in cancer cell lines and metastatic tumor samples. Knockdown of Snail expression inhibited cell migration and invasion induced by inflammatory cytokines and suppressed inflammation-mediated breast cancer metastasis. Our study provides a plausible mechanism for inflammation-induced metastasis.
Cancer cell 06/2009; 15(5):416-28. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2009.03.016 · 23.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snail, a key inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in cancer metastasis. To better understand the role of Snail in the metastasis of ovarian carcinoma, expression of Snail was knocked down by antisense-Snail in the highly metastatic ovarian cancer cell line HO8910PM. Gene array analysis revealed that blocking Snail expression suppressed the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and upregulated TIMP3, an MMP inhibitor. These findings suggest that Snail interacts with MMP during tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition, we examined the role of Snail in an ovarian cancer orthotopic model by using the antisense-Snail HO8910PM cell line. We found that the size of primary ovarian cancer tumor and the number of metastatic lesions were significantly reduced when Snail was knocked down. Confirming our initial findings, the activity of MMP2 was greatly inhibited in tumors from antisense-Snail cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis on ovarian cancer progression tissue array demonstrated that the expression of Snail was significantly higher in metastatic lesions, and Snail expression correlated with the stage of ovarian cancer. Interestingly, in early-stage tumors, Snail was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. In late stage and metastatic lesions, the level of Snail was elevated, and Snail was localized to the nucleus. The expression level and nuclear localization of Snail were also inversely correlated with E-cadherin expression. Overall, our study indicates that Snail plays a critical role in tumor growth and metastasis of ovarian carcinoma through regulation of MMP activity.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2009; 126(9):2102-11. DOI:10.1002/ijc.24901 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down-regulation of E-cadherin plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is critical in normal development and disease states such as tissue fibrosis and metastasis. Snail, a key transcription repressor of E-cadherin, is a labile protein with a short half-life and is regulated through phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation. Previously, we showed that GSK-3beta phosphorylated two stretches of serine residues within the nuclear export signal and the destruction box of Snail, provoking its cytoplasmic export for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation. However, the mechanism of Snail dephosphorylation and the identity of the Snail-specific phosphatase remain elusive. Using a functional genomic screening, we found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) is a specific phosphatase for Snail. SCP interacted and co-localized with Snail in the nucleus. We also found that SCP expression induced Snail dephosphorylation and stabilization in vitro and in vivo. However, a catalytically inactive mutant of SCP had no effect on Snail. Furthermore, we found that Snail stabilization induced by SCP enhanced snail activity in the suppression of E-cadherin and increased cell migration. Thus, our findings indicate that SCP functions as a Snail phosphatase to control its phosphorylation and stabilization, and our study provides novel insights for the regulation of Snail during EMT and cancer metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step during embryonic morphogenesis, heart development, chronic degenerative
fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. Several distinct traits have been conveyed by EMT, including cell motility, invasiveness,
resistance to apoptosis, and some properties of stem cells. Many signal pathways have contributed to the induction of EMT,
such as transforming growth factor-β, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, and nuclear factor-κB. Over the last few years, increasing evidence
has shown that EMT plays an essential role in tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of EMT
has a great effect in unraveling the metastatic cascade and may lead to novel interventions for metastatic disease.