André Bleich

Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (77)486.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Priming of the mucosal immune system during the postnatal period substantially influences host-microbial interaction and susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases in adult life. The underlying mechanisms are ill defined. Here we show that shortly after birth, CD4 T cells populate preformed lymphoid structures in the small intestine and quickly acquire a distinct transcriptional profile. T-cell recruitment is independent of microbial colonization and innate or adaptive immune stimulation but requires β7 integrin expression. Surprisingly, neonatal CD4 T cells remain immature throughout the postnatal period under homeostatic conditions but undergo maturation and gain effector function on barrier disruption. Maternal SIgA and regulatory T cells act in concert to prevent immune stimulation and maintain the immature phenotype of CD4 T cells in the postnatal intestine during homeostasis. Active suppression of CD4 T-cell maturation during the postnatal period might contribute to prevent auto-reactivity, sustain a broad TCR repertoire and establish life-long immune homeostasis
    Nature Communications 07/2015; 21(6):7725. DOI:10.1038/ncomms8725 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex mechanisms are pulling the strings to initiate the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Current evidence indicates that an interaction of genetic susceptibilities (polymorphisms), environmental factors, and the host microbiota leads to a dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. In the past decades, the interleukin-10-deficient mouse has served as an excellent model to mirror the multifactorial nature of this disease. Here, we want to review in detail the interplay of the genetic factors, immune aspects, and especially summarize and discuss the role of the microbiota contributing to colitis development in the interleukin-10-deficient mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease as a multihit model.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000468 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) shields the gut epithelium from luminal antigens and contributes to host-microbe symbiosis. However, how antibody responses are regulated to achieve sustained host-microbe interactions is unknown. We found that mice and humans exhibited longitudinal persistence of clonally related B cells in the IgA repertoire despite major changes in the microbiota during antibiotic treatment or infection. Memory B cells recirculated between inductive compartments and were clonally related to plasma cells in gut and mammary glands. Our findings suggest that continuous diversification of memory B cells constitutes a central process for establishing symbiotic host-microbe interactions and offer an explanation of how maternal antibodies are optimized throughout life to protect the newborn.
    Nature Immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/ni.3213 · 24.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of bile acid homeostasis in mammals is a complex process regulated via extensive cross-talk between liver, intestine and intestinal microbiota. Here we studied the effects of gut microbiota on bile acid homeostasis in mice. Bile acid homeostasis was assessed in four mouse models. Germfree mice, conventionally-raised mice, Asbt-KO mice and intestinal-specific Gata4-iKO mice were treated with antibiotics (bacitracin, neomycin and vancomycin; 100mg/kg) for 5 days and subsequently compared with untreated mice. Attenuation of the bacterial flora by antibiotics strongly reduced fecal excretion and synthesis of bile acids, but increased the expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7A1. Similar effects were seen in germfree mice. Intestinal bile acid absorption was increased and accompanied by increases in plasma bile acid levels, biliary bile acid secretion and enterohepatic cycling of bile acids. In the absence of microbiota, the expression of the intestinal bile salt transporter Asbt was strongly increased in the ileum and was also expressed in more proximal parts of the small intestine. Most of the effects of antibiotic treatment on bile acid homeostasis could be prevented by genetic inactivation of either Asbt or the transcription factor Gata4. Attenuation of gut microbiota alters Gata4-controlled expression of Asbt, increasing absorption and decreasing synthesis of bile acids. Our data support the concept that under physiological conditions microbiota stimulate Gata4, which suppresses Asbt expression, limiting the expression of this transporter to the terminal ileum. Our studies expand current knowledge on the bacterial control of bile acid homeostasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Hepatology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.04.030 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota is associated with Crohn's disease (CD). Functional evidence for a causal role of bacteria in the development of chronic small intestinal inflammation is lacking. Similar to human pathology, TNFdeltaARE mice develop a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-driven CD-like transmural inflammation with predominant ileal involvement. Design Heterozygous TNFdeltaARE mice and wildtype (WT) littermates were housed under conventional (CONV), specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) conditions. Microbial communities were analysed by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Metaproteomes were measured using LC-MS. Temporal and spatial resolution of disease development was followed after antibiotic treatment and transfer of microbial communities into GF mice. Granulocyte infiltration and Paneth cell function was assessed by immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis. Results GF-TNFdeltaARE mice were free of inflammation in the gut and antibiotic treatment of CONV-TNFdeltaARE mice attenuated ileitis but not colitis, demonstrating that disease severity and location are microbiota-dependent. SPF-TNFdeltaARE mice developed distinct ileitis-phenotypes associated with gradual loss of antimicrobial defence. 16S analysis and metaproteomics revealed specific compositional and functional alterations of bacterial communities in inflamed mice. Transplantation of disease-associated but not healthy microbiota transmitted CD-like ileitis to GF-TNFdeltaARE recipients and triggered loss of lysozyme and cryptdin-2 expression. Monoassociation of GF-TNFdeltaARE mice with the human CD-related Escherichia coli LF82 did not induce ileitis. Conclusions We provide clear experimental evidence for the causal role of gut bacterial dysbiosis in the development of chronic ileal inflammation with subsequent failure of Paneth cell function.
    Gut 04/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309333 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-61. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)30211-0 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G Brandes and NK Prenzler contributed equally to this study. For several centuries silver is known for its antibacterial effects. The middle ear is an interesting new scope for silver application since chronic inflammations combined with bacterial infection cause complete destruction of the fragile ossicle chain and tympanic membrane. The resulting conductive deafness requires tympanoplasty for reconstruction. Strategies to prevent bacterial growth on middle ear prostheses are highly recommended. In this study, rabbits were implanted with Bioverit® II middle ear prostheses functionalized with silver containing dense and nanoporous silica films which were compared with pure silica coatings as well as silver sulfadiazine cream applied on nanoporous silica coating. The health status of animals was continuously monitored; blood was examined before and after implantation. After 21 days, the middle ears were inspected; implants and mucosal samples were processed for electron microscopy. Autopsies were performed and systemic spreading of silver was chemically analyzed exemplarily in liver and kidneys. For verification of direct cytotoxicity, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on similar silver containing silica coatings on glass up to 3 days. In vitro a reduced viability of fibroblasts adhering directly on the samples was detected compared to cells growing on the surrounding plastic of the same culture dish. In transmission electron microscopy, phagocytosed silver silica fragments, silver sulfadiazine cream as well as silver nanoparticles were noticed inside endosomes. In vivo, clinical and ohne Bindestrich examinations were inconspicuous. Chemical analyses showed no increased silver content compared to controls. Mucosal coverages on almost all prostheses were found. But reduction of granulation tissue was only obvious around silver-coated implants. Single necroses and apoptosis in the mucosa were correlated by intracellular accumulation of metallic silver. For confirming supportive healing effects of middle ear implants, silver ion aggregates need to be tested in the future to optimize biocompatibility while assuring bactericidal effects in the middle ear. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Journal of Biomaterials Applications 02/2015; 30(1). DOI:10.1177/0885328215570103 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A dysfunction of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) significantly contributes to the reduced salt absorptive capacity of the inflamed intestine. We previously reported a strong decrease in the NHERF family member PDZK1 (NHERF3), which binds to NHE3 and regulates its function in a mouse model of colitis. The present study investigates whether a causal relationship exists between the decreased PDZK1 expression and the NHE3 dysfunction in human and murine intestinal inflammation. Biopsies from the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis, murine inflamed ileal and colonic mucosa, NHE3-transfected Caco-2BBe colonic cells with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of PDZK1, and Pdzk1-gene-deleted mice were studied. PDZK1 mRNA and protein expression was strongly decreased in inflamed human and murine intestinal tissue as compared to inactive disease or control tissue, whereas that of NHE3 or NHERF1 was not. Inflamed human and murine intestinal tissues displayed correct brush border localization of NHE3 but reduced acid-activated NHE3 transport activity. A similar NHE3 transport defect was observed when PDZK1 protein content was decreased by shRNA knockdown in Caco-2BBe cells or when enterocyte PDZK1 protein content was decreased to similar levels as found in inflamed mucosa by heterozygote breeding of Pdzk1-gene-deleted and WT mice. We conclude that a decrease in PDZK1 expression, whether induced by inflammation, shRNA-mediated knockdown, or heterozygous breeding, is associated with a decreased NHE3 transport rate in human and murine enterocytes. We therefore hypothesize that inflammation-induced loss of PDZK1 expression may contribute to the NHE3 dysfunction observed in the inflamed intestine.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 10/2014; 467(8). DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1608-x · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Necroptosis has emerged as an important pathway of programmed cell death in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. RIPK1 is implicated in inflammatory and cell death signalling and its kinase activity is believed to drive RIPK3-mediated necroptosis. Here we show that kinase-independent scaffolding RIPK1 functions regulate homeostasis and prevent inflammation in barrier tissues by inhibiting epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis. Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific RIPK1 knockout caused IEC apoptosis, villus atrophy, loss of goblet and Paneth cells and premature death in mice. This pathology developed independently of the microbiota and of MyD88 signalling but was partly rescued by TNFR1 (also known as TNFRSF1A) deficiency. Epithelial FADD ablation inhibited IEC apoptosis and prevented the premature death of mice with IEC-specific RIPK1 knockout. However, mice lacking both RIPK1 and FADD in IECs displayed RIPK3-dependent IEC necroptosis, Paneth cell loss and focal erosive inflammatory lesions in the colon. Moreover, a RIPK1 kinase inactive knock-in delayed but did not prevent inflammation caused by FADD deficiency in IECs or keratinocytes, showing that RIPK3-dependent necroptosis of FADD-deficient epithelial cells only partly requires RIPK1 kinase activity. Epidermis-specific RIPK1 knockout triggered keratinocyte apoptosis and necroptosis and caused severe skin inflammation that was prevented by RIPK3 but not FADD deficiency. These findings revealed that RIPK1 inhibits RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in keratinocytes in vivo and identified necroptosis as a more potent trigger of inflammation compared with apoptosis. Therefore, RIPK1 is a master regulator of epithelial cell survival, homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine and the skin.
    Nature 08/2014; 513(7516). DOI:10.1038/nature13608 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Intestinal inflammation is often associated with an increased level of serotonin (5-HT), an important gastrointestinal signaling molecule involved in gut homeostasis through stimulation of specific receptors. In this study, we investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) in the induction and development of intestinal inflammation using a mouse model of acute and chronic colitis and human patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: Acute colitis was induced through administration of dextran sodium sulfate to wild-type, 5-HT7R-deficient mice and hematopoietic bone marrow chimera. Chronic colitis was induced in interleukin 10-deficient mice. The role of 5-HT7R in gut inflammation was assessed using agonist/antagonist treatment. We investigated expression and distribution of 5-HT7R, extent of gut inflammation with magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis, survival rate, and disease activity index. Finally, biopsies from the large intestine of patients with CD were analyzed. Results: Under basal conditions, 5-HT7R is expressed both in enteric neurons and CD11c(+) cells of the large intestine. Expression of 5-HT7R significantly increased after induction of colitis in mice and in inflamed intestinal regions of patients with CD in CD11c/CD86 double-positive cells. Pharmacological blockade or genetic ablation of 5-HT7R resulted in increased severity of both acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis, whereas receptor stimulation showed an anti-inflammatory effect. Analysis of bone marrow chimera indicated importance of 5-HT7R expressed by hematopoietic cells in intestinal inflammation. Conclusions: The 5-HT7R expressed on CD11c/CD86-positive myeloid cells modulates the severity of intestinal inflammation in an acute and chronic colitis and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory disorders such as CD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 07/2014; 20(9). DOI:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000150 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) express toll-like receptors (TLR) that facilitate microbial recognition. Stimulation of TLR ligands induces a transient increase in epithelial cell shedding, a mechanism that serves the antibacterial and antiviral host defence of the epithelium and promotes elimination of intracellular pathogens. Although activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway has been described during inflammatory shedding, its functional involvement is currently unclear. Design We investigated the functional involvement of caspase-8 signalling in microbial-induced intestinal cell shedding by injecting Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic bacterial pathogens and poly(I:C) as a probe for RNA viruses in vivo. Results TLR stimulation of IEC was associated with a rapid activation of caspase-8 and increased epithelial cell shedding. In mice with an epithelial cell-specific deletion of caspase-8 TLR stimulation caused Rip3-dependent epithelial necroptosis instead of apoptosis. Mortality and tissue damage were more severe in mice in which IECs died by necroptosis than apoptosis. Inhibition of receptor-interacting protein (Rip) kinases rescued the epithelium from TLR-induced gut damage. TLR3-induced necroptosis was directly mediated via TRIF-dependent pathways, independent of Tnf-α and type III interferons, whereas TLR4-induced tissue damage was critically dependent on Tnf-α. Conclusions Together, our data demonstrate an essential role for caspase-8 in maintaining the gut barrier in response to mucosal pathogens by permitting inflammatory shedding and preventing necroptosis of infected cells. These data suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting the cell death machinery represent a promising new option for the treatment of inflammatory and infective enteropathies.
    Gut 06/2014; 64(4). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307226 · 13.32 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2014; 146(5):S-289. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(14)61026-X · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection may trigger clinically overt mucosal inflammation in patients with predisposition for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the impact of particular enteropathogenic microorganisms is ill-defined. In this study, the influence of murine norovirus (MNV) infection on clinical, histopathological, and immunological features of mucosal inflammation in the IL10-deficient (Il10) mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease was examined. C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJBir wild-type and Il10 mice kept under special pathogen-free conditions and devoid of clinical and histopathological signs of mucosal inflammation were monitored after MNV infection for structural and functional intestinal barrier changes by in situ MNV reverse transcription PCR, transgene reporter gene technology, histology, flux measurements, quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistology, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. In addition, the influence of the enteric microbiota was analyzed in MNV-infected germfree Il10 mice. Although MNV-infected wild-type mice remained asymptomatic, mucosal inflammation was noted in previously healthy Il10 mice 2 to 4 weeks after infection. MNV-induced changes in Il10 mice included increased paracellular permeability indicated by increased mucosal mannitol flux, reduced gene expression of tight junction molecules, and an enhanced rate of epithelial apoptosis. MNV-induced reduction of tight junction protein expression and inflammatory lesions were absent in germfree Il10 mice, whereas epithelial apoptosis was still observed. Despite its subclinical course in wild-type animals, MNV causes epithelial barrier disruption in Il10 animals representing a potent colitogenic stimulus that largely depends on the presence of the enteric microbiota. MNV might thus trigger overt clinical disease in individuals with a nonsymptomatic predisposition for inflammatory bowel disease by impairment of the intestinal mucosa.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2014; 20(3). DOI:10.1097/01.MIB.0000441346.86827.ed · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rodents Pasteurellaceae have to be excluded from the specified pathogen free experimental animal facilities. Despite the biological and economic importance of Pasteurellaceae in relation to experimental animals just a few molecular based methods are available for their detection and identification. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a multiplex PCR assay allowing detection of all rodent Pasteurellaceae and identification of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz, [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris, as the most prevalent members of the group. For this, a Pasteurellaceae common forward primer located on the 16S rRNA gene was used in conjunction with four different reverse primers specific for [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz, [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Heyl, [Actinobacillus] muris and a common reverse primer for all rodent Pasteurellaceae, all targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. The performance characteristics of the assay were tested against 125 Pasteurellaceae isolates belonging to eleven different species and including 34 strains of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz, 44 strains of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and 37 strains of [Actinobacillus] muris. Additionally, eight other mouse associated bacterial species which could pose a diagnostic problem were included. The assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Identification of the clinical isolates was validated by ITS profiling and when necessary by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This multiplex PCR represents the first molecular tool able to detect and differentiate in a single assay among the Pasteurellaceae found in laboratory mouse and may become a reliable alternative to the present diagnostic methods.
    Journal of microbiological methods 09/2013; 95(2). DOI:10.1016/j.mimet.2013.09.005 · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Manuela Buettner · Andre Bleich
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) summarises a group of chronic intestinal disorders with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis being most prominent. Though much effort is put into identification of causative factors, etiology is still not understood. Risk factors for disease development include genetic predisposition and environmental trigger. Crucial for identification and analysis of relevant factors are mouse models. Experimental IBD in mice occurs spontaneously or is induced by chemicals, cell transfer, pathogens, or genetic mutation. These models were utilized for analysing genetic contribution to disease and genotype-environmental interactions. In these studies, a variety of modifier loci were identified thereby demonstrating the complexity of disease. A major contribution of distal chromosome 3 was independently replicated in several studies. The first colitogenic QTL in this region was detected using the IL-10 deficient mouse model and called cytokine deficiency induced colitis susceptibility (Cdcs)1. This QTL contains at least three subintervals with independent genetic factors. This locus or defined subintervals were replicated in at least seven studies, using models based on dysregulation of innate or adaptive immunity or pathogen control. In this review we illustrate the various models used for genetic mapping of susceptibility to experimental IBD and display Cdcs1-related loci as well as the mechanism of their contribution identified so far.
    Physiological Genomics 09/2013; 45(20). DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00084.2013 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mouse pathobiont Helicobacter hepaticus can induce typhlocolitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice, and H. hepaticus infection of immunodeficient mice is widely used as a model to study the role of pathogens and commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6J Il10(-/-) mice kept under specific pathogen-free conditions in two different facilities (MHH and MIT), displayed strong differences with respect to their susceptibilities to H. hepaticus-induced intestinal pathology. Mice at MIT developed robust typhlocolitis after infection with H. hepaticus, while mice at MHH developed no significant pathology after infection with the same H. hepaticus strain. We hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota might be responsible for these differences and therefore performed high resolution analysis of the intestinal microbiota composition in uninfected mice from the two facilities by deep sequencing of partial 16S rRNA amplicons. The microbiota composition differed markedly between mice from both facilities. Significant differences were also detected between two groups of MHH mice born in different years. Of the 119 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that occurred in at least half the cecum or colon samples of at least one mouse group, 24 were only found in MIT mice, and another 13 OTUs could only be found in MHH samples. While most of the MHH-specific OTUs could only be identified to class or family level, the MIT-specific set contained OTUs identified to genus or species level, including the opportunistic pathogen, Bilophila wadsworthia. The susceptibility to H. hepaticus-induced colitis differed considerably between Il10(-/-) mice originating from the two institutions. This was associated with significant differences in microbiota composition, highlighting the importance of characterizing the intestinal microbiome when studying murine models of IBD.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70783. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070783 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori maintains colonization in its human host using a limited set of taxis sensors. TlpD is a proposed energy taxis sensor of H. pylori and dominant under environmental conditions of low bacterial energy yield. We studied the impact of H. pylori TlpD on colonization in vivo using a gerbil infection model, which closely mimics the gastric physiology of humans. A gerbil-adapted H. pylori strain, HP87 P7, showed energy-dependent behavior, while its isogenic tlpD mutant had lost it. A TlpD-complemented strain regained the wild type phenotype. Gerbil infections including the complemented strain demonstrated that TlpD was important for persistent infection in antrum and corpus, and suggested a role of TlpD in horizontal navigation and persistent corpus colonization. As a part of the full characterization of the model and to gain insight into the genetic basis of H. pylori adapation to the gerbil, we determined the complete genome sequences of the gerbil-adapted strain HP87 P7, two HP87 P7 tlpD mutants before and after gerbil passage, and the original human isolate HP87. The integrity of the genome including a functional cagPAI was maintained after gerbil adaptation. Genetic and phenotypical differences between the strains were observed. Major differences emerged between the gerbil-adapted strain and the human isolate, including evidence of recent recombination. Passage of the tlpD mutant through the gerbil selected for gain-of-function variation in a fucosyltransferase gene, futC/HP0093. In conclusion, a gerbil-adapted H. pylori strain with a stable genome has helped to establish important TlpD functions for persistent colonization in the stomach.
    Infection and immunity 07/2013; 81(10). DOI:10.1128/IAI.00750-13 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using interleukin 10-deficient (IL-10(-/-) ) and wild-type mice monoassociated with either the adherent-invasive Escherichia coli UNC or the probiotic E. coli Nissle, the effect of a mild intestinal inflammation on the bacterial proteome was studied. Within 8 weeks, IL-10(-/-) mice monoassociated with E. coli UNC exhibited an increased expression of several proinflammatory markers in caecal mucosa. Escherichia coli Nissle-associated IL-10(-/-) mice did not do so. As observed previously for E. coli from mice with acute colitis, glycolytic enzymes were downregulated in intestinal E. coli UNC from IL-10(-/-) mice. In addition, the inhibitor of vertebrate C-type lysozyme, Ivy, was upregulated on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level in E. coli Nissle from IL-10(-/-) mice compared with E. coli UNC from these mice. Higher expression of Ivy in E. coli Nissle correlated with an improved growth of this probiotic strain in the presence of lysozyme-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). By overexpressing Ivy, we demonstrated that Ivy contributes to a higher lysozyme resistance of E. coli, supporting the role of Ivy as a potential fitness factor. However, deletion of Ivy did not alter the growth phenotype of E. coli Nissle in the presence of lysozyme-EDTA, suggesting the existence of additional lysozyme inhibitors that can take over the function of Ivy.
    Environmental Microbiology 06/2013; 16(9). DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.12192 · 6.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases are a critical public health issue, and as treatment options remain limited, there is a need to unravel the underlying pathomechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Complement activation was found in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, and the complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its receptor C5aR have been implicated in disease pathogenesis in animal models of bowel inflammation. To further characterize complement-related pathomechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease, we have investigated the role of the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor in acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. For this, colitis was induced in C3a receptor-deficient BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and disease severity was evaluated by clinical and histological examination, and by measuring the mRNA expression or protein levels of inflammatory mediators in the tissue. C3a receptor deficiency was partially protective in BALB/c mice, which had significantly reduced weight loss, clinical and histological scores, colon shortening, and CXCL-1/KC mRNA, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 tissue levels compared to the corresponding wild type mice. In C57BL/6 mice the differences between wild type and C3a receptor-deficient animals were much smaller and reached no significance. Our data demonstrate that the contribution of C3a receptor to disease pathogenesis and severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice depends on the genetic background. Further studies will be required to clarify whether targeting of C3a receptor, possibly in combination with C5a receptor, might be considered as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62257. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062257 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HYPOTHESIS: The present study was performed to examine the impact of the release rate of ciprofloxacin from prostheses coated with nanoporous silica layers on the outcome of an acute bacterial infection of the middle ear of rabbits. BACKGROUND: Middle ear prostheses are often implanted in an infectious environment because of chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. Bacterial colonization leads to healing disorders after surgery and may lead to the extrusion of the implants. Nanoporous silica layers appear promising as a drug delivery system for antibiotics placed on implants. Before clinical applications can be envisioned, it is necessary to find an optimal release rate. METHODS: White New Zealand rabbits were provided unilaterally with either a "slow release" or a "burst release" ciprofloxacin-containing middle ear Bioverit II prosthesis. After implantation, the middle ears were infected with a solution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Afterwards, animals were monitored clinically and, after 3 months, sacrificed to perform necropsy and microbiologic examinations. RESULTS: In the "slow release" group, 7 of 12 animals had to be euthanized preterm because of their poor clinical condition compared with 2 of 12 animals of the "burst release" group (p < 0.05). Clinical and microbiologic examination also showed a better outcome for animals of the burst release group. CONCLUSION: A burst release of ciprofloxacin from middle ear implants is important to combat a perioperative infection with Ps. aeruginosa in the middle ear model of the rabbit.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 04/2013; DOI:10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182839671 · 1.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

869 Citations
486.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • Hannover Medical School
      • • Laboratory Animal Science
      • • Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Division of Pathway Medicine
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom