Rambod Daneshfar

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (11)53.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: One of the principal goals of glycoprotein research is to correlate glycan structure and function. Such correlation is necessary to understand the mechanisms whereby glycoprotein structure elaborates the functions of myriad proteins. Accurate comparison of glycoforms and quantification of glycosites is an essential step in this direction. Mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful analytical technique in the field of glycoprotein characterization. Its sensitivity, high dynamic range, and mass accuracy provide both quantitative and sequence/structural information. As part of the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, we explored the use of mass spectrometry and ancillary methodologies to characterize the glycoforms of two sources of human prostate specific antigen (PSA). PSA is used as a tumor marker for prostate cancer, with increasing blood levels used to distinguish between normal and cancer states. The glycans on PSA are believed to be biantennary N-linked and it has been observed that prostate cancer tissues and cell lines, contain more antennae than the benign form. Thus, the ability to quantify differences in glycosylation associated with cancer has the potential to positively impact use of PSA as a biomarker. We studied standard peptide based proteomics/glycomics methodologies including LC-MS/MS for peptide/glycopeptide sequencing and label-free approaches for differential quantification. We performed an interlaboratory study to determine the ability of different laboratories to correctly characterize the differences in glycoforms between two different sources using mass spectrometry methods. We used clustering analysis and ancillary statistical data treatment on the data sets submitted by participating laboratories to obtain a consensus of the glycoforms and abundances. The results demonstrate the relative strengths and weaknesses of top-down glycoproteomics, bottom-up glycoproteomics, and glycomics methods, respectively.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 06/2013; · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycosphingolipids (GSL) on the surface of cells are important receptors in antigen/microbial recognition and cell adhesion. However, their functional characterization is often challenging. We have developed a catch-and-release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay for the identification of specific interactions between water-soluble proteins or protein complexes with GSL incorporated into nanodiscs. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay is demonstrated for interactions involving cholera toxin and Shiga toxin, with their natural GSL receptors, the ganglioside GM1, and the globotriaosylceramide Gb3, respectively. The detection of binding between cholera toxin and GM1 within a mixture of lipids extracted from cell membranes highlights the potential of this assay for the discovery of biologically relevant protein-GSL interactions.
    Analytical Chemistry 08/2012; 84(18):7618-21. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Applications of a catch and release electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CaR-ESI-MS) assay for screening carbohydrate libraries against target proteins are described. Direct ESI-MS measurements were performed on solutions containing a target protein (a single chain antibody, an antigen binding fragment, or a fragment of a bacterial toxin) and a library of carbohydrates containing multiple specific ligands with affinities in the 10(3) to 10(6) M(-1) range. Ligands with moderate affinity (10(4) to 10(6) M(-1)) were successfully detected from mixtures containing >200 carbohydrates (at concentrations as low as 0.25 μM each). Additionally, the absolute affinities were estimated from the abundance of free and ligand-bound protein ions determined from the ESI mass spectrum. Multiple low affinity ligands (~10(3) M(-1)) were successfully detected in mixtures containing >20 carbohydrates (at concentrations of ~10 μM each). However, identification of specific interactions required the use of the reference protein method to correct the mass spectrum for the occurrence of nonspecific carbohydrate-protein binding during the ESI process. The release of the carbohydrate ligands, as ions, was successfully demonstrated using collision-induced dissociation performed on the deprotonated ions of the protein-carbohydrate complexes. The use of ion mobility separation, performed on deprotonated carbohydrate ions following their release from the complex, allowed for the positive identification of isomeric ligands.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2011; 84(1):50-8. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dissociation pathways, kinetics, and energetics of protonated oligosaccharides in the gas phase were investigated using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). Time-resolved BIRD measurements were performed on singly protonated ions of cellohexaose (Cel(6)), which is composed of β-(1→4)-linked glucopyranose rings, and five malto-oligosaccharides (Mal(x), where x=4-8), which are composed of α-(1→4)-linked glucopyranose units. At the temperatures investigated (85-160 °C), the oligosaccharides dissociate at the glycosidic linkages or by the loss of a water molecule to produce B- or Y-type ions. The Y ions dissociate to smaller Y or B ions, while the B ions yield exclusively smaller B ions. The sequential loss of water molecules from the smallest B ions (B(1) and B(2)) also occurs. Rate constants for dissociation of the protonated oligosaccharides and the corresponding Arrhenius activation parameters (E(a) and A) were determined. The E(a) and A-factors measured for protonated Mal(x) (x>4) are indistinguishable within error (~19 kcal mol(-1), 10(10) s(-1)), which is consistent with the ions being in the rapid energy exchange limit. In contrast, the Arrhenius parameters for protonated Cel(6) (24 kcal mol(-1), 10(12) s(-1)) are significantly larger. These results indicate that both the energy and entropy changes associated with the glycosidic bond cleavage are sensitive to the anomeric configuration. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that formation of B and Y ions occurs through a common dissociation mechanism, with the position of the proton establishing whether a B or Y ion is formed upon glycosidic bond cleavage.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 09/2011; 22(12):2171-8. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Boswellia serrata resin dry extract is among the few herbal remedies designated with an orphan drug status for the treatment of peritumoral brain edema. In addition, boswellic acids (BAs), the main active ingredients of B. serrata extracts, have potent anti-inflammatory properties, and may represent promising agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Pharmacokinetic studies, however, revealed poor bioavailability, especially of 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), the most potent BAs. To address the question of whether BAs are extensively metabolized, we determined the metabolic stability of KBA and AKBA in vitro, investigated the in vitro metabolism of BAs, and compared the metabolic profiles of KBA and AKBA with those obtained in rats in vivo. In rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes as well as in human liver microsomes, we found that KBA but not AKBA undergoes extensive phase I metabolism. Oxidation to hydroxylated metabolites is the principal metabolic route. In vitro, KBA yielded metabolic profiles similar to those obtained in vivo in rat plasma and liver, whereas no metabolites of AKBA could be identified in vivo. Furthermore, AKBA is not deacetylated to KBA. This study indicates that the efficacy of B. serrata extract may be enhanced by increasing the bioavailability of AKBA.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2008; 36(6):1135-42. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    Andrew D Leslie, Rambod Daneshfar, Dietrich A Volmer
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    ABSTRACT: The dissociation pathways of the siderophore enterobactin and its complex with Fe(III) were examined using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). Under experimental conditions (pH = 3.5), both compounds' electrospray spectra exhibited exclusively singly-charged anions. The compositions of the dissociation products were characterized by accurate mass measurements using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The primary dissociation channel for both species was determined to be the loss of one serine group from the precursor molecules. To further investigate the influence of Fe(III) binding on the intramolecular interactions, dissociation kinetics and relative energetics for the loss of this serine group were determined using the focused radiation for gaseous multiphoton energy-transfer (FRAGMENT) method. From the kinetic data, it was found that enterobactin was approximately seven times more reactive than its Fe(III) complex over the range of laser intensities investigated. The relative activation energies, however, exhibited similar values, approximately 7 kcal.mol(-1). These results suggest that at pH = 3.5, Fe(III) interacts with only two of the three serine groups. The results from the present work are believed to be valuable for the characterization of novel siderophores as well as their associated metabolites and synthetic analogues.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 05/2007; 18(4):632-41. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    Rambod Daneshfar, John S Klassen
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    ABSTRACT: Arrhenius activation parameters (E(a), A) for the loss of neutral nucleobases from a series of T-rich, doubly and triply deprotonated 15- and 20-mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing a single reactive base (X = A or C) with the sequence, XT14, XT19 and T19X, have been determined using the blackbody infrared radiative dissociation technique. The A-containing anions are significantly more reactive (> or =3000 times) than the C-containing ions over the temperature range investigated. Importantly, the Arrhenius parameters for the loss of AH exhibit a strong dependence on size of the ODN and, to some extent, the charge state; the Arrhenius parameters increase with size and charge (Ea = 29-39 kcal mol(-1), A = 10(15)-10(20) s(-1)). In contrast, the parameters for the loss of CH are much less sensitive to size (Ea = 35-39 kcal mol(-1), A = 10(14)-10(17) s(-1)). The results are consistent with a greater contribution from the internal solvation of the reactive base to the Arrhenius parameters for the loss of A, compared with C, from the 15- and 20-mers. To further probe differences in internal solvation of A and C, hydrogen/deuterium exchange was carried out on AT19(-3), T19A(-3), CT19(-3) and T19C(-3) using D2O as the exchange reagent. However, the H/D exchange results did not reveal any differences in internal solvation within the ODN anions. Arrhenius parameters for the dissociation of noncovalent complexes of T20(-3) and the neutral nucleobase AH or CH have also been determined. Differences in the parameters indicate differences in the nature of the intermolecular interactions. It is proposed that neutral A-T interactions (i.e., base-base), which originate in solution, dominate in the case of (T20 + AH)(-3), while charge solvation, involving CH and a deprotonated phosphate group, is present for (T20 + CH)(-3).
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 09/2006; 17(9):1229-38. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active phloroglucinol constituents of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) extracts, hyperforin and adhyperforin, have been studied following ion activation using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and complemented by accurate mass measurements. These two compounds were readily analyzed as protonated and deprotonated molecules with electrospray ionization. MS/MS and MS3 data from a quadrupole-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometer were employed to elucidate fragmentation pathways. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance measurements afforded excellent mass accuracies for the confirmation of elemental formulae of product ions formed via infrared multiphoton dissociation and sustained off-resonance irradiation collision-induced dissociation. Fragmentation schemes have been devised for the dissociation of hyperforin and adhyperforin in negative and positive ion modes. This information is expected to be especially valuable for the characterization of related compounds, such as degradation products, metabolites and novel synthetic analogs of hyperforin.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2006; 20(18):2641-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The assembly of the B subunits of Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2 and the influence of solution conditions (protein concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength) on it are investigated using temperature-controlled nanoflow electrospray (nano-ES) ionization and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Despite the similar higher order structure predicted by X-ray crystallography analysis, the B(5) homopentamers of Stx1 and Stx2 exhibit differences in stability under the solution conditions investigated. At solution temperatures ranging from 0 to 60 degrees C and subunit concentrations ranging from 5 to 85 microM, the Stx1 B subunit exists almost entirely as the homopentamer in aqueous solutions, independent of the ionic strength. In contrast, the degree of assembly of Stx2 B subunit is strongly dependent on temperature, subunit concentration, and ionic strength. At subunit concentrations of more than 50 microM, the Stx2 B subunit exists predominantly as a pentamer, although smaller multimers (dimer, trimer, and tetramer) are also evident. At lower concentrations, the Stx2 B subunit exists predominantly as monomer and dimer. The relative abundance of multimeric species of the Stx2 B subunit was insensitive to the ion source conditions, suggesting that gas-phase dissociation of the pentamer ions in the source does not influence the mass spectrum. Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation of the protonated B(5) ions of Stx2 at the +12 and +13 charge states proceeds, at reaction temperatures of 120 to 180 degrees C, predominantly by the ejection of a single subunit from the complex. Dissociation into dimer and trimer ions constitutes a minor pathway. It follows that the dimer and trimer ions and, likely, the monomer ions observed in the nano-ES mass spectra of Stx2 B subunit originated in solution and not from gas-phase reactions. It is concluded that, under the solution conditions investigated, the homopentamer of Stx2 B subunit is thermodynamically less stable than that of Stx1 B subunit. Arrhenius activation parameters determined for the protonated Stx2 B(5) ions at the +12 and +13 charge states were compared with values reported for the corresponding B(5) ions of Stx1 B subunit. In contrast to the differential stability of the Stx1 and Stx2 B pentamers in solution, the dissociation activation energies (E(a)) determined for the gaseous complexes are indistinguishable at a given charge state. The similarity in the E(a) values suggests that the protonated pentamer ions of both toxins are stabilized by similar intersubunit interactions in the gas phase, a result that is in agreement with the X-ray crystal structures of the holotoxins.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 01/2006; 16(12):1957-68. · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Rambod Daneshfar, Elena N Kitova, John S Klassen
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    ABSTRACT: A novel temperature-controlled nanoelectrospray (nanoES) device, interfaced with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, is used to measure the association constants, Kassoc, for a series of protein-carbohydrate complexes at solution temperatures ranging from 5 to 40 degrees C. From a van't Hoff analysis of the Kassoc values, the enthalpies and entropies of association (DeltaHassoc, DeltaSassoc) at 25 degrees C are determined. The nanoES/mass spectrometry-derived thermodynamic parameters are in agreement with values previously determined by isothermal titration calorimetry.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2004; 126(15):4786-7. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    Rambod Daneshfar, John S Klassen
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    ABSTRACT: Arrhenius activation parameters (E(a) and A) for the loss of neutral nucleobase from a series of doubly deprotonated oligodexoynucleotide 10-mers of the type XT(9), T(9)X, and T(5)XT(4), where X = A, C, and G, have been determined using the blackbody infrared radiative dissociation technique. At temperatures of 120 to 190 degrees C, the anions dissociate exclusively by the loss of a neutral nucleobase (XH), followed by cleavage of the sugar 3' C-O bond leading to (a-XH) and w type ions or, in the case of the T(9)X(2-) ions, the loss of H(2)O. The dissociation kinetics and energetics are sensitive to the nature and position of X. Over the temperature range investigated, the kinetics for the loss of AH and GH were similar, but approximately 100 times faster than for the loss of CH. For the loss of AH and GH, the values of E(a) are sensitive to the position of the base. The order of the E(a)s for the loss of XH from the 5' and 3' termini is: C > G > A; while for T(5)XT(4) the order is: C > A > G. The trends in the values of E(a) do not parallel the trend in deprotonation enthalpies or proton affinities of the nucleobases in the gas phase, indicating that the energetic differences do not simply reflect differences in their gas phase acidity or basicity. The pre-exponential factors (A) vary from 10(10) to 10(15) s(-1), depending on the nature and position of X. These results suggest that the reactivity of individual nucleobases is influenced by stabilizing intramolecular interactions.
    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 01/2004; 15(1):55-64. · 3.59 Impact Factor