C de la Roza

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (14)36.38 Total impact

  • C de la Roza · F Reinoso-Suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: The ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is involved in the generation and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Both GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. Nevertheless, the synaptic organization of serotonergic terminals in the vRPO has not yet been characterized. We performed an electron microscope study of serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT-IR) terminals using immunoperoxidase or immunogold-silver methods. In a second set of experiments, combining GABA immunoperoxidase and 5-HT immunogold-silver techniques, we examined inputs from GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-IR) terminals to serotonergic neurons. 5-HT-IR terminals were located primarily on dendrites and occasionally on somata of unlabeled and 5-HT-IR neurons. The majority of the synapses formed by 5-HT-IR terminals were of the symmetrical type, making contacts primarily with unlabeled dendritic profiles. Moreover, 5-HT-IR terminals contacted unlabeled axon terminals that formed asymmetric synapses on dendrites. Double immunolabeling experiments showed 5-HT-IR and GABA-IR afferents, in apposition to each other, making synapses with the same dendrites. Finally, GABA-IR terminals innervated 5-HT-IR and GABA-IR dendrites. Our findings indicate that serotonin would modulate the neuronal activity through inhibitory or excitatory influences, although the action of serotonin on the vRPO would predominantly be inhibitory. Moreover, the present results suggest that the serotonin modulation of vRPO neurons might involve indirect connections. In addition, GABA might contribute to the induction and maintenance of REM sleep by inhibiting serotonergic and GABAergic neurons in the vRPO.
    Neuroscience 09/2009; 164(3):1180-90. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.050 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • C de la Roza · F Reinoso-Suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: GABA mediates inhibitory effects in neurons of the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO). Evidence increasingly suggests that GABA plays an important role in the modulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep generation in the cat vRPO. Here, we investigate the anatomical substrate of this modulation using GABA immunocytochemistry. Immunoperoxidase labeling revealed a few small GABA-immunoreactive cell bodies scattered throughout the vRPO. The numerical densities of all vRPO synapses and the GABA-immunoreactive synapses were estimated, at the electron microscopical level, by using a combination of the physical disector and the post-embedding immunogold techniques. We estimated that 30% of all vRPO synaptic terminals were immunoreactive to GABA. Our findings support the hypothesis that vRPO neuron activity is significantly controlled by inhibitory GABAergic terminals that directly target somata and the different parts of the dendritic tree, including distal regions. GABAergic input could inhibit vRPO REM sleep-inducing neurons during other states of the sleep-wakefulness cycle such as wakefulness or non-REM sleep.
    Neuroscience 12/2006; 142(4):1183-93. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.07.001 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The posterior lateral hypothalamus (PLH) has long been considered crucial to normal wakefulness while the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is involved in the generation and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, to date, there is no information on the ultrastructure or neurotransmitter content of the hypothalamo-reticular projection. In the present study, we examined the morphology and synaptic organization of PLH terminals in the vRPO using PLH injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as well as of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Since some PLH neurons are GABAergic, we used a post-embedding immunogold technique to determine whether any anterogradely labeled terminals were GABA-immunopositive. Electron microscope analyses revealed a variety of ultrastructural features in the vRPO anterogradely labeled terminals. Although most labeled terminals (over 63%) formed symmetric synapses on vRPO somata and dendrites, others made asymmetric synapses on vRPO dendrites. The relative percentages of labeled terminals observed on large, medium and small diameter dendrites were 44.3 +/- 5.5%, 35.3 +/- 3.0% and 20.4 +/- 3.1%, respectively. Finally, post-embedding immunogold technique revealed that there are GABA-immunopositive and immunonegative components to this projection, indicating that GABA is one of the transmitters used by the PLH cells that project to the vRPO. Furthermore, most, if not all, of the GABA-labeled axon terminals formed symmetric synapsis. In conclusion, our results suggest that the PLH could modulate the physiological responses of vRPO neurons through a GABAergic pathway as well as by other inhibitory and/or excitatory pathways. Activation of the descending PLH GABAergic projection may inhibit the REM sleep-inducing neurons within the vRPO and thus contribute to the suppression of REM sleep activation during wakefulness.
    Brain Research 10/2004; 1020(1-2):118-29. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.06.019 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Carmen De La Roza · F Reinoso-Suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to contribute to the current knowledge of the brainstem reticular formation synaptic organization, the ultrastructure and distribution of synaptic terminal profiles on neurons in the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO), the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-induction site, were studied quantitatively. Terminals with asymmetric contacts and rounded vesicles were classified according to vesicle density as type I or II (high or low density, respectively). The area, apposed perimeter length, and mitochondrial area of type I terminals, on average, were significantly smaller than those of type II terminals. Type III and IV terminals had symmetric contacts and oval and/or flattened vesicles; type III terminals formed synapses between them and on initial axons. Type V and VI terminals showed characteristics intermediate to those of asymmetric and symmetric synapses. Interestingly, some terminal features were related to both terminal area and postsynaptic dendritic diameter. The percentages of different synapses sampled on somata were as follows: asymmetric synapses (usually formed by type II terminals; mean +/- S.D.), 26.4% +/- 3%; symmetric synapses, 46.7% +/- 5.2%; and intermediate synapses, 26.9% +/- 6.1%. The percentages of different synapses sampled on dendrites were asymmetric synapses, 62.1% +/- 9%; symmetric synapses, 25.6% +/- 8.1%; and intermediate synapses, 12.3% +/- 1.7%. Comparison between large- and small-diameter dendrites revealed that the percentages of symmetric synapses and type II terminals decreased, whereas the percentages of type I terminals increased as postsynaptic dendritic diameters became smaller. Synaptic density was approximately four times lower on somata than on dendrites. The vRPO synaptic organization reflects some patterns that are similar to those found in other regions of the central nervous system as well as specific synaptic patterns that are probably related to its functions: the generation and maintenance of REM sleep and the control of eye movement or limb muscle tone.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 12/2000; 427(1):31-53. DOI:10.1002/1096-9861(20001106)427:1<31::AID-CNE3>3.0.CO;2-T · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most neuroscientists today agree that the richest and best structured dreams occur during REM sleep. In fact, the structures responsible for REM sleep, the anatomy of which is controversial, are necessary for normal dreams. The pontine tegmentum structures with a definite role in the control of different events characterizing REM sleep (EEG activation, atonia, PGO activity and rapid eye movements) are precisely located. However, the exact site of the structure that can simultaneously trigger all the manifestations of REM sleep, with all its bioelectrical and behavioral manifestations, is still controversial. We have demonstrated that the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus is the nodal link, acting like an orchestra conductor, of the extense neuronal network that harmoniously generates and maintains REM sleep. Here, a systematic multidisciplinary study of the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus borders, connectivity, neuronal and synaptic morphology, and chemical structure, at light and electronmicroscopic levels, as well as functional studies of unitary recordings, and electrical and chemical stimulation of in vitro and in vivo preparations are reported. All our data illustrate the complex morpho-functional organization of the neuronal network responsible for the generation and maintenance of REM sleep. The final part of this article summarizes the current literature on PET imaging studies of REM sleep, which coordinate well with our functional anatomic results and with the notion that during REM sleep, the structures in the cerebral cortex responsible for the different aspects of declarative memory consolidation (medial orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, etc.) and the association cortex areas most directly related with these structures are activated.
    European Journal of Anatomy 01/1999; 3(3):163-175.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to characterize the electrophysiological properties of morphologically identified neurons of the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular (vRPO) nucleus and the effects of cholinergic agonists on them, intracellular recordings were obtained from 45 cells in a rat brain-slice preparation. Intracellular staining was performed with 2% biocytin in potassium acetate (1 M)-filled micropipettes. Results demonstrated the presence of two types of vRPO neurons. Type I cells (n = 12, 24%) were characterized by a break with a decrease of the depolarizing slope following hyperpolarizing pulses which delayed the return to the resting Vm and subsequent spike-firing. The delay was antagonized by 4-AP (200-500 microM) which specifically blocks the transient outward K+-mediated current I(A). Type II neurons (n = 38, 76%) displayed a typical depolarizing sag during hyperpolarizing current pulses which was blocked by Cs+. This behavior is characteristic of the hyperpolarization-activated current I(Q). These two neuronal types displayed different morphological features. Most type I and II cells (100 and 73.7%, respectively) were depolarized by acetylcholine (1-15 microM), carbachol (0.5-1 microM) and muscarine (1-10 microM) through the activation of post-synaptic muscarinic receptors. The remaining type II cells (26.3%) were hyperpolarized (1-10 min, 3-15 mV) through the activation of post-synaptic muscarinic receptors. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the vRPO could be a neuronal target of Cch in eliciting paradoxical sleep because most of its neurons are activated by muscarinic agonists.
    Brain Research 05/1997; 754(1-2):1-11. DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00035-8 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • J.A. Rodríguez-Gómez · C de la Roza · A Machado · J Cano ·
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), noradrenaline (NA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG) and serotonin (5-HT) and its main metabolite, 5-hydroxyindol-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) was assessed in hypothalamus and median eminence of aged rats. Age-related changes were not observed in the concentration of NA and its metabolites in median eminence. In contrast, there was a significant NA decrease in aged hypothalamus compared with 12 months (no differences were found compared with 3 months). No significant differences were found in DA concentration and its metabolites in hypothalamus but DA decreased significantly in aged median eminence compared with 12 months. The ratio 5-HIAA/5-HT, indicative of 5-HT turnover, appeared to increase in the hypothalamus and median eminence of the aged rat. Morphological dissimilarities between hypothalamus of young and aged rats were demonstrated using serotonin-immunocytochemistry. A degeneration of the serotoninergic system, denoted by the appearance of enlarged or swollen varicosities, was observed in the hypothalamus of the aged rat. These aberrant serotoninergic fibers may reflect the local degeneration of serotoninergic hypothalamic afferents during ageing. Such differential age-dependent alterations of the serotoninergic system might be responsible for at least some of the functional deficits in aged animals.
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 02/1995; 77(3):185-95. DOI:10.1016/0047-6374(94)01525-Q · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Carmen de la Roza · Josefina Canno ·
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of cholinergic neurones in the rat red nucleus (RN) is a controversial subject. We investigated this issue by immunocytochemistry in both adult, normal and neonatally enucleated rats. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive neurones were found in the RN only of enucleated rats. An increase in cytochrome oxidase staining was also observed in the RN of enucleated rats. Our data support the concept that neurones in the rat RN are cholinergic and suggest that their activity could be modulated by the visual input.
    Neuroreport 01/1995; 6(1):65-8. DOI:10.1097/00001756-199412300-00018 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • J L Venero · C de la Roza · A Machado · J Cano ·
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    ABSTRACT: After pargyline treatment the turnover rates of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-3-indolacetic acid (5-HIAA) has been measured in control and aged hippocampus of the rats. In addition, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and monoamine oxidase-A and monoamine oxidase-B activities have also been studied. The TH activity did not change in aged hippocampus as compared to controls. The monoamine oxidase-B: monoamine oxidase-A ratio increased in 26-month-old rats compared with controls. The turnover of DA, DOPAC and NA did not show significant changes while 5-HT synthesis, 5-HT accumulation rate and 5-HIAA turnover increased in aged rats. Serotonin fibers showed morphological dissimilarities between the hippocampus of young and aged rats using immunocytochemistry techniques. In aged rats aberrant serotoninergic fibers mainly appear in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and molecular of the hippocampal CA1. It is suggested that the aberrant morphology of 5-HT fibers may reflect the local degeneration of serotoninergic hippocampal afferents during aging. Increase of 5-HT turnover in aged might be a signal of degeneration.
    Brain Research 01/1994; 631(1):89-96. DOI:10.1016/0006-8993(93)91191-T · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • M.L. Vizuete · C de la Roza · V Steffen · A Machado · J Cano ·
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    ABSTRACT: The turnover rate of dopamine and serotonin and the level of glutamate in superior colliculus are increased in adult, neonatally enucleated rats compared with normal control adult animals. Moreover, immunocytochemical data showed that the stratum zonale and the stratum griseum superficiale of the superior colliculus, specifically of bienucleated rats, display a dense network of serotonin-immunoreactive fibres, suggesting an increase in serotoninergic innervation. At the electron microscope level, serotonin-immunoreactive fibres and large postsynaptic serotonin-immunoreactive profiles exhibiting microtubules could be observed in the stratum zonale and the stratum griseum superficiale of the bienucleated rat. These results suggest that neonatal enucleation produces reorganization of serotoninergic and glutamatergic inputs. It is possible that serotonin may exert a profound influence upon collicular function.
    Neuroscience 10/1993; 56(1):165-76. DOI:10.1016/0306-4522(93)90571-V · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Josefina Cano · Carmen De La Roza · F Reinoso-Suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: The ultrastructural characteristics of the neurons containing complex convolutions have been studied in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the 31-month-old rat. Neurons were seen to contain oval or round dense bodies which were surrounded by a nuclear membrane and granular endoplasmic reticulum. Their perikarya showed rarely clusters of pleomorphic and small clear vesicles intermingled with a few larger vesicles of dense material. Dendrites occasionally exhibited intermediate forms between laminated bodies and complex convolutions. The significance of these features has been discussed.
    Acta Anatomica 02/1989; 134(3):227-31. DOI:10.1159/000146691
  • Jorge Satorre · Carmen de la Roza · Josefina Cano · Fernando Reinoso-Suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: The postnatal development of complex convolutions (CCs) of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) in normal rats has been studied quantitatively with light microscopy. We report that immature neurons do not contain these scarcely understood organelles, since they can be seen for the first time in very few, mature neurons of the 30 day rat; their number constantly increases during the following 4 months. These cytoplasmic inclusions can be equally seen in the aged rat. CCs are present in neurons of all sizes, except the smallest, which correspond to the interneuron population. Although, morphologically, CCs of the LGNd of the rat are similar, but not identical, to the cytoplasmic multilaminated bodies of the cat, intermediate forms are described.
    Brain Research 03/1987; 404(1-2):231-8. DOI:10.1016/0006-8993(87)91374-6 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Carmen de la Roza · Josefina Cano · Jorge Satorre · Fernando Reinoso-Suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: Light and electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphology of neuropil and neuronal cell bodies of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) of aged rats. Light microscopic examination reveals that, despite the optic tract showing signs of degeneration, the LGNd is scarcely affected. Thus, a slight but significant reduction in the diameters of both soma and nuclei is observed in aged neurons of the LGNd. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates a few degenerating profiles of the neuropil. Neurons resembling relay cells exhibit typical features of aged neurons. Cells showing a very infolded nucleus, most of the ER cisternae connected with the nuclear envelope, abundant free polyribosomes and subsurface cisterns associated with mitochondria are similar to interneurons of adult rats. Therefore, aging and partial loss of visual input appear to induce small changes in the morphology of most of LGNd neurons.
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 06/1986; 34(3):233-48. DOI:10.1016/0047-6374(86)90076-X · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • C de la Roza · Josefina Cano · Fernando Reinoso-suárez ·
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    ABSTRACT: The ultrastructural features of glial cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of aged rats have been studied. Abundant filaments as well as heterogeneous dense bodies are observed in the majority of astrocytes. They frequently surround both axons and nerve terminals showing signs of degeneration. In addition, some degenerating myelinated axons are seen in phase suggestive of engulfment by astrocyte processes. Oligodendrocytes display broad processes containing an organelle-rich cytoplasm and a continuity between their plasma membrane and the outer myelin lamellae which partially ensheath the adjacent axons. Multivesicular bodies and pleomorphic dense inclusions, composed of amorphous material as well as laminated structures, are also present in oligodendrocytes. The significance of these morphological features is discussed in relation to process of normal ageing.
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 04/1985; 29(3):267-81. DOI:10.1016/0047-6374(85)90067-3 · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

172 Citations
36.38 Total Impact Points


  • 1985-2009
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • • Department Anatomy, Histology and Neuroscience
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1989
    • Universidad de Sevilla
      • Facultad De Farmacia
      Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1987
    • Facultad de Medicina
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain