[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a pivotal role in tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study, we explored the relationship between HMGB1 and pulmonary hypertension and whether glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMGB1, attenuates disease progression in an animal model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline sodium (MCT).Methods
After inducing pulmonary hypertension through a single subcutaneous injection of MCT (60 mg/kg) to Sprague¿Dawley rats, we administered daily intraperitoneal injections of either glycyrrhizin (GLY, 50 mg/kg), an inhibitor of HMGB1, or saline (control) for either 4 or 6 weeks.ResultsExpression levels of HMGB1 in serum increased from the second week after MCT injection and remained elevated throughout the experiment periods. Lung tissue levels of HMGB1 assessed by immunohistochemical staining at 4 weeks after MCT injection also increased. Chronic inhibition of HMGB1 by GLY treatment reduced the MCT-induced increase in right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy (ratio of RV to [left ventricle¿+¿septum]), and pulmonary inflammation. MCT-induced muscularization of the pulmonary artery was also attenuated in the GLY-treated group. As assessed 6 weeks after MCT injection, the GLY-treated group exhibited increased survival (90% [18 of 20]) when compared with the control group (60% [12 of 20]; p =0.0027).Conclusions
Glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMGB1, attenuates pulmonary hypertension progression and pulmonary vascular remodeling in the MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of HMGB1 as a novel therapeutic target for pulmonary hypertension.
Respiratory Research 11/2014; 15(1):148. DOI:10.1186/s12931-014-0148-4 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of super-resolution microscopy has been investigated based on random localization of surface plasmon using blocked random nanodot arrays. The resolution is mainly determined by the size of localized fields in the range of 100-150 nm. The concept was validated by imaging FITC-conjugated phalloidin that binds to cellular actin filaments. The experimental results confirm improved resolution in reconstructed images. Effect of far-field registration on image reconstruction was also analyzed. Correlation between reconstructed images was maintained to be above 81% after registration. Nanodot arrays are synthesized by temperature-annealing without sophisticated lithography and thus can be mass-produced in an extremely large substrate. The results suggest a super-resolution imaging technique that can be accessible and available in large amounts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 (HMGN2) is a small and unique non-histone protein that has many functions in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of chromatin structure, transcription, and DNA repair. In addition, it may have other roles in antimicrobial activity, cell homing, and regulating cytokine release. Although the biochemical properties of HMGN2 protein are regulated by acetylation and phosphorylation, it is not yet known whether HMGN2 activity can also be regulated by SUMOylation. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that HMGN2 is modified by covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1) by pro-inflammatory signal and identified the major SUMOylated lysine residues that localize to the HMGN2 nucleosome-binding domain at K17 and K35. SENP1 can deSUMOylate SUMOylated HMGN2, and PIAS1 is the E3 ligase responsible for SUMOylation of HMGN2. Finally, using SUMO1-conjugated HMGN2 purified from a basal SUMOylation system in E. coli, we demonstrated that SUMOylated HMGN2 has decreased the binding affinity to nucleosome core particles in comparison to unSUMOylated HMGN2. These observations potentially provide new perspectives for understanding the functions of HMGN2 in inflammatory reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NMGB) is α(2-8)-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which is almost identical to the O-acetylated colominic acid (CA) of Escherichia coli K1 Although E. coli K1 has long been known to elicit cross-protective antibodies against NMGB, limited information on these highly cross-reactive antibodies is available. In the present study, six new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to both E. coli K1 CA and NMGB PS were produced by immunizing Balb/c mice with E. coli K1, and their serological and molecular properties were characterized, together with 12 previously reported hybridoma mAbs. Among the bactericidal mAbs against NMGB, both HmenB5 and HmenB18, which are genetically identical though of different mouse origins, were able to kill serogroup C and Y meningococci. Based on SPR sensograms, the binding affinity of HmenB18 for PS was suggested to be associated with at least two different binding forces: the polyanionicity of Neu5Ac and an interaction with the O-acetyl groups of Neu5Ac. Molecular analysis showed that similar to most mAbs presenting a few restricted V region germline genes, the V region genes of HmenB18 were 979% and 986% identical to the closest IGHV1-1401 and IGLV15-10301 germline gene alleles, respectively, and V-D-J editing in this mAb generated an unusually long VH-CDR3 sequence (17 amino acid residues), containing one basic arginine, two hydrophobic isoleucine residues and a 'YAMDY' motif. Models of the mAb combining sites demonstrate that most of the mAbs exhibited a wide, shallow groove with a high overall positive charge, as seen in mAb735, which is specific for a polyanionic helical epitope. In contrast, the combining site of HmenB18 was shown to be wide but to present a relatively weak positive charge, consistent with the extensive recognition by HmenB18 of the various structural epitopes formed with the Neu5Ac residue and its O-acetylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Localized surface plasmon enhanced microscopy based on nanoislands of random spatial distribution was demonstrated for imaging live cells and molecular interactions. Nanoislands were produced without lithography by high temperature annealing under various processing conditions. The localization of near-field distribution that is associated with localized surface plasmon on metallic random nanoislands was analyzed theoretically and experimentally in comparison with periodic nanostructures. For experimental validation in live cell imaging, mouse macrophage-like cell line stained with Alexa Fluor 488 was prepared on nanoislands. The results suggest the possibility of attaining the imaging resolution on the order of 80 nm.
Conference on Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical; 02/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the possibility of treating multidrug-resistant tumors with targeted chemo-photothermal treatment, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies using a doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant DLD-1 cell line (DLD-1/DOX) and nude mice with human xenograft tumors, respectively. The chemo-photothermal treatment consisted of DOX-loaded-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Au half-shell nanoparticles with targeting moieties of anti-death receptor-4 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the Au surface. The cells or xenografted tumors treated with nanoparticles were exposed to near infrared light for 10 min, which caused an increase in temperature to 45 °C. Chemo-photothermal treatment resulted in a large reduction in the rate of tumor xenograft growth on DLD-1/DOX tumor-bearing mice with a much smaller dose of DOX than conventional DOX chemotherapy. These results demonstrate that targeted chemo-photothermal treatment can provide high therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to its unique non-diffracting and self-reconstructing nature, Bessel beams have been successfully adopted to trap multiple particles along the beam's axial direction. However, prior bulk-optic based Bessel beams have a fundamental form-factor limitation for in situ, in-vitro, and in-vivo applications. Here we present a novel implementation of Fourier optics along a single strand of hybrid optical fiber in a monolithic manner that can generate pseudo Bessel beam arrays in two-dimensional space. We successfully demonstrate unique optofluidic transport of the trapped dielectric particles along a curvilinear optical route by multiplexing the fiber optic pseudo Bessel beams. The proposed technique can form a new building block to realize reconfigurable optofluidic transportation of particulates that can break the limitations of both prior bulk-optic Bessel beam generation techniques and conventional microfluidic channels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a rapid, sensitive, and label-free method to detect interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a biomarker of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). IFN-γ is detected by measuring the capacitance change caused by its binding to an anti-IFN-γ antibody. The antibody is immobilized on the surface of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO)-based capacitive sensor. With this technique, IFN-γ can be detected in the range of ~0.1pg/ml to ~10ng/ml, with a detection limit of 0.2pg/ml. We have also measured the concentration of IFN-γ in clinical samples using the AAO-based capacitive sensor and compared this concentration with the results of the commercial QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) ELISA kit to determine whether the two sets of data are consistent. Comparable results were obtained with the two measurement strategies, demonstrating the applicability of the AAO-based capacitive sensor to the diagnosis of LTBI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), which mainly exists in the nucleus, has recently been shown to function as a sentinel molecule for viral nucleic acid sensing and an autophagy regulator in the cytoplasm. In this study, we studied the chaperone-like activity of HMGB1 and found that HMGB1 inhibited the chemically induced aggregation of insulin and lysozyme, as well as the heat-induced aggregation of citrate synthase. HMGB1 also restored the heat-induced suppression of cytoplasmic luciferase activity as a reporter protein in hamster lung fibroblast O23 cells with expression of HMGB1. Next, we demonstrated that HMGB1 inhibited the formation of aggregates and toxicity caused by expanded polyglutamine (polyQ), one of the main causes of Huntington disease. HMGB1 directly interacted with polyQ on immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation assay, whereas the overexpression of HMGB1 or exogenous administration of recombinant HMGB1 protein remarkably reduced polyQ aggregates in SHSY5Y cells and hmgb1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts upon filter trap and immunofluorescence assay. Finally, overexpressed HMGB1 proteins in mouse embryonic primary striatal neurons also bound to polyQ and decreased the formation of polyQ aggregates. To this end, we have demonstrated that HMGB1 exhibits chaperone-like activity and a possible therapeutic candidate in polyQ disease.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2013; 190(4). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202472 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an oxidative stress to which cells respond by activating various defense mechanisms or cell death. Autophagy associated with oxidative stress response is a process to degrade and recycle macro-molecule as well as organelles in eukaryotic cells. HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, is actively released in eukaryotic cells under oxidative stress. HMGB1 plays an important role as regulator of autophagy in nuclear, cytosolic and extracellular level. Nuclear HMGB1 regulates the expression of heat shock protein β-1 (HSPB1), which is critical for dynamic intracellular trafficking during autophagy and mitophagy. Cytoplasmic HMGB1 can bind to a beclin 1 by the intramolecular disulfide bridge using cysteine 23 and 45, which dissociates its inhibitory partner Bcl-2 and induces autophagy. Extracellular HMGB1 binds to receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) which inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and then promotes the formation of the belin1-Ptdlns3KC3 complex. Furthermore, endogenous HMGB1 is an intrinsic regulator of autophagy, and it enhances chemoresistance in diverse cancer cells. Here, we review recent reports suggesting a novel mechanism of diverse cancer cell resistance to therapy facilitated by HMGB1-mediated autophagy.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology 01/2013; 43(2):148. DOI:10.4167/jbv.2013.43.2.148
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of cellular activities in a controlled manner is one of the most challenging issues in fields ranging from cell biology to biomedicine. Nanoparticles have the potential of becoming useful tools for controlling cell signalling pathways in a space and time selective fashion. Here, we have developed magnetic nanoparticles that turn on apoptosis cell signalling by using a magnetic field in a remote and non-invasive manner. The magnetic switch consists of zinc-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Zn(0.4)Fe(2.6)O(4)), conjugated with a targeting antibody for death receptor 4 (DR4) of DLD-1 colon cancer cells. The magnetic switch, in its On mode when a magnetic field is applied to aggregate magnetic nanoparticle-bound DR4s, promotes apoptosis signalling pathways. We have also demonstrated that the magnetic switch is operable at the micrometre scale and that it can be applied in an in vivo system where apoptotic morphological changes of zebrafish are successfully induced.
Nature Material 10/2012; 11(12). DOI:10.1038/nmat3430 · 36.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All-fiber Bessel-like beam generator achieved optical trapping and displacement control of micron particles. A pair of generators being compatible with lab on a chip system can be good tools for manipulation and analysis of bio-sample.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2012; 424(2):321-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.06.116 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the aim of controlling nanoscale magnetism, we demonstrate an approach encompassing concepts of surface and exchange anisotropy while reflecting size, shape, and structural hybridization of nanoparticles. We visualize that cube has higher magnetization value than sphere with highest coercivity at 60 nm. Its hybridization into core-shell (CS) structure brings about a 14-fold increase in the coercivity with an exceptional energy conversion of magnetic field into thermal energy of 10600 W/g, the largest reported to date. Such capability of the CS-cube is highly effective for drug resistant cancer cell treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Label-free cell-based assays have emerged as a promising means for high-throughput screening. Most label-free sensors are based on impedance measurements that reflect the passive electrical properties of cells. Here we introduce a capacitance-based assay that measures the dielectric constant (capacitance) of biological cells, and demonstrate the feasibility of analyzing endocytosis and screening chemotherapeutic agents with this assay. Endocytosis induces a change in the zeta potential, leading to a change in the dielectric constant which enables real-time endocytosis monitoring using the capacitance sensor. Additionally, since the dielectric constant is proportional to cell radius and cell volume, cell viability can be estimated from the change in capacitance. Therefore, the capacitance sensor array can also be used for cytotoxicity testing for large-scale chemotherapeutic screening.
Lab on a Chip 04/2012; 12(13):2377-84. DOI:10.1039/c2lc21236f · 6.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly efficient Bessel-like beam generation was achieved based on a new all-fiber method that implements Fourier transformation of a micro annular aperture along a concatenated composite optical fiber. The beam showed unique characteristics of tilted washboard optical potential in the transverse plane and sustained a nondiffracting length over 400 μm along the axial direction. Optical trapping of multiple dielectric particles and living Jurkat cells were successfully demonstrated along the axial direction of the beam in the water.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since CKD-712 has been developed as an anti-inflammatory agent, we examined the effect of CKD-712 during TLR4 signaling. Using HEK293 cells expressing TLR4, CKD-712 was pre-treated 1 hr before LPS stimulation. Activation of NF-κB was assessed by promoter assay. The activation of ERK, JNK, p38, IRF3 and Akt was measured by western blotting. CKD-712 inhibited the NF-κB signaling triggered by LPS. The activation of ERK, JNK, p38 or IRF3 was not inhibited by CKD-712. On the contrary the activation of these molecules was augmented slightly. The activation of Akt with stimulation of LPS was also enhanced with CKD-712 pre-treatment at lower concentration, but was inhibited at higher concentration. We suggest that during TLR4 signaling CKD-712 inhibits NF-κB activation. However, CKD-712 augmented the activation of Akt as well as Map kinases. Therefore, we suggest that CKD-712 might have a role as an immunomodulator.