Iris Brune

Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (22)71.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The microbial community of the human axilla plays a key role in the formation of axillary odor by biotransformation of odorless natural secretions into volatile odorous molecules. Culture-based microbiological and biochemical studies have allowed the characterization of the axillary microbiota, but the advent of next-generation culture-independent DNA sequencing approaches has provided an unprecedented depth of data regarding the taxonomic composition of the axillary microbiota and intra- and interindividual variation. However, the physiological activity of the microbiota of an individual and its variation under different environmental conditions remains largely unknown. Thus, metatranscriptomics represents a promising technique to identify specific metabolic activities in the axillary microbiota linked to individual differences in body odor.
    Trends in Microbiology 04/2013; · 8.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria forged two major evolutionary transitions with the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis and the bestowal of photo-synthetic lifestyle upon eukaryotes through endosymbiosis. Information germane to understanding those transitions is imprinted in cyanobacterial genomes, but deciphering it is complicated by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Here, we report genome sequences for the morphologically most complex true-branching cyanobacteria, and for Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110, which with 12,356 proteins is the most gene-rich prokaryote currently known. We investigated components of cyanobacterial evolution that have been vertically inherited, horizontally transferred, and donated to eukaryotes at plastid origin. The vertical component indicates a freshwater origin for water-splitting photosynthesis. Networks of the horizontal component reveal that 60% of cyanobacterial gene families have been affected by LGT. Plant nuclear genes acquired from cyanobacteria define a lower bound frequency of 611 multigene families that, in turn, specify diazotrophic cyanobacterial lineages as having a gene collection most similar to that possessed by the plastid ancestor.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 01/2013; 5(1):31-44. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterial fatty acid metabolism has been associated with human body odour, and is therefore discussed as a potential target for the development of new deodorant additives. For this reason, the transcription levels of fad genes associated with lipid metabolism in the axilla isolate Corynebacterium jeikeium were analysed during growth on different lipid sources. The transcription of several fad genes was induced two- to ninefold in the presence of Tween 60, including the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene fadE6. DNA affinity chromatography identified the MarR-like protein FamR as candidate regulator of fadE6. DNA band shift assays and in vivo reporter gene fusions confirmed the direct interaction of FamR with the mapped fadE6 promoter region. Moreover, DNA affinity chromatography and DNA band shift assays detected the binding of GlxR to the promoter regions of fadE6 and famR, revealing a hierarchical control of fadE6 transcription by a feed-forward loop. Binding of GlxR and FamR to additional fad gene regions was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays, resulting in the co-regulation of fadA, fadD, fadE and fadH genes. These results shed first light on the hierarchical transcriptional control of lipid metabolism in C. jeikeium, a pathway associated with the development of human axillary odour.
    Microbial Biotechnology 11/2012; · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipophilic corynebacteria are involved in the generation of volatile odorous products in the process of human body odor formation by degrading skin lipids and specific odor precursors. Therefore, these bacteria represent appropriate model systems for the cosmetic industry to examine axillary malodor formation on the molecular level. To understand the transcriptional control of metabolic pathways involved in this process, the transcriptional regulatory network of the lipophilic axilla isolate Corynebacterium jeikeium K411 was reconstructed from the complete genome sequence. This bioinformatic approach detected a gene-regulatory repertoire of 83 candidate proteins, including 56 DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, nine two-component systems, nine sigma factors, and nine regulators with diverse physiological functions. Furthermore, a cross-genome comparison among selected corynebacterial species of the taxonomic cluster 3 revealed a common gene-regulatory repertoire of 44 transcriptional regulators, including the MarR-like regulator Jk0257, which is exclusively encoded in the genomes of this taxonomical subline. The current network reconstruction comprises 48 transcriptional regulators and 674 gene-regulatory interactions that were assigned to five interconnected functional modules. Most genes involved in lipid degradation are under the combined control of the global cAMP-sensing transcriptional regulator GlxR and the LuxR-family regulator RamA, probably reflecting the essential role of lipid degradation in C. jeikeium. This study provides the first genome-scale in silico analysis of the transcriptional regulation of metabolism in a lipophilic bacterium involved in the formation of human body odor.
    Journal of Biotechnology 02/2012; 159(3):235-48. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic context analysis in actinobacteria revealed that biotin biosynthesis and transport (bio) genes are co-localized in several genomes with a gene encoding a transcription regulator of the TetR protein family, now named BioQ. Comparative analysis of the upstream regions of bio genes identified the common 13-bp palindromic motif TGAAC-N3-GTTAC as candidate BioQ-binding site. To verify the role of BioQ in controlling the transcription of bio genes, a deletion in the bioQ coding region (cg2309) was constructed in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, resulting in the mutant strain C. glutamicum IB2309. Comparative whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations and subsequent expression analyses by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR revealed enhanced transcript levels of all bio genes in C. glutamicum IB2309, when compared with the wild-type strain ATCC 13032. Accordingly, the BioQ protein of C. glutamicum acts as a repressor of ten genes that are organized in four transcription units: bioA-bioD, cg2884-cg2883, bioB-cg0096-cg0097, and bioY-bioM-bioN. DNA band shift assays with an intein-tagged BioQ protein demonstrated the specific binding of the purified protein to DNA fragments containing the candidate BioQ-binding sites, which were located within the mapped promoter regions of bioA, cg2884, bioB, and bioY. These data confirmed the direct regulatory role of BioQ in the control of biotin biosynthesis and transport genes in C. glutamicum. Differential expression of bio genes in C. glutamicum IB2309 was moreover complemented by bioQ genes cloned from other corynebacterial genomes.
    Journal of Biotechnology 12/2011; 159(3):225-34. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    H Barzantny, I Brune, A Tauch
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    ABSTRACT: During the past few decades, there has been an increased interest in the essential role of commensal skin bacteria in human body odour formation. It is now generally accepted that skin bacteria cause body odour by biotransformation of sweat components secreted in the human axillae. Especially, aerobic corynebacteria have been shown to contribute strongly to axillary malodour, whereas other human skin residents seem to have little influence. Analysis of odoriferous sweat components has shown that the major odour-causing substances in human sweat include steroid derivatives, short volatile branched-chain fatty acids and sulphanylalkanols. In this mini-review, we describe the molecular basis of the four most extensively studied routes of human body odour formation, while focusing on the underlying enzymatic processes. Considering the previously reported role of β-oxidation in odour formation, we analysed the genetic repertoire of eight Corynebacterium species concerning fatty acid metabolism. We particularly focused on the metabolic abilities of the lipophilic axillary isolate Corynebacterium jeikeium K411.
    International journal of cosmetic science 07/2011; 34(1):2-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The C-S lyase aecD (MetC) from skin corynebacteria plays an important role in body odour formation by releasing odoriferous sulfanylalkanols from cysteine conjugates in human axilla secretions. The expression of the aecD gene from Corynebacterium jeikeium K411, a strain originally isolated from the human axilla, was down-regulated in cells grown in minimal medium supplemented with methionine. A candidate transcription regulator binding in front of the aecD coding region was detected by DNA affinity chromatography and identified as McbR by peptide mass fingerprinting. A 16-bp McbR-binding site was localized in the mapped promoter region of the aecD gene. The binding of purified McbR protein to the 16-bp sequence motif was demonstrated by DNA band shift assays. Comparative DNA microarray hybridizations and bioinformatic motif searches revealed the gene composition of the McbR regulon from C. jeikeium, including 28 genes that are organized in 16 transcription units. The McbR protein from C. jeikeium K411 directly regulates genes involved in methionine uptake and biosynthesis, in cysteine biosynthesis and sulfate reduction, and in the biosynthesis of amino acids belonging to the aspartate family.
    Journal of Biotechnology 11/2010; 151(1):22-9. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lexA gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was deleted to create the mutant strain C. glutamicum NJ2114, which has an elongated cell morphology and an increased doubling time. To characterize the SOS regulon in C. glutamicum, the transcriptomes of NJ2114 and a DNA-damage-induced wild-type strain were compared with that of a wild-type control using DNA microarray hybridization. The expression data were combined with bioinformatic pattern searches for LexA binding sites, leading to the detection of 46 potential SOS boxes located upstream of differentially expressed transcription units. Binding of a hexahistidyl-tagged LexA protein to 40 double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the potential SOS boxes was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. It turned out that LexA binds not only to SOS boxes in the promoter-operator region of upregulated genes, but also to SOS boxes detected upstream of downregulated genes. These results demonstrated that LexA controls directly the expression of at least 48 SOS genes organized in 36 transcription units. The deduced genes encode a variety of physiological functions, many of them involved in DNA repair and survival after DNA damage, but nearly half of them have hitherto unknown functions. Alignment of the LexA binding sites allowed the corynebacterial SOS box consensus sequence TcGAA(a/c)AnnTGTtCGA to be deduced. Furthermore, the common intergenic region of lexA and the differentially expressed divS-nrdR operon, encoding a cell division suppressor and a regulator of deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis, was characterized in detail. Promoter mapping revealed differences in divS-nrdR expression during SOS response and normal growth conditions. One of the four LexA binding sites detected in the intergenic region is involved in regulating divS-nrdR transcription, whereas the other sites are apparently used for negative autoregulation of lexA expression.
    Microbiology 05/2009; 155(Pt 5):1459-77. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cg1547 protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is a member of the LacI/GalR family of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators. A defined deletion in the cg1547 gene, now designated uriR (uridine utilization regulator), resulted in the mutant strain C. glutamicum KB1547. Comparison of gene expression levels in C. glutamicum KB1547 and the wild-type strain revealed enhanced expression of the uriR operon genes cg1546 (ribokinase), cg1545 (uridine transporter) and cg1543 (uridine-preferring nucleoside hydrolase). Gene expression of the uriR operon was stimulated by the presence of either uridine or ribose. Growth assays with C. glutamicum mutants showed that functional Cg1543 and Cg1545 proteins are essential for the utilization of uridine as the sole carbon source. Transcriptional regulation of the uriR operon is mediated by a 29 bp palindromic sequence composed of two catabolite-responsive element (cre)-like sequences and located in between the mapped -10 promoter region and the start codon of uriR. A similar cre sequence was detected in the upstream region of rbsK2 (cg2554), coding for a second ribokinase in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. DNA band-shift assays with a streptavidin-tagged UriR protein and labelled oligonucleotides including the cre-like sequences of uriR and rbsK2 demonstrated the specific binding of the purified regulator in vitro. Whole-genome DNA microarray hybridizations comparing the gene expression in C. glutamicum KB1547 with that of the wild-type strain revealed that UriR is a pathway-specific repressor of genes involved in uridine utilization in C. glutamicum.
    Microbiology 05/2008; 154(Pt 4):1068-81. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulators RamA, RamB and GlxR were detected to bind to the promoter region of the resuscitation promoting factor 2 (rpf2) gene involved in growth and culturability of Corynebacterium glutamicum. DNA-binding sites were identified by bioinformatic analysis and verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified hexahistidyl-tagged proteins. Carbon source-dependent deregulation of rpf2 expression was demonstrated in vivo in ramA and ramB mutants and in a C. glutamicum strain overexpressing glxR. The deduced network of regulatory interactions provided insights into the complex regulation pattern of rpf2 expression in C. glutamicum.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 05/2008; 281(2):190-7. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii is a lipophilic corynebacterial species that lacks in the cell envelope the characteristic alpha-alkyl-beta-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids, designated mycolic acids. We report here the bioinformatic analysis of genome data obtained by pyrosequencing of the type strain C. kroppenstedtii DSM44385 that was initially isolated from human sputum. A single run with the Genome Sequencer FLX system revealed 560,248 shotgun reads with 110,018,974 detected bases that were assembled into a contiguous genomic sequence with a total size of 2,446,804bp. Automatic annotation of the complete genome sequence resulted in the prediction of 2122 coding sequences, of which 29% were considered as specific for C. kroppenstedtii when compared with predicted proteins from hitherto sequenced pathogenic corynebacteria. This comparative content analysis of the genome data revealed a large repertoire of genes involved in sugar uptake and central carbohydrate metabolism and the presence of the mevalonate route for isoprenoid biosynthesis. The lack of mycolic acids and the lipophilic lifestyle of C. kroppenstedtii are apparently caused by gene loss, including a condensase gene cluster, a mycolate reductase gene, and a microbial type I fatty acid synthase gene. A complete beta-oxidation pathway involved in the degradation of fatty acids is present in the genome. Evaluation of the genomic data indicated that lipophilism is the dominant feature involved in pathogenicity of C. kroppenstedtii.
    Journal of Biotechnology 04/2008; 136(1-2):22-30. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium urealyticum is a lipid-requiring, urealytic bacterium of the human skin flora that has been recognized as causative agent of urinary tract infections. We report the analysis of the complete genome sequence of C. urealyticum DSM7109, which was initially recovered from a patient with alkaline-encrusted cystitis. The genome sequence was determined by a combination of pyrosequencing and Sanger technology. The chromosome of C. urealyticum DSM7109 has a size of 2,369,219bp and contains 2024 predicted coding sequences, of which 78% were considered as orthologous with genes in the Corynebacterium jeikeium K411 genome. Metabolic analysis of the lipid-requiring phenotype revealed the absence of a fatty acid synthase gene and the presence of a beta-oxidation pathway along with a large repertoire of auxillary genes for the degradation of exogenous fatty acids. A urease locus with the gene order ureABCEFGD may play a pivotal role in virulence of C. urealyticum by the alkalinization of human urine and the formation of struvite stones. Multidrug resistance of C. urealyticum DSM7109 is mediated by transposable elements, conferring resistances to macrolides, lincosamides, ketolides, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The complete genome sequence of C. urealyticum revealed a detailed picture of the lifestyle of this opportunistic human pathogen.
    Journal of Biotechnology 04/2008; 136(1-2):11-21. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulator Cg1486 of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is a member of the IclR protein family and belongs to the conserved set of regulatory proteins in corynebacteria. A defined deletion in the cg1486 gene, now designated ltbR (leucine and tryptophan biosynthesis regulator), led to the mutant strain C. glutamicum IB1486. According to whole-genome expression analysis by DNA microarray hybridizations, transcription of the leuB and leuCD genes encoding enzymes of the leucine biosynthesis pathway was enhanced in C. glutamicum IB1486 compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, the genes of the trpEGDCFBA operon involved in tryptophan biosynthesis of C. glutamicum showed an enhanced expression in the cg1486 mutant strain. Bioinformatics pattern searches in the upstream regions of the differentially expressed genes revealed the common 12-bp motif CA(T/C)ATAGTG(A/G)GA that is located downstream of the -10 region of the mapped promoter sequences. DNA band shift assays with a streptavidin-tagged LtbR protein demonstrated the specific binding of the purified protein to 40-mers containing the 12-bp motif localized in front of leuB, leuC, and trpE, thereby confirming the direct regulatory role of LtbR in the expression of the leucine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathway genes of C. glutamicum. Genes homologous with ltbR were detected upstream of the leuCD genes in almost all sequenced genomes of bacteria belonging to the taxonomic class Actinobacteria. The ltbR-like genes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium jeikeium, Mycobacterium bovis, and Bifidobacterium longum were cloned and shown to complement the deregulation of leuB, leuCD, and trpE gene expression in C. glutamicum IB1486.
    Journal of Bacteriology 05/2007; 189(7):2720-33. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complete nucleotide sequence of the Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome was previously determined and allowed the reliable prediction of 3002 protein-coding genes within this genome. Using computational methods, we have defined 158 genes, which form the minimal repertoire for proteins that presumably act as transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Most of these regulatory proteins have a direct role as DNA-binding transcriptional regulator, while others either have less well-defined functions in transcriptional regulation or even more general functions, such as the sigma factors. Recent advances in genome-wide transcriptional profiling of C. glutamicum generated a huge amount of data on regulation of gene expression. To understand transcriptional regulation of gene expression from the perspective of systems biology, rather than from the analysis of an individual regulatory protein, we compiled the current knowledge on the defined DNA-binding transcriptional regulators and their physiological role in modulating transcription in response to environmental signals. This comprehensive data collection provides a solid basis for database-guided reconstructions of the gene regulatory network of C. glutamicum, currently comprising 56 transcriptional regulators that exert 411 regulatory interactions to control gene expression. A graphical reconstruction revealed first insights into the functional modularity, the hierarchical architecture and the topological design principles of the transcriptional regulatory network of C. glutamicum.
    Journal of Biotechnology 05/2007; 129(2):191-211. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 70mer oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to analyze genome-wide expression profiles of Corynebacterium jeikeium, a skin bacterium that is predominantly present in the human axilla and involved in axillary odor formation. Oligonucleotides representing 100% of the predicted coding regions of the C. jeikeium K411 genome were designed and spotted in quadruplicate onto epoxy-coated glass slides. The quality of the printed microarray was demonstrated by co-hybridization with fluorescently labeled cDNA probes obtained from exponentially growing C. jeikeium cultures. Accordingly, genes detected with different intensities resulting in log(2) transformed ratios greater than 0.8 or smaller than -0.8 can be regarded as differentially expressed with a confidence level greater than 99%. In an application example, we measured global changes of gene expression during growth of C. jeikeium in the presence of different concentrations of the deodorant component 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol that is active in preventing body odor formation. Global expression profiling revealed that low concentrations of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol (0.5 and 2.5mg/ml) had almost no detectable effect on the transcriptome of C. jeikeium. A slightly higher concentration of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol (5mg/ml) resulted in differential expression of 95 genes, 86 of which showed an enhanced expression when compared to a control culture. Besides many genes encoding proteins that apparently participate in transcription and translation, the drug resistance determinant cmx and the predicted virulence factors sapA and sapD showed significantly enhanced expression levels. Differential expression of relevant genes was validated by real-time reverse transcription PCR assays.
    Journal of Biotechnology 01/2007; 127(1):21-33. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    K Brinkrolf, I Brune, A Tauch
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium glutamicum is a gram-positive soil microorganism able to utilize a large variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. The corresponding catabolic routes are associated with multiple ring-fission dioxygenases and among other channeling reactions, include the gentisate pathway, the protocatechuate and catechol branches of the beta-ketoadipate pathway and two potential hydroxyquinol pathways. Genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for the bioconversion of aromatic compounds are organized in several clusters in the C. glutamicum genome. Expression of the gene clusters is under specific transcriptional control, apparently including eight DNA-binding proteins belonging to the AraC, IclR, LuxR, PadR, and TetR families of transcriptional regulators. Expression of the gentisate pathway involved in the utilization of 3-hydroxybenzoate and gentisate is positively regulated by an IclR-type activator. The metabolic channeling of ferulate, vanillin and vanillate into the protocatechuate branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway is controlled by a PadR-like repressor. Regulatory proteins of the IclR and LuxR families participate in transcriptional regulation of the branches of the beta-ketoadipate pathway that are involved in the utilization of benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate and protocatechuate. The channeling of phenol into this pathway may be under positive transcriptional control by an AraC-type activator. One of the potential hydroxyquinol pathways of C. glutamicum is apparently repressed by a TetR-type regulator. This global analysis revealed that transcriptional regulation of aromatic compound utilization is mainly controlled by single regulatory proteins sensing the presence of aromatic compounds, thus representing single input motifs within the transcriptional regulatory network of C. glutamicum.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 02/2006; 5(4):773-89. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The knowledge about complete bacterial genome sequences opens the way to reconstruct the qualitative topology and global connectivity of transcriptional regulatory networks. Since iron is essential for a variety of cellular processes but also poses problems in biological systems due to its high toxicity, bacteria have evolved complex transcriptional regulatory networks to achieve an effective iron homeostasis. Here, we apply a combination of transcriptomics, bioinformatics, in vitro assays, and comparative genomics to decipher the regulatory network of the iron-dependent transcriptional regulator DtxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. A deletion of the dtxR gene of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 led to the mutant strain C. glutamicum IB2103 that was able to grow in minimal medium only under low-iron conditions. By performing genome-wide DNA microarray hybridizations, differentially expressed genes involved in iron metabolism of C. glutamicum were detected in the dtxR mutant. Bioinformatics analysis of the genome sequence identified a common 19-bp motif within the upstream region of 31 genes, whose differential expression in C. glutamicum IB2103 was verified by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Binding of a His-tagged DtxR protein to oligonucleotides containing the 19-bp motifs was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. At least 64 genes encoding a variety of physiological functions in iron transport and utilization, in central carbohydrate metabolism and in transcriptional regulation are controlled directly by the DtxR protein. A comparison with the bioinformatically predicted networks of C. efficiens, C. diphtheriae and C. jeikeium identified evolutionary conserved elements of the DtxR network. This work adds considerably to our currrent understanding of the transcriptional regulatory network of C. glutamicum genes that are controlled by DtxR. The DtxR protein has a major role in controlling the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and exerts a dual regulatory function as repressor of genes participating in iron uptake and utilization and as activator of genes responsible for iron storage and DNA protection. The data suggest that the DtxR protein acts as global regulator by controlling the expression of other regulatory proteins that might take care of an iron-dependent regulation of a broader transcriptional network of C. glutamicum genes.
    BMC Genomics 02/2006; 7:21. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium jeikeium is a "lipophilic" and multidrug-resistant bacterial species of the human skin flora that has been recognized with increasing frequency as a serious nosocomial pathogen. Here we report the genome sequence of the clinical isolate C. jeikeium K411, which was initially recovered from the axilla of a bone marrow transplant patient. The genome of C. jeikeium K411 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,462,499 bp and the 14,323-bp bacteriocin-producing plasmid pKW4. The chromosome of C. jeikeium K411 contains 2,104 predicted coding sequences, 52% of which were considered to be orthologous with genes in the Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium efficiens, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae genomes. These genes apparently represent the chromosomal backbone that is conserved between the four corynebacteria. Among the genes that lack an ortholog in the known corynebacterial genomes, many are located close to transposable elements or revealed an atypical G+C content, indicating that horizontal gene transfer played an important role in the acquisition of genes involved in iron and manganese homeostasis, in multidrug resistance, in bacterium-host interaction, and in virulence. Metabolic analyses of the genome sequence indicated that the "lipophilic" phenotype of C. jeikeium most likely originates from the absence of fatty acid synthase and thus represents a fatty acid auxotrophy. Accordingly, both the complete gene repertoire and the deduced lifestyle of C. jeikeium K411 largely reflect the strict dependence of growth on the presence of exogenous fatty acids. The predicted virulence factors of C. jeikeium K411 are apparently involved in ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids by damaging the host tissue.
    Journal of Bacteriology 08/2005; 187(13):4671-82. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A "second-generation" production strain was derived from a Corynebacterium glutamicum pantothenate producer by rational design to assess its potential to synthesize and accumulate the vitamin pantothenate by batch cultivation. The new pantothenate production strain carries a deletion of the ilvA gene to abolish isoleucine synthesis, the promoter down-mutation P-ilvEM3 to attenuate ilvE gene expression and thereby increase ketoisovalerate availability, and two compatible plasmids to overexpress the ilvBNCD genes and duplicated copies of the panBC operon. Production assays in shake flasks revealed that the P-ilvEM3 mutation and the duplication of the panBC operon had cumulative effects on pantothenate production. During pH-regulated batch cultivation, accumulation of 8 mM pantothenate was achieved, which is the highest value reported for C. glutamicum. Metabolic flux analysis during the fermentation demonstrated that the P-ilvEM3 mutation successfully reoriented the carbon flux towards pantothenate biosynthesis. Despite this repartition of the carbon flux, ketoisovalerate not converted to pantothenate was excreted by the cell and dissipated as by-products (ketoisocaproate, DL-2,3,-dihydroxy-isovalerate, ketopantoate, pantoate), which are indicative of saturation of the pantothenate biosynthetic pathway. Genome-wide expression analysis of the production strain during batch cultivation was performed by whole-genome DNA microarray hybridization and agglomerative hierarchical clustering, which detected the enhanced expression of genes involved in leucine biosynthesis, in serine and glycine formation, in regeneration of methylenetetrahydrofolate, in de novo synthesis of nicotinic acid mononucleotide, and in a complete pathway of acyl coenzyme A conversion. Our strategy not only successfully improved pantothenate production by genetically modified C. glutamicum strains but also revealed new constraints in attaining high productivity.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2005; 71(6):3255-68. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive microorganisms of great biotechnologically importance, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium efficiens, as well as serious human pathogens, such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium. Although genome sequences of the respective species have been determined recently, the knowledge about the repertoire of transcriptional regulators and the architecture of global regulatory networks is scarce. Here, we apply a combination of bioinformatic tools and a comparative genomic approach to identify and characterize a set of conserved DNA-binding transcriptional regulators in the four corynebacterial genomes. A collection of 127 DNA-binding transcriptional regulators was identified in the C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome, whereas 103 regulators were detected in C. efficiens YS-314, 63 in C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129 and 55 in C. jeikeium K411. According to amino acid sequence similarities and protein structure predictions, the DNA-binding transcriptional regulators were grouped into 25 regulatory protein families. The common set of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators present in the four corynebacterial genomes consists of 28 proteins that are apparently involved in the regulation of cell division and septation, SOS and stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and macroelement and metal homeostasis. This work describes characteristic features of a set of conserved DNA-binding transcriptional regulators present within the corynebacterial core genome. The knowledge on the physiological function of these proteins should not only contribute to our understanding of the regulation of gene expression but will also provide the basis for comprehensive modeling of transcriptional regulatory networks of these species.
    BMC Genomics 02/2005; 6:86. · 4.40 Impact Factor