[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk.
In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis or substrate availability (CYP2R1 and DHCR7), which we used as a proxy for 25(OH)D concentration. We meta-analysed data for up to 108 173 individuals from 35 studies in the D-CarDia collaboration to investigate associations between the allele score and blood pressure measurements. We complemented these analyses with previously published summary statistics from the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (ICBP), the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, and the Global Blood Pressure Genetics (Global BPGen) consortium.
In phenotypic analyses (up to n=49 363), increased 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, −0·12 mm Hg, 95% CI −0·20 to −0·04; p=0·003) and reduced odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·97—0·99; p=0·0003), but not with decreased diastolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, −0·02 mm Hg, −0·08 to 0·03; p=0·37). In meta-analyses in which we combined data from D-CarDia and the ICBP (n=146 581, after exclusion of overlapping studies), each 25(OH)D-increasing allele of the synthesis score was associated with a change of −0·10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (−0·21 to −0·0001; p=0·0498) and a change of −0·08 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (−0·15 to −0·02; p=0·01). When D-CarDia and consortia data for hypertension were meta-analysed together (n=142 255), the synthesis score was associated with a reduced odds of hypertension (OR per allele, 0·98, 0·96—0·99; p=0·001). In instrumental variable analysis, each 10% increase in genetically instrumented 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a change of −0·29 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (−0·52 to −0·07; p=0·01), a change of −0·37 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (−0·73 to 0·003; p=0·052), and an 8·1% decreased odds of hypertension (OR 0·92, 0·87—0·97; p=0·002).
Increased plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D might reduce the risk of hypertension. This finding warrants further investigation in an independent, similarly powered study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low vitamin D status has been shown to be a risk factor for several metabolic traits such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The biological actions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor, gamma (RXRG). Hence, we examined the potential interactions between the tagging polymorphisms in the VDR (22 tag SNPs) and RXRG (23 tag SNPs) genes on metabolic outcomes such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), high- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, serum triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and glycated haemoglobin in the 1958 British Birth Cohort (1958BC, up to n = 5,231). We used Multifactor- dimensionality reduction (MDR) program as a non-parametric test to examine for potential interactions between the VDR and RXRG gene polymorphisms in the 1958BC. We used the data from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66, up to n = 5,316) and Twins UK (up to n = 3,943) to replicate our initial findings from 1958BC.
After Bonferroni correction, the joint-likelihood ratio test suggested interactions on serum triglycerides (4 SNP - SNP pairs), LDL cholesterol (2 SNP - SNP pairs) and WHR (1 SNP - SNP pair) in the 1958BC. MDR permutation model testing analysis showed one two-way and one three-way interaction to be statistically significant on serum triglycerides in the 1958BC. In meta-analysis of results from two replication cohorts (NFBC66 and Twins UK, total n = 8,183), none of the interactions remained after correction for multiple testing (Pinteraction >0.17).
Our results did not provide strong evidence for interactions between allelic variations in VDR and RXRG genes on metabolic outcomes; however, further replication studies on large samples are needed to confirm our findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were followed up for 6.9 ± 2.5 years. Association of 69 tagSNPs with baseline BMI and annual changes in weight as well as waist circumference were investigated using linear regression analysis. Interactions with sex, GI and intake of carbohydrates, fat as well as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined by including multiplicative SNP-covariate terms into the regression model. Neither baseline BMI nor annual weight or waist circumference changes were significantly associated with variation in the selected genes in the entire study population after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs1164) in LPIN2 appeared to be significantly interacting with sex (p = 0.0003) and was associated with greater annual weight gain in men (56.8 ± 23.7 g/year per allele, p = 0.02) than in women (-25.5 ± 19.8 g/year per allele, p = 0.2). With respect to gene-nutrient interaction, we could not detect any significant interactions when accounting for multiple testing. Therefore, out of our six candidate genes, LPIN2 may be considered as a candidate for further studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations have been shown to be associated with major clinical outcomes, with a suggestion that individual risk may vary according to common genetic differences in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Hence, we tested for the interactions between two previously studied VDR polymorphisms and 25OHD on metabolic and cardiovascular disease-related outcomes in a large population-based study.
Interactions between two previously studied VDR polymorphisms (rs7968585 and rs2239179) and 25OHD concentrations on metabolic and cardiovascular disease-related outcomes such as obesity- (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR)), cardiovascular- (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), lipid- (high- and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol), inflammatory- (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, insulin growth factor-1, tissue plasminogen activator) and diabetes- (glycated haemoglobin) related markers were examined in the 1958 British Birth cohort (n up to 5160). Interactions between each SNP and 25OHD concentrations were assessed using linear regression and the likelihood ratio test.
After Bonferroni correction, none of the interactions reached statistical significance except for the interaction between the VDR SNP rs2239179 and 25OHD concentrations on waist-hip ratio (WHR) (P = 0.03). For every 1 nmol/L higher 25OHD concentrations, the association with WHR was stronger among those with two major alleles (−4.0%, P = 6.26e−24) compared to those with either one or no major alleles (−2.3%, P ≤ 8.201e−07, for both) of the VDR SNP rs2239179.
We found no evidence for VDR polymorphisms acting as major modifiers of the association between 25OHD concentrations and cardio-metabolic risk. Interaction between VDR SNP rs2239179 and 25OHD on WHR warrants further confirmation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are positively associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. We sought to replicate a previously reported interaction between APOA5 genotype and vitamin D, and to examine whether HDL-associated genetic loci modify the association between serum 25OHD and HDL cholesterol. METHODS: We examined whether 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modify the association between serum 25OHD and HDL cholesterol in the 1958 British Birth cohort (aged 45 years, n = 4978). RESULTS: We identified a borderline interaction between the SNP rs12272004 (near the APOA5) and serum 25OHD on HDL cholesterol (Pinteraction = 0.05). The interaction was particularly prominent among the samples collected during winter (Pinteraction = 0.001). None of the other loci showed an interaction with serum 25OHD concentrations on HDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Our study in 4978 British Whites provides further support that APOA5 genotype modifies the association between vitamin D metabolites and HDL cholesterol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:Observational studies have examined the link between vitamin D deficiency and obesity traits. Some studies have reported associations between vitamin D pathway genes such as VDR, GC and CYP27B1 with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); however, the findings have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of vitamin D metabolic pathway genes in obesity-related traits in a large population-based study.Methods:We undertook a comprehensive analysis between 100 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in genes encoding for DHCR7, CYP2R1, VDBP, CYP27B1, CYP27A1, CYP24A1, VDR and RXRG, and obesity traits in 5224 participants (aged 45 years) in the 1958 British birth cohort (1958BC). We further extended our analyses to investigate the associations between SNPs and obesity traits using the summary statistics from the GIANT (Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits) consortium (n=123 865).Results:In the 1958BC (n=5224), after Bonferroni correction, none of the tagSNPs were associated with obesity traits except for one tagSNP from CYP24A1 that was associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) (rs2296239, P=0.001). However, the CYP24A1 SNP was not associated with BMI-adjusted WHR (WHRadj) in the 1958BC (rs2296239, P=1.00) and GIANT results (n=123 865, P=0.18). There was also no evidence for an interaction between the tagSNPs and obesity on BMI, WC, WHR and WHRadj in the 1958BC. In the GIANT consortium, none of the tagSNPs were associated with obesity traits.Conclusions:Despite a very large study, our findings suggest that the vitamin D pathway genes are unlikely to have a major role in obesity-related traits in the general population.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 5 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.6.
International journal of obesity (2005) 02/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.
We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants) with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score) to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OH)D (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism) as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores) were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects. Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium (n = 123,864). Each 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OH)D (p = 6.52×10(-27)). The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (p = 6.30×10(-62)) and 25(OH)D (-0.06% [95% CI -0.10 to -0.02], p = 0.004) in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OH)D (p≤8.07×10(-57) for both scores) but not with BMI (synthesis score, p = 0.88; metabolism score, p = 0.08) in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OH)D concentrations (IV ratio: -4.2 [95% CI -7.1 to -1.3], p = 0.005). No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OH)D with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (p≥0.57 for both vitamin D scores).
On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OH)D, while any effects of lower 25(OH)D increasing BMI are likely to be small. Population level interventions to reduce BMI are expected to decrease the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 02/2013; 10(2):e1001383. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood lipid response to a given dietary intervention could be determined by the effect of diet, gene variants or gene-diet interactions. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether variants in presumed nutrient-sensitive genes involved in lipid metabolism modified lipid profile after weight loss and in response to a given diet, among overweight European adults participating in the Diet Obesity and Genes study. By multiple linear regressions, 240 SNPs in twenty-four candidate genes were investigated for SNP main and SNP-diet interaction effects on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TAG after an 8-week low-energy diet (only main effect), and a 6-month ad libitum weight maintenance diet, with different contents of dietary protein or glycaemic index. After adjusting for multiple testing, a SNP-dietary protein interaction effect on TAG was identified for lipin 1 (LPIN1) rs4315495, with a decrease in TAG of - 0·26 mmol/l per A-allele/protein unit (95 % CI - 0·38, - 0·14, P= 0·000043). In conclusion, we investigated SNP-diet interactions for blood lipid profiles for 240 SNPs in twenty-four candidate genes, selected for their involvement in lipid metabolism pathways, and identified one significant interaction between LPIN1 rs4315495 and dietary protein for TAG concentration.
The British journal of nutrition 01/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10(-7). Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits.
Human Molecular Genetics 07/2012; 21(20):4537-42. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hormonal form of vitamin D affects both adaptive and innate immune functions involved in the development of allergies. Certain genotypes have been seen to alter the association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and the risk of food sensitization in children.
We examined 27 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in/near selected candidate genes for association with total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and effect modification by 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the 1958 British birth cohort (aged 45 years, n = 4921). A cut-off value of 50 nmol/L was used to define VDD.
Four SNPs (in FCER1A, IL13, and CYP24A1) and three SNPs (in IL4 and CYP24A1) were associated with total IgE and specific IgE, respectively, after correction for multiple testing. As in a previous study, MS4A2 (rs512555, P(interaction) = 0.04) and IL4 (rs2243250, P(interaction) = 0.02), and their composite score (P(interaction) = 0.009) modified the association between VDD and allergy-related outcome. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher total IgE only in the carriers of the 'C' allele (IL4), which is present in 86% of white Europeans, while only 26% of Chinese and <20% of some African populations are carriers.
Our study on white European adults was consistent with a previous study on children from largely non-white ethnic groups, suggesting that IL4 and MS4A2 genotypes modify the association between VDD and allergy risk. The risk allele in IL4 is present in nearly 90% of white Europeans, while less than a quarter are carriers in some other populations, highlighting the need to consider possible ethnic differences in allergy-related responsiveness to VDD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) have been associated with type 2 diabetes and BMI.
The objective was to investigate whether TCF7L2 HapA is associated with weight development and whether such an association is modulated by protein intake or by the glycemic index (GI).
The investigation was based on prospective data from 5 cohort studies nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Weight change was followed up for a mean (±SD) of 6.8 ± 2.5 y. TCF7L2 rs7903146 and rs10885406 were successfully genotyped in 11,069 individuals and used to derive HapA. Multiple logistic and linear regression analysis was applied to test for the main effect of HapA and its interaction with dietary protein or GI. Analyses from the cohorts were combined by random-effects meta-analysis.
HapA was associated neither with baseline BMI (0.03 ± 0.07 BMI units per allele; P = 0.6) nor with annual weight change (8.8 ± 11.7 g/y per allele; P = 0.5). However, a previously shown positive association between intake of protein, particularly of animal origin, and subsequent weight change in this population proved to be attenuated by TCF7L2 HapA (P-interaction = 0.01). We showed that weight gain becomes independent of protein intake with an increasing number of HapA alleles. Substitution of protein with either fat or carbohydrates showed the same effects. No interaction with GI was observed.
TCF7L2 HapA attenuates the positive association between animal protein intake and long-term body weight change in middle-aged Europeans but does not interact with the GI of the diet.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2012; 95(6):1468-76. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of 14 studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th percentile of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight newly discovered signals yielding association with P < 5 × 10(-6) in nine independent data sets (2,818 cases and 4,083 controls), we observed two loci that yielded genome-wide significant combined P values near OLFM4 at 13q14 (rs9568856; P = 1.82 × 10(-9); odds ratio (OR) = 1.22) and within HOXB5 at 17q21 (rs9299; P = 3.54 × 10(-9); OR = 1.14). Both loci continued to show association when two extreme childhood obesity cohorts were included (2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). These two loci also yielded directionally consistent associations in a previous meta-analysis of adult BMI(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes.
This study examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in presumed nutrient-sensitive candidate genes for obesity and obesity-related diseases for main and dietary interaction effects on weight, waist circumference, and fat mass regain over 6 mo.
In total, 742 participants who had lost ≥ 8% of their initial body weight were randomly assigned to follow 1 of 5 different ad libitum diets with different glycemic indexes and contents of dietary protein. The SNP main and SNP-diet interaction effects were analyzed by using linear regression models, corrected for multiple testing by using Bonferroni correction and evaluated by using quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots.
After correction for multiple testing, none of the SNPs were significantly associated with weight, waist circumference, or fat mass regain. Q-Q plots showed that ALOX5AP rs4769873 showed a higher observed than predicted P value for the association with less waist circumference regain over 6 mo (-3.1 cm/allele; 95% CI: -4.6, -1.6; P/Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.000039/0.076), independently of diet. Additional associations were identified by using Q-Q plots for SNPs in ALOX5AP, TNF, and KCNJ11 for main effects; in LPL and TUB for glycemic index interaction effects on waist circumference regain; in GHRL, CCK, MLXIPL, and LEPR on weight; in PPARC1A, PCK2, ALOX5AP, PYY, and ADRB3 on waist circumference; and in PPARD, FABP1, PLAUR, and LPIN1 on fat mass regain for dietary protein interaction.
The observed effects of SNP-diet interactions on weight, waist, and fat mass regain suggest that genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes can modify the response to diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2012; 95(5):1254-60. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6.8 years follow-up in a large-scale prospective study and examined whether these associations were modified by dietary energy percentage from fat, protein, carbohydrate, or glycemic index (GI). This study comprised data from five countries of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and was designed as a case-cohort study for weight gain. Analyses included 11,091 individuals, of whom 5,584 were cases (age (SD), 47.6 (7.5) years), defined as those with the greatest unexplained annual weight gain during follow-up and 5,507 were noncases (48.0 (7.3) years), who were compared in our case-noncase (CNC) analyses. Furthermore, 6,566 individuals (47.9 (7.3) years) selected from the total sample (all noncases and 1,059 cases) formed the random subcohort (RSC), used for continuous trait analyses. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in the models. In the RSC-analyses, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with BMI (β (SE), 0.17 (0.08) kg·m(-2)/allele; P = 0.034) and WC (0.47 (0.21) cm/allele; P = 0.026) at baseline, but not with weight change (5.55 (12.5) g·year(-1)/allele; P = 0.66) during follow up. In the CNC-analysis, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with increased risk of being a weight-gainer (OR: 1.1; P = 0.045). We observed no interaction between FTO-rs9939609 and dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate, and GI on BMI and WC at baseline or on change in weight and WC. FTO-rs9939609 is associated with BMI and WC at baseline, but association with weight gain is weak and only observed for extreme gain. Dietary factors did not influence the associations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cathepsin S, a protein coded by the CTSS gene, is implicated in adipose tissue biology--this protein enhances adipose tissue development. Our hypothesis is that common variants in CTSS play a role in body weight regulation and in the development of obesity and that these effects are influenced by dietary factors--increased by high protein, glycemic index and energy diets.
Four tag SNPs (rs7511673, rs11576175, rs10888390 and rs1136774) were selected to capture all common variation in the CTSS region. Association between these four SNPs and several adiposity measurements (BMI, waist circumference, waist for given BMI and being a weight gainer-experiencing the greatest degree of unexplained annual weight gain during follow-up or not) given, where applicable, both as baseline values and gain during the study period (6-8 years) were tested in 11,091 European individuals (linear or logistic regression models). We also examined the interaction between the CTSS variants and dietary factors--energy density, protein content (in grams or in % of total energy intake) and glycemic index--on these four adiposity phenotypes.
We found several associations between CTSS polymorphisms and anthropometric traits including baseline BMI (rs11576175 (SNP N°2), p = 0.02, β = -0.2446), and waist change over time (rs7511673 (SNP N°1), p = 0.01, β = -0.0433 and rs10888390 (SNP N°3), p = 0.04, β = -0.0342). In interaction with the percentage of proteins contained in the diet, rs11576175 (SNP N°2) was also associated with the risk of being a weight gainer (p(interaction) = 0.01, OR = 1.0526)--the risk of being a weight gainer increased with the percentage of proteins contained in the diet.
CTSS variants seem to be nominally associated to obesity related traits and this association may be modified by dietary protein intake.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40394. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies use genetic variants mimicking the influence of a modifiable exposure to assess and quantify a causal association with an outcome, with an aim to avoid problems with confounding and reverse causality affecting other types of observational studies.
We evaluated genetic markers that index differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) as instruments for MR studies on vitamin D.
We used data from up-to 6,877 participants in the 1958 British birth cohort with information on genetic markers and 25(OH)D. As potential instruments, we selected 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) which are located in the vitamin D metabolism pathway or affect skin pigmentation/tanning, including 4 SNPs from genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analyses on 25(OH)D. We analyzed SNP associations with 25(OH)D and evaluated the use of allele scores dividing genes to those affecting 25(OH)D synthesis (DHCR7, CYP2R1) and metabolism (GC, CYP24A1, CYP27B1). In addition to the GWA SNPs, only two SNPs (CYP27B1, OCA2) showed evidence for association with 25(OH)D, with the OCA2 association abolished after lifestyle adjustment. Per allele differences varied between -0.02 and -0.08 nmol/L (P≤0.02 for all), with a 6.1 nmol/L and a 10.2 nmol/L difference in 25(OH)D between individuals with highest compared lowest number of risk alleles in synthesis and metabolism allele scores, respectively. Individual SNPs but not allele scores showed associations with lifestyle factors. An exception was geographical region which was associated with synthesis score. Illustrative power calculations (80% power, 5% alpha) suggest that approximately 80,000 participants are required to establish a causal effect of vitamin D on blood pressure using the synthesis allele score.
Combining SNPs into allele scores provides a more powerful instrument for MR analysis than a single SNP in isolation. Population stratification and the potential for pleiotropic effects need to be considered in MR studies on vitamin D.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37465. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the components involved in the hypothalamic pathway may influence weight gain and dietary factors may modify their effects.
We conducted a case-cohort study to investigate the associations of SNPs in candidate genes with weight change during an average of 6.8 years of follow-up and to examine the potential effect modification by glycemic index (GI) and protein intake.
Participants, aged 20-60 years at baseline, came from five European countries. Cases ('weight gainers') were selected from the total eligible cohort (n = 50,293) as those with the greatest unexplained annual weight gain (n = 5,584). A random subcohort (n = 6,566) was drawn with the intention to obtain an equal number of cases and noncases (n = 5,507). We genotyped 134 SNPs that captured all common genetic variation across the 15 candidate genes; 123 met the quality control criteria. Each SNP was tested for association with the risk of being a 'weight gainer' (logistic regression models) in the case-noncase data and with weight gain (linear regression models) in the random subcohort data. After accounting for multiple testing, none of the SNPs was significantly associated with weight change. Furthermore, we observed no significant effect modification by dietary factors, except for SNP rs7180849 in the neuromedin β gene (NMB). Carriers of the minor allele had a more pronounced weight gain at a higher GI (P = 2 x 10⁻⁷).
We found no evidence of association between SNPs in the studied hypothalamic genes with weight change. The interaction between GI and NMB SNP rs7180849 needs further confirmation.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17436. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: this study examined the association of -866G/A, Ala55Val, 45bpI/D, and -55C/T polymorphisms at the uncoupling protein (UCP) 3-2 loci with type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians.
a case-control study was performed among 1,406 unrelated subjects (487 with type 2 diabetes and 919 normal glucose-tolerant [NGT]), chosen from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, an ongoing population-based study in Southern India. The polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. Haplotype frequencies were estimated using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Linkage disequilibrium was estimated from the estimates of haplotypic frequencies.
the genotype (P = 0.00006) and the allele (P = 0.00007) frequencies of Ala55Val of the UCP2 gene showed a significant protective effect against the development of type 2 diabetes. The odds ratios (adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index) for diabetes for individuals carrying Ala/Val was 0.72, and that for individuals carrying Val/Val was 0.37. Homeostasis insulin resistance model assessment and 2-h plasma glucose were significantly lower among Val-allele carriers compared to the Ala/Ala genotype within the NGT group. The genotype (P = 0.02) and the allele (P = 0.002) frequencies of -55C/T of the UCP3 gene showed a significant protective effect against the development of diabetes. The odds ratio for diabetes for individuals carrying CT was 0.79, and that for individuals carrying TT was 0.61. The haplotype analyses further confirmed the association of Ala55Val with diabetes, where the haplotypes carrying the Ala allele were significantly higher in the cases compared to controls.
Ala55Val and -55C/T polymorphisms at the UCP3-2 loci are associated with a significantly reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 (PCK1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the hepatic gluconeogenic pathway. Studies have shown that overexpression of Pck1 in mice results in obesity-related traits and higher levels of physical activity (PA). Therefore, our aims were to investigate whether common genetic variation in the PCK1 gene influences obesity-related traits, PA, and fitness, and to examine whether PA and fitness attenuate the influence of the PCK1 polymorphisms on obesity in children. Analyses were undertaken on data from Danish and Estonian children (958 boys and 1,104 girls) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of children (mean ± s.d. age: 9.6 ± 0.4 years) and adolescents (15.5 ± 0.5 years). We genotyped eight polymorphisms that captured the common genetic variations in the PCK1 gene. The association between the PCK1 polymorphisms and BMI, waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, PA, and fitness was tested using an additive model adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity, and country. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in the model. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with BMI, WC, sum of four skinfolds, PA, and fitness, and also with the risk of being overweight or obese (P > 0.05). The interactions between the polymorphisms and age-group, gender, PA, and fitness were not statistically significant. This is the first study to comprehensively examine the association of PCK1 polymorphisms with obesity, PA, and fitness. Despite strong evidence from animal studies, our study in the EYHS cohort failed to identify an association of PCK1 polymorphisms with obesity, PA, and fitness.