Tomoyuki Yasuda

Kobe University, Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan

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Publications (21)100.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ScopeBecause excessive intake of trans-fatty acid (TFA) increases the risk of myocardial infarction, we investigated the effects of TFA on thrombus formation using animal and cell culture experiments.Methods and ResultsC57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing TFA or cis-fatty acid (CFA, 5% each of total calories) or a chow diet for 4 weeks, and thrombus formation was induced in the carotid artery by He-Ne laser irradiation. The high-TFA diet significantly promoted thrombus formation in the carotid artery compared to the chow or CFA diet. TFA activated the inflammatory signaling pathway in cultured endothelial cells and in mice; aortic gene expression levels of anti-thrombogenic molecules, including thrombomodulin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, were decreased, and the expression levels of pro-thrombogenic molecules were increased in TFA-treated mice. TFA markedly upregulated the pro-thrombogenic molecules and downregulated the anti-thrombogenic molecules in endothelial cells. In addition, TFA induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor-κB. The TFA-activated signal pathways and pro-thrombogenic phenotypic changes of endothelial cells were inhibited by genetic or pharmacological inactivation of toll-like receptors 2 and 4.ConclusionTFA aggravates the anti-thrombogenic phenotypes of vascular endothelial cells via toll-like receptors and promotes thrombus formation in mice.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 12/2014; 59(4). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201400537 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Endothelial lipase(EL) is a determinant of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). However, little is known about the impact of EL activity on plasma lipid profile. We aimed to establish a new method to evaluate EL-specific phospholipase activity in humans. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 115 patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) and 154 patients without CAD. Plasma EL protein was immunoprecipitated using an anti-EL monoclonal antibody after plasma non-specific immunoglobulins were removed by incubation with ProteinA. The phospholipase activity of the immunoprecipitated samples was measured using a fluorogenic phospholipase substrate, Bis-BODIPY FL C11-PC. Results: The EL-specific phospholipase assay revealed that plasma EL activity was inversely correlated with HDL-C levels(R=-0.3088, p<0.0001). In addition, the EL activity was associated with cigarette smoking. Furthermore, EL activity in CAD patients was significantly higher than that in nonCAD patients. Concomitantly, the HDL-C level in CAD patients were significantly lower than that in non-CAD patients. Conclusion: We have established a method for human plasma EL-specific phospholipase activity by combination of EL immunoprecipitation and a fluorogenic phospholipid substrate. Plasma EL activity was associated with not only plasma HDL-C levels but also the risks for CAD.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 12/2013; 21(4). DOI:10.5551/jat.20131 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Although statins increase the plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), it has not been elucidated whether the increased HDL particles possess normal antiatherosclerotic properties. Pitavastatin functions to increase the plasma HDL-C level and decrease the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. In the present study, we sought to examine the qualitative changes in HDL during pitavastatin treatment.Methods: A total of 30 patients with dyslipidemia were treated with 2 mg of pitavastatin for four weeks. The cholesterol efflux capacity and activities of the antioxidative enzymes paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) were evaluated using polyethethylene glycol-treated HDL fractions before and after pitavastatin treatment.Results: Pitavastatin treatment decreased the serum LDL-C level by 39% and increased the serum HDL-C level by 9% (p<0.05). In addition, pitavastatin increased the phospholipid content of HDL by 7.8% (p<0.05). The pitavastatin-induced increase in the HDL-C level coincided with an increase in the cholesterol efflux capacity of the isolated HDL fraction of 8.6% (p<0.05). The post-pitavastatin treatment activity of HDL-associated PON-1 (paraoxonase and arylesterase) was increased by 9% (p<0.05) and 11% (p<0.05), respectively, while the HDL-associated PAF-AH activity was not affected by pitavastatin.Conclusions: In addition to its LDL-C-lowering effects, pitavastatin elevates the HDL-C level and enhances the cholesterol efflux capacity and antioxidative properties of HDL. Pitavastatin therefore increases the amount of functional HDL without attenuating HDL quality.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 06/2013; DOI:10.5551/jat.17210 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(13)62033-1 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase has been considered as the only enzyme capable of generating lipid-derived fatty acids for cardiac energy. Endothelial lipase is another member of the triglyceride lipase family and hydrolyzes high-density lipoproteins. Although endothelial lipase is expressed in the heart, its function remains unclear. We assessed the role of endothelial lipase in the genesis of heart failure. Pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy was generated in endothelial lipase-/- and wild-type mice by ascending aortic banding. Endothelial lipase expression in cardiac tissues was markedly elevated in the early phase of cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type mice, whereas lipoprotein lipase expression was significantly reduced. Endothelial lipase-/- mice showed more severe systolic dysfunction with left-ventricular dilatation compared with wild-type mice in response to pressure overload. The expression of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, was significantly lower in the heart of endothelial lipase-/- mice than in wild-type mice. Also, endothelial lipase-/- mice had lower myocardial adenosine triphosphate levels than wild-type mice after aortic banding. In cultured cardiomyocytes, endothelial lipase was upregulated by inflammatory stimuli, whereas lipoprotein lipase was downregulated. Endothelial lipase-overexpression in cardiomyocytes resulted in an upregulation of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes and intracellular adenosine triphosphate accumulation in the presence of high-density lipoprotein. Endothelial lipase may act as an alternative candidate to provide fatty acids to the heart and regulate cardiac function. This effect seemed relevant particularly in the diseased heart, where lipoprotein lipase action is downregulated.
    Hypertension 03/2013; 61(5). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.201608 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is thought to be important in reverse cholesterol transport. However, its association with coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden death is controversial.Approach and Results-We prospectively studied 1927 individuals from the general population. Serum concentrations of apolipoprotein A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, E, and LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate were evaluated. We documented 61 events of CHD and sudden death during 10.9 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age and sex, LCAT activity was significantly associated with the risk of CHD and sudden death (hazard ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-6.12; P=0.002). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, current smoking status, history of diabetes mellitus, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, the hazard ratio of LCAT activity for the risk of CHD and sudden death remained significant (hazard ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-7.01; P=0.008). However, when it was analyzed for men and women separately, this association remained significant only in women. CONCLUSIONS: Increased LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate was a risk for CHD and sudden death in a Japanese general population.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2013; 33(5). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301297 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To identify new therapeutic targets for coronary artery disease (CAD), we investigated whether fasting serum concentration of apolipoprotein (apo) B48 could be a marker for CAD. METHODS: Patients with CAD were divided into those with new-onset CAD [i.e., those receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time] and those with chronic CAD (i.e., those receiving follow-up coronary angiography). Fasting serum biochemical analyses were performed on admission and 6months after the PCI. RESULTS: On admission, serum LDL-C concentrations in patients with chronic CAD (n=138), presumably receiving statin treatment, were lower than in patients with new-onset CAD (n=50, p<0.02) or without CAD (n=71, p<0.001). Nevertheless, apoB48 was higher in CAD patients than in those without CAD (p<0.001). After adjusting for classic cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses showed apoB48 to be an independent predictor of coronary risk in new-onset or chronic CAD, irrespective of the LDL-C levels. Moreover, apoB48 was markedly increased during the follow-up period in CAD patients having new lesion progression after the prior PCI. CONCLUSION: Fasting serum apoB48 concentration could be a marker of new onset as well as chronic CAD, and predict new lesion progression in secondary prevention.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 02/2013; 421. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2013.02.005 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Endothelial lipase (EL) regulates the metabolism of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the role of EL in regulating plasma HDL-C concentrations and EL's potential involvement in atherosclerosis in humans has not been fully investigated due to the lack of reliable assays for EL mass. We developed an ELISA system for serum EL mass.METHODS:Human recombinant EL proteins, purified from cultured media of human EL-transfected CHO cells, were used as antigen and calibrator. Two specific monoclonal antibodies were generated in mice against recombinant EL protein for a sandwich ELISA. We measured EL mass in human serum using EL recombinant protein as a calibration standard.RESULTS:The EL antibodies did not cross-react with lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase. The detection limit of the ELISA was 20 pg/mL, which is approximately 10 times lower than that of previous ELISA systems. Recovery of spiked EL in serum was 90%-105%. Assay linearity was intact with a >4-fold dilution of serum. Intra- and interassay CVs were <5%. The serum EL mass in 645 human subjects was [mean (SE)] 344.4 (7.7) pg/mL (range 55.2-1387.7 pg/mL). Interestingly, serum EL mass was increased in patients with diagnosed cardiovascular disease and inversely correlated with serum HDL-C concentrations. There was no difference in EL mass between pre- and post-heparin plasma samples.CONCLUSIONS:This ELISA should be useful for clarifying the impact of EL on HDL metabolism and EL's potential role in atherosclerosis.
    Clinical Chemistry 10/2012; DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2012.187914 · 7.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Endothelial lipase (EL) regulates plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels by promoting HDL catabolism. However, it remains unknown whether the inhibition of EL has beneficial effects on the genesis of vascular diseases. Here, we investigated the role of EL on vascular remodeling in mice.Methods: Vascular remodeling was developed by ligation of the left common carotid artery and neointimal lesions were histologically compared between EL-knockout (ELKO), EL-transgenic (ELTg), and wild-type (WT) mice. HDL was isolated from these mice, and effects of the HDL on cell growth and Erk activation were evaluated in vitro using cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.Results: Plasma HDL-C levels were 62% higher in ELKO and 13% lower in ELTg than in WT mice, after the carotid ligation. The size of neointimal lesion was significantly larger in ELTg and smaller in ELKO than in WT mice. Vascular expression of adhesion molecules was lower in ELKO and higher in ELTg compared with WT mice. Moreover, oxidative stress was attenuated in ELKO mice. HDL isolated from ELKO, ELTg, and WT mice inhibited expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, angiotensin II-induced activation of Erk, and growth of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas EL expression itself did not affect cell migration or growth.Conclusion: EL expression modulates vascular remodeling as well as plasma HDL-C levels. EL inactivation may increase HDL particles that can inhibit smooth muscle cell growth and migration.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2012; DOI:10.5551/jat.13110 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and heart disease. HDL possesses not only both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but also anti-thrombotic and endothelial function-promoting qualities. However, it is not only the serum concentration of HDL that is important, but also the 'functional' quality of the HDL. The objective was to determine the functional status of HDL in a well-established mouse model of dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis induced by the administration of a block copolymer (poloxamer 407; P-407). C57BL/6 mice were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of P-407 (0.5g/kg) and blood was collected at 24h post-dosing. HDL was isolated from controls (control HDL) and P-407-treated (P-407 HDL) mice and used to test its anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Additionally, antioxidant enzymes associated with HDL, namely, platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and paraoxonase (PON), were evaluated for any potential reduction in their biological activity. A single injection of P-407 in C57BL/6 mice resulted in a marked decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol and phospholipids. HDL particle size significantly increased, primarily due to remodelling of HDL with triglyceride. It was demonstrated that (i) long-chain saturated fatty acids were higher and the n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was significantly lower for P-407 HDL compared with control HDL, and (ii) P-407 HDL lost its capacity to inhibit tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression compared with control HDL. Additionally, P-407 HDL was not able to neutralize lipopolysaccharide and inhibit subsequent TNF-α production compared with control HDL. The biological activity of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and paraoxonase (PON) decreased in direct proportion to the circulating levels of both HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apoA-1). Combination of previously reported findings in P-407-treated mice, such as (i) production of both oxidized LDL and malondialdehyde, and (ii) profound elevations in the soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, with the present results, would strongly suggest that HDL in P-407-treated mice is rendered dysfunctional. Thus, these findings help to explain why P-407-treated mice begin to form aortic atherosclerotic lesions about one month after initiating P-407 treatment.
    05/2012; 64(5):677-87. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01444.x
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that targeted deletion of endothelial lipase (EL) markedly increases the plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in mice. However, little is known about the functional quality of HDL particles after EL inhibition. Therefore, the present study assessed the functional quality of HDL isolated from EL(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Anti-inflammatory functions of HDL from EL(-/-) and WT mice were evaluated by in vitro assays. The HDL functions such as PON-1 or PAF-AH activities, inhibition of cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, inhibition of LDL oxidation, and the ability of cholesterol efflux were similar in HDL isolated from WT and EL(-/-) mice. In contrast, the lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing capacity of HDL was significantly higher in EL(-/-) mice than that in WT mice. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory actions of HDL in vivo, lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation was generated in these mice. EL(-/-) mice showed higher survival rate and lower expression of inflammatory markers than WT mice. Intravenous administration of HDL isolated from EL(-/-) mice significantly improved the mortality after lipopolysaccharide injection in WT mice. In conclusion, targeted disruption of EL increased HDL particles with preserved anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic functions. Thus, EL inhibition would be a useful strategy to raise 'good' cholesterol in the plasma.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 10/2010; 52(1):57-67. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M008417 · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • Tomoyuki Yasuda, Tatsuro Ishida, Daniel J Rader
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial lipase (EL) is a phospholipase that belongs to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) family, which includes LPL and hepatic lipase (HL). Similar to LPL and HL, EL regulates lipoprotein metabolism, mainly high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in humans and mice. Existing data strongly suggest that inhibition of EL in humans would be expected to increase the HDL-C level. However, it has not been definitively established whether the effect of EL activity on HDL-C levels translates into effects on reverse cholesterol transport or atherosclerosis. The available data regarding the impact of EL expression and activity on HDL metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport, and atherosclerosis are reviewed.
    Circulation Journal 10/2010; 74(11):2263-70. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-10-0934 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) is a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is expressed in vascular endothelial cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that ESAM regulates angiogenesis, endothelial permeability, and leukocyte transmigration. However, little is known concerning the role of ESAM in atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed the effects of ESAM inactivation on atherosclerosis in mice. ESAM-/- mice were bred with apoE-/- mice to generate double knockout mice, and the aortic lesion size of apoE-/- and ESAM-/-apoE-/- mice was compared histologically. Although plasma cholesterol levels were higher in ESAM-/-apoE-/- mice, the lesion size was markedly smaller than in apoE-/- mice. ESAM-/-apoE-/- mice exhibited a decrease in the number of vasa vasorum and macrophages in the vessel wall. In vitro adhesion assays showed that THP-1 cells, which did not express ESAM, bound to the ESAM-coated culture plates, suggesting that ESAM may interact with heterophilic ligand(s) on monocytes. Moreover, downregulation of ESAM by siRNA in the endothelial monolayer diminished transendothelial migration of THP-1 cells. In conclusion, ESAM inactivation can reduce susceptibility to atherosclerosis by inhibiting plaque neovascularization and macrophage infiltration into the atheroma.
    Microvascular Research 09/2010; 80(2):179-87. DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2010.04.005 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are extracellular lipases that both hydrolyze triglycerides and phospholipids and display potentially overlapping or complementary roles in lipoprotein metabolism. We sought to dissect the overlapping roles of HL and EL by generating mice deficient in both HL and EL (HL/EL-dko) for comparison with single HL-knockout (ko) and EL-ko mice, as well as wild-type mice. Reproduction and viability of the HL/EL-dko mice were impaired compared with the single-knockout mice. The plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and phospholipids in the HL/EL-dko mice were markedly higher than those in the single-knockout mice. Most notably, the HL/EL-dko mice exhibited an unexpected substantial increase in small low-density lipoproteins. Kinetic studies with [(3)H]cholesteryl ether-labeled very-low-density lipoproteins demonstrated that the HL/EL-dko mice accumulated counts in the smallest low-density lipoprotein-sized fractions, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography, suggesting that it arises from lipolysis of very-low-density lipoproteins. HDL from all 3 lipase knockout models had an increased cholesterol efflux capacity but reduced clearance of HDL cholesteryl esters versus control mice. Despite their higher HDL cholesterol levels, neither HL-ko, EL-ko, nor HL/EL-dko mice demonstrated an increased rate of macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. These studies reveal an additive effect of HL and EL on HDL metabolism but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice and an unexpected redundant role of HL and EL in apolipoprotein B lipoprotein metabolism.
    Circulation Research 08/2010; 107(3):357-64. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.219188 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to their cholesterol-lowering effect, statins increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Endothelial lipase (EL) is a regulator of plasma HDL-C levels. In the present study, the effects of statins on EL expression were investigated. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin suppressed basal and cytokine-treated EL expression in endothelial cells. Concomitant treatment with mevalonate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate completely reversed the inhibitory effect of pitavastatin, suggesting that geranylgeranylated proteins are involved in the inhibition of EL expression by statins. Inhibition of RhoA activity by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of RhoA or a Rho kinase inhibitor decreased EL levels. Pitavastatin reduced phospholipase activities of endothelial cells, and concomitant treatment with mevalonate reversed its inhibitory effect. Pitavastatin reduced RhoA activity and EL expression in mouse tissues. Furthermore, plasma EL concentrations in human subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma EL levels were negatively associated with plasma HDL levels in 237 patients with cardiovascular diseases, and pitavastatin treatment reduced plasma EL levels and increased HDL-C levels in 48 patients with hypercholesterolaemia. These findings suggest that statins can reduce EL expression in vitro and in vivo via inhibition of RhoA activity. The inhibition of EL expression in the vessel wall may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of statins.
    Cardiovascular Research 07/2010; 87(2):385-93. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvp419 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that a systemic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist promoted macrophage reverse-cholesterol transport (mRCT) in vivo. Because LXR are expressed in multiple tissues involved in RCT (macrophages, liver, intestine), we analyzed the effect of tissue-specific LXR agonism on mRCT. In initial studies, the systemic LXR agonist GW3965 failed to promote mRCT in a setting in which LXR was expressed in macrophages but not in liver or intestine. To evaluate the effect of LXR activation specifically in small intestine on mRCT, wild-type mice were treated with either intestinal-specific LXR agonist (GW6340) or systemic LXR agonist (GW3965). Both GW3965 and GW6340 significantly promoted excretion of [(3)H]-sterol in feces by 162% and 52%, respectively. To evaluate the requirement for macrophage LXR activation, we assessed the ability of GW3965 to promote mRCT in wild-type mice using primary macrophages deficient in LXR alpha/beta vs wild-type macrophages. Whereas GW3965 treatment promoted fecal excretion compared with vehicle, its overall ability to promote mRCT was significantly attenuated using LXR alpha/beta knockout macrophages. We demonstrate that intestinal-specific LXR agonism promotes macrophage RCT in vivo and that macrophage LXR itself plays an important, but not predominant, role in promoting RCT in response to an LXR agonist.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2010; 30(4):781-6. DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.195693 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertriglyceridemia is the most common cause of low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels; however, the correlation between high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL-C remains unclear. Endothelial lipase (EL) is a determinant of plasma HDL levels. We investigated the role of EL in HDL metabolism in a murine model of acute hypertriglyceridemia. To establish TG-dominant hyperlipidemia, EL-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with Poloxamer-407 (P-407, 0.5 g/kg, i.p.). A single injection of P-407 resulted in a marked increase in plasma TG and cholesterol levels together with a decrease in HDL-C levels. Although plasma TG levels were similar in EL-/- and WT mice after P-407 injection, HDL-C levels were 80% higher and the HDL particle size was significantly larger in EL-/- mice than in WT mice. P-407 treatment inhibited plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and EL phospholipase activity, without decreasing their expressions. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of EL in the liver reduced plasma HDL-C levels in both normo- and hyperlipidemic mice, while overexpression of catalytically inactive EL reduced HDL-C levels in hyperlipidemic mice. Cell culture experiments revealed that both catalytically active and inactive EL promoted cellular HDL uptake to the same extent. EL regulates plasma HDL levels in mice in the normolipidemic as well as the acute hypertriglyceridemic state. EL can modulate plasma HDL-CHOL levels through both its lipolytic and ligand-binding functions in hypertriglyceridemic mice, while lipolytic activity appears to be the main determinant for its effects on HDL metabolism in normolipidemic mice.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2009; 16(4):327-38. DOI:10.5551/jat.No844 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a pivotal role in the genesis of diabetic vascular diseases. To further explore the mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis under non-diabetic conditions, we examined the effect of RAGE deficiency on atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice. RAGE-/- mice were crossed with low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice to generate the double knockout (DKO) mice. After feeding with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, aortic atherosclerotic lesions were analysed histologically in these mice. Although there were no differences in serum levels of glucose and known RAGE ligands between DKO and LDLr-/- mice, DKO mice exhibited a significant decrease in the size and macrophage content in atherosclerotic lesions compared with LDLr-/- mice. Expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the aorta was lower in DKO mice than in LDLr-/- mice. Fluorescence-based assays revealed that oxidative stress in the vessel wall was attenuated in DKO mice than in LDLr-/- mice. Cell culture experiments revealed that RAGE mediated oxidative LDL-induced activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases and oxidative stress in macrophages. Oxidative LDL may be a ligand of RAGE in the hyperlipidaemic state. RAGE inactivation inhibits the atherosclerosis through reducing oxLDL-induced pro-inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in hyperlipidaemia.
    Cardiovascular Research 02/2009; 82(2):371-81. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvp036 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial lipase (EL) is a novel phospholipase that determines plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We have investigated the role of HDL-C in lung allergic inflammation by using EL knockout (EL-KO) mice that are high in HDL-C. EL-KO and wild-type control mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to evoke eosinophilic inflammation in the lung. EL was expressed in epithelial cells, alveolar type II cells, and endothelial cells in the lung, and its expression was upregulated during inflammation. Concomitant with attenuated hyperresponsiveness of the airway smooth muscles, the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage and the expression of VCAM-1 were lower in EL-KO mice than in control mice. HDL reduced cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. When plasma HDL levels were decreased to similar levels in both mouse groups by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of EL, however, eosinophil infiltration was still lower in EL-KO mice. In vitro adhesion assays revealed that EL expression on the cell surface promoted the interaction of eosinophils through the ligand-binding function of EL. In summary, targeted inactivation of EL attenuated allergic inflammation in the lung, and the protective effects in EL-KO mice were associated with high plasma HDL levels, downregulation of VCAM-1, and loss of the direct ligand-binding function of EL. Thus EL is a novel modulator of the progression of allergic asthma.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 02/2009; 296(4):L594-602. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.90530.2008 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial lipase (EL) is a member of the lipoprotein lipase family that regulates HDL metabolism. EL is known to act as a bridging molecule for monocytes or lipoproteins in vascular endothelial cells. We investigated the role and regulatory mechanisms of EL expression in macrophages. Macrophages originating from wild-type (EL+/+) and EL-deficient (EL-/-) mice were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression of EL mRNA was evaluated by northern blotting. DiI-LDL was used to measure the uptake of native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL). LPS increased EL mRNA levels by increasing intracellular oxidative stress in the macrophages. LPS did not affect EL expression in macrophages derived from Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene mutant mice, C3H/HeJ. The uptake of nLDL after LPS-treatment was significantly lower in macrophages from EL-/- mice than those from EL+/+ mice. Simvastatin suppressed the LPS-induced upregulation of EL expression and uptake of nLDL. EL expression is upregulated by LPS via TLR4 and promotes the uptake of nLDL by macrophages. Simvastatin inhibits the LPS-induced up-regulation and uptake in macrophages. Thus, our findings provide a novel role for EL in lipoprotein metabolism and would expand the range of anti-atherogenic effects of statins.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2007; 14(4):192-201. DOI:10.5551/jat.E502 · 2.77 Impact Factor