[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid colorectal tumor (RCT) is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm recurrent in elderly patients, commonly at the caecum. The molecular mechanisms underlying RCT pathogenesis remain poorly elucidated. The differential diagnosis is with the malignant rhabdoid tumors of infancy characterized by genetic inactivation of SMARCB1 (INI1) or deletions of chromosome 22q12 locus. Materials and methods To shed light on RCT pathogenesis, we investigated genetic and epigenetic alterations in two cases of pure and composite RCT and compared them with the profiles of matched adenomas and normal mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis, FISH, methylation specific PCR and DNA sequencing analysis were performed on paraffin-embedded tissues. RESULTS: Loss of epithelial markers, (CK20, CDX2 and E-cadherin) and intense vimentin expression was observed in RCTs but neither in the normal mucosa or adenomas. INI1 expression was detected in normal mucosa, adenomas and retained in pure RCT, while it was undetected in composite RCT. Rearrangement of the 22q12 locus was found only in pure RCT. The APC/a- catenin pathway was not altered, while MLH1 immunostaining was negative in RCTs and positive in adenomas and normal mucosa. These expression profiles were associated with V600E BRAF mutation, a progressive accumulation of promoter methylation at specific CIMP loci and additional genes from the normal mucosa to tubular adenoma and RCT. CONCLUSIONS: Right-sided RCT could be characterized by epigenetic events and molecular features likely similar to those occurring in the serrated pathway and associated with epithelialmesenchymal transition. These extremely rare tumors may benefit from the use of new biological molecules specific for colorectal carcinoma. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1641385210804556.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ixabepilone is an effective chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer that has been pretreated with anthracyclines and is resistant or refractory to taxanes. Adjuvant dose-dense (DD) chemotherapy is more effective than regimens administered every 3 weeks, especially in hormonal receptor (HR)-negative tumors. Methods. A feasibility study of neoadjuvant DD ixabepilone was conducted in breast cancer patients with tumors measuring at least 2 cm. Patients received 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2), epirubicin 90 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) ("FEC" in combination) administered intravenously on day 1 every 14 days with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (filgrastim) followed by ixabepilone 40 mg/m(2) administered intravenously on day 1 every 14 days with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The study's primary endpoint was feasibility, and the secondary endpoint was pathologic complete response. A two-stage Simon's design was adopted. Results. Forty-seven patients were enrolled, and 42 were evaluable. For 10 of 42 patients, DD ixabepilone was not feasible. Six (14%) required ixabepilone interruption, and four (9.5%) required ixabepilone dose reduction of 25%. One toxic death occurred. Hematologic grade 3-4 toxicities included anemia (9.5%), grade 4 neutropenia (2.4%), febrile neutropenia (4.8%), and thrombocytopenia (2.4%). Nonhematologic grade 3-4 toxicities consisted of fatigue (14.3%), mucositis (14.3%), sensory neuropathy (7.1%), onychopathy (7.1%), and liver toxicity (4.8%). Grade 2 sensory neuropathy lasting longer than 7 days was recorded in 11.9% of patients. Pathologic complete response was observed in 16 of 42 patients (38.1%), including 11 of 23 (47.8%) with HR-negative tumors and 5 of 19 (26.3%) with HR-positive tumors. Conclusion. Despite high activity, DD ixabepilone after DD FEC is poorly tolerated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tivantinib (ARQ 197), a selective oral inhibitor of MET, has shown promising antitumour activity in hepatocellular carcinoma as monotherapy and in combination with sorafenib. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of tivantinib for second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In this completed, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis who had progressed on or were unable to tolerate first-line systemic therapy. We randomly allocated patients 2:1 to receive tivantinib (360 mg twice-daily) or placebo until disease progression. The tivantinib dose was amended to 240 mg twice-daily because of high incidence of treatment-emergent grade 3 or worse neutropenia. Randomisation was done centrally by an interactive voice-response system, stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and vascular invasion. The primary endpoint was time to progression, according to independent radiological review in the intention-to-treat population. We assessed tumour samples for MET expression with immunohistochemistry (high expression was regarded as ≥2+ in ≥50% of tumour cells). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00988741. FINDINGS: 71 patients were randomly assigned to receive tivantinib (38 at 360 mg twice-daily and 33 at 240 mg twice-daily); 36 patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo. At the time of analysis, 46 (65%) patients in the tivantinib group and 26 (72%) of those in the placebo group had progressive disease. Time to progression was longer for patients treated with tivantinib (1·6 months [95% CI 1·4-2·8]) than placebo (1·4 months [1·4-1·5]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·64, 90% CI 0·43-0·94; p=0·04). For patients with MET-high tumours, median time to progression was longer with tivantinib than for those on placebo (2·7 months [95% CI 1·4-8·5] for 22 MET-high patients on tivantinib vs 1·4 months [1·4-1·6] for 15 MET-high patients on placebo; HR 0·43, 95% CI 0·19-0·97; p=0·03). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events in the tivantinib group were neutropenia (ten patients [14%] vs none in the placebo group) and anaemia (eight [11%] vs none in the placebo group). Eight patients (21%) in the tivantinib 360 mg group had grade 3 or worse neutropenia compared with two (6%) patients in the 240 mg group. Four deaths related to tivantinib occurred from severe neutropenia. 24 (34%) patients in the tivantinib group and 14 (39%) patients in the placebo group had serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Tivantinib could provide an option for second-line treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and well-compensated liver cirrhosis, particularly for patients with MET-high tumours. Confirmation in a phase 3 trial is needed, with a starting dose of tivantinib 240 mg twice-daily. FUNDING: ArQule, Daiichi Sankyo (Daiichi Sankyo Group).
The lancet oncology 11/2012; · 14.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current classification of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours includes four subtypes: low-grade typical carcinoid tumour (TC), intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid tumour (AC), and two high-grade malignancies: large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Unfortunately, with the exclusion of SCLC, no large phase II and III trials for pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours have been published. Thus, several treatment approaches are available for their treatment but none of them has been validated in appropriately designed and adequately sized clinical trials. The main problem of the published studies is that they include neuroendocrine tumours from various sites of origin with different clinical behaviour. It is important that future studies consider these tumours separately. In this regard, increased awareness and referral of these patients to tertiary centres, in which a multidisciplinary management is available, may be of value. The aim of this review is to evaluate the state of the art and discuss future developments in the management of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours excluding SCLC which we consider should be addressed in a different issue.
Cancer treatment reviews 07/2012; · 5.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic status can potentially affect prognosis of cancer patients. Our aim was to describe potential differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival by education level in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) enrolled in clinical trials of first-line treatment.
Individual data of Italian patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IV, or IIIB with supraclavicular nodes or malignant pleural effusion), ECOG performance status (PS) 0-2, enrolled in four phase III randomized trials conducted between 1996 and 2005 were pooled. Information about education was available for 1680 of 1709 patients (98.3%). Patients were divided in two groups according to education level: high (patients with at least high school diploma) or low (those with less than high school diploma). Survival analyses were stratified by treatment arm within trial.
There were 312 (19%) and 1368 (81%) patients with high and low education, respectively. Education level was significantly different among birth cohorts, with a time-trend toward higher education level. Patients with high education were significantly younger (median age 65 vs. 70), were less frequently unfit at diagnosis (ECOG PS2 5% vs. 16%), and their tumor type was more frequently adenocarcinoma (47% vs. 37%). Number of treatment cycles received was not significantly different between education groups. Median survival was 9.4 and 7.6 months in high and low education, respectively (p=0.012). At multivariable analysis, female sex, better PS and high education level (Hazard Ratio 0.85, 95%CI 0.73-0.99, p=0.03) were independently associated with longer survival.
In Italian patients enrolled in four randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC, high education was significantly more frequent among younger patients, and was associated with lower proportion of PS2 patients. Education level did not significantly affect number of chemotherapy cycles received. Overall survival was longer in patients with high education, after adjustment for PS and other prognostic factors. The exact underlying mechanisms of the independent prognostic role of education level are substantially unknown, but lead-time bias (anticipation in diagnosis and time to inclusion in the trial), differences in adherence to care outside the trial procedures, differences in comorbidities and life-style factors may all contribute.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 01/2012; 76(3):457-64. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence of relative effectiveness of local treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is scanty. We investigated, in a retrospective cohort study, whether surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transarterial embolization with (TACE) or without (TAE) chemotherapy resulted in different survival in clinical practice. All patients first diagnosed with HCC and treated with any locoregional therapy from 1998 to 2002 in twelve Italian hospitals were eligible. Overall survival (OS) was the unique endpoint. Three main comparisons were planned: RFA versus PEI, surgical resection versus RFA/PEI (combined), TACE/TAE versus RFA/PEI (combined). Propensity score method was used to minimize bias related to non random treatment assignment. Overall 425 subjects were analyzed, with 385 (91%) deaths after a median followup of 7.7 years. OS did not significantly differ between RFA and PEI (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.79-1.57), between surgery and RFA/PEI (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.64-1.41) and between TACE/TAE and RFA/PEI (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66-1.17). 5-year OS probabilities were 0.14 for RFA, 0.18 for PEI, 0.27 for surgery, and 0.15 for TACE/TAE. No locoregional treatment for HCC was found to be more effective than the comparator. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials are still needed to definitely assess relative effectiveness of locoregional HCC treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No systemic therapy had been proven effective in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) until 2007, when a large randomized trial with sorafenib demonstrated a clinically relevant prolongation of survival. Currently, sorafenib represents standard treatment for patients with advanced HCC and well-preserved liver function, whilst the evidence about its effectiveness in patients with more severe liver impairment is less robust. A randomized trial to demonstrate the efficacy of sorafenib in Child-Pugh B patients with advanced HCC is currently ongoing. In the meantime, several trials are testing the role of sorafenib in early HCC (as adjuvant treatment after potentially curative loco-regional therapies) and in intermediate stage (exploring different modalities of integration of sorafenib with trans-arterial chemo-embolization). The results of all these trials will better define the potentiality and the boundaries of use of sorafenib in HCC patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colon carcinoma with rhabdoid characteristics is a rare, malignant tumor whose molecular alterations have not been clarified yet. We report a novel case of a colon adenocarcinoma with rhabdoid features in a 71-year-old woman, localized to the right colon and associated with local lymph node and liver metastasis. The patient died within 8 months from surgery despite target chemotherapy. The tumor was enriched in cells with a typical rhabdoid-type morphology displaying a marked and diffuse vimentin staining. Cells were also positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, Ki67, and β-catenin and negative for cytokeratin 20/cytokeratin 7, E-cadherin, and CDX2. Remarkably, the promoter regions of 4 of 5 specific genes that define the so-called "CpG island methylator phenotype," including mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), were methylated. Consistently, microsatellite instability was detected. A BRAF V600E mutation and no KRAS mutations were identified. Finally, 4 tumor suppressor gene promoters CDH1, CDKN1B, CDKN1C, and MGMT were not methylated. This is the first case of a colorectal carcinoma with rhabdoid features, "CpG island methylator phenotype," high microsatellite instability associated with a BRAF mutation, and patient poorer outcome.
Human pathology 02/2011; 42(7):1047-52. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-catenin and p53 play key roles in tumorigenesis. The relationships between these 2 signaling pathways and their contribution to colorectal cancer metastatic progression have not been completely elucidated. We analyzed 141 cases of primary sporadic colorectal cancer, 45 matched metastases, and 80 samples of normal mucosa by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded specimens. The expression profiles were also related to patients' clinicopathologic features and 5-year survival. In primary tumors, beta-catenin immunoreactivity was nuclear (27%), predominantly membrane/cytosolic (46.0%) or negative (27%). This latter subgroup was strongly related to microsatellite instability, in particular to MLH-1 deficiency. Remarkably, beta-catenin membrane/cytosolic expression in primary tumors was reduced in the corresponding matched metastases. p53 showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in (66.7%), whereas it was negative in (33.3%) of tumors. When we considered the expression of both genes, the combination of negative beta-catenin and positive p53 nuclear staining (21%) was strongly related to a higher frequency of liver metastases. Such an association was significantly related to a worse prognosis than any other combination. In a multivariate analysis, beta-catenin and distant metastases were independent prognostic markers. We suggest that a combination of low beta-catenin and high p53 expression in primary colorectal cancers may be a prognostic factor in predicting the progression of the disease, the occurrence of metastasis, and a more severe outcome.
Human pathology 06/2010; 41(6):867-76. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FOLFOX-4 and FOLFIRI are considered equivalent in terms of activity and efficacy as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The monoclonal antibody (mAb) cetuximab showed intrinsic activity as a single agent in mCRC and was approved in combination with CPT-11 for patients who failed previous CPT-11-based treatment. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the activity and safety of FOLFOX-4 plus cetuximab in untreated mCRC patients.
Untreated patients with measurable metastatic disease and expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) received cetuximab at a loading dose of 400 mg/m(2), followed by weekly doses of 250 mg/m(2), in combination with the FOLFOX-4 regimen every 2 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles, after which a maintenance program using cetuximab alone was allowed for a maximum of 6 months.
Eighty-two unselected patients were screened; 70 were EGFR+ and entered the trial. Of the 67 assessable patients, the objective response rate was 64.2% (95% CI: 52.5-75.5%) and the tumor growth control rate was 94% (95% CI: 88-99%). All the objective responses except 1 were confirmed. In the group of patients with initially unresectable liver disease alone, 7/33 (21%) were resected. The median time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 10.0 and 22.0 months, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated, with no treatment-related deaths, while 24.2% of the patients were affected by cutaneous toxicity of grade >2. Mutational analysis of the KRAS and BRAF genes was retrospectively performed on 35 of the 69 patients treated with cetuximab (51%). KRAS was mutated in 13 out of the 35 cases (37%), whereas no mutations were detected in the BRAF gene. A trend toward an association between KRAS mutations and objective response to treatment (p = 0.07) was demonstrated. Analysis of survival showed that patients harboring KRAS mutations had a trend toward worst TTP (p = 0.14) confirmed by age- and sex-adjusted Cox multivariate regression (hazard ratio, HR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.36-1.06; p = 0.08). Indeed, KRAS mutations were significantly associated with worst OS in both unadjusted analysis (p = 0.047; log rank test) and age- and sex-adjusted Cox multivariate regression (HR = 0.458; 95% CI: 0.248-0.847; p = 0.01).
These results suggest that the combination of FOLFOX-4 plus cetuximab is very active and obtains long TTP with an acceptable toxicity profile. Indeed, our results are in line with recent findings from phase II and phase III randomized studies providing strong evidence that the efficacy of anti-EGFR mAb is confined to patients with wild-type KRAS mCRC. Investigation of other predictive biomarkers may be useful to further define the responder population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Doublet chemotherapy is more effective than single-agent as first line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). No reliable information instead is available on the effect of doublets in second line treatment. The aim of DISTAL-2 study was to compare two doublets containing docetaxel with single agent docetaxel as second line treatment of patients with NSCLC (ClinicalTrials.gov id.:.NCT00345059).
NSCLC patients, aged <75, PS 0-2, who had failed platinum-based chemotherapy, were randomly assigned with a 3:1:1 ratio to: arm A, weekly docetaxel (33.3mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 15 q 4 weeks); arm B, weekly docetaxel (30 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 15) plus gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 q 4 weeks) or plus vinorelbine (20mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 q 4 weeks) depending on which of the two had been used in first line; arm C, weekly docetaxel (as in arm B) plus capecitabine (625 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 5-18 q 4 weeks). Primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Two comparisons were planned: arm B vs. A and arm C vs. A. Overall, 375 patients had to be randomized. Response was assessed by RECIST, quality of life (QoL) by EORTC questionnaires.
84 patients were randomized from May 2005 to December 2006, when the trial was prematurely stopped due to the slow accrual. After 62 deaths, median OS was 40.0 weeks in arm A, 32.6 weeks in arm B (p=0.18 vs. A) and 39.7 weeks in arm C (p=0.90 vs. A). Response rate was 6.4, 16.7 and 5.3%, and median progression-free survival was 12.4, 13.1 and 11.9 weeks, for arms A, B and C, respectively. Patients in arm B had significantly more grade 3-4 haematological and non-haematological toxicity compared to arm A, and patients in arm C had significantly more grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity compared to arm A. No relevant differences were found in QoL analysis, with the exception of significant worsening in appetite, vomiting and hemoptysis for patients in arm B.
Due to early termination, the trial does not have the planned statistical power. However, available data do not support the role of docetaxel-based combination chemotherapy as second line in advanced NSCLC.
Lung Cancer 02/2009; 63(2):251-8. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before the positive results recently obtained with multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, there was no standard systemic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sex hormones receptors are expressed in a significant proportion of HCC samples. Following preclinical and epidemiological studies supporting a relationship between sex hormones and HCC tumorigenesis, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) tested the efficacy of the anti-estrogen tamoxifen as systemic treatment. Largest among these trials showed no survival advantage from the administration of tamoxifen, and the recent Cochrane systematic review produced a completely negative result. This questions the relevance of estrogen receptor-mediated pathways in HCC. However, a possible explanation for these disappointing results is the lack of proper patients selection according to sex hormones receptors expression, but unfortunately the interaction between this expression and efficacy of tamoxifen has not been studied adequately. It has been also proposed that negative results might be explained if tamoxifen acts in HCC via an estrogen receptor-independent pathway, that requires higher doses than those usually administered, but an Asian RCT conducted to assess dose-response effect was completely negative. Interesting, preliminary results have been obtained when hormonal treatment (tamoxifen or megestrol) has been selected according to the presence of wild-type or variant estrogen receptors respectively, but no large RCTs are available to support this strategy. Negative results have been obtained also with anti-androgen therapy. In conclusion, there is no robust evidence to consider HCC a hormone-responsive tumor. Hormonal treatments should not be part of the current management of HCC.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2008; 14(11):1682-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the prognostic ability of the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after a longer follow up. Methods: The updated survival data were derived from an analysis that was performed on two joined sets of data. The first set was collected retrospectively in 1995 and was used to perform an exploratory prognostic factor analysis (the CLIP-03 study), that produced the CLIP score. The second set of data was collected prospectively for the CLIP-01 randomized clinical trial. Results: Out of 912 overall patients, analysis was performed on 650 patients whose records contained all informationregarding prognostic factors. The median survival of the whole group of patients was 17.7 months and the 5-year survival rate was 10.7%. The median survival of the patients was inversely proportional to the CLIP score: the higher the CLIP score the worse the survival. Conclusions: The CLIP score keeps good prognostic and discriminative abilities after a longer follow up and remains one the most useful prognostic system for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology Research 10/2007; 37 Suppl 2:S206-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Febrile neutropenia is a relatively frequent event in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. A relevant body of scientific evidence has been produced in the last 2 decades, through clinical trials addressing the efficacy of colony stimulating factors (CSFs) in the prevention and treatment of febrile neutropenia. The correct use of CSFs needs to be optimized, and several guidelines have been produced and periodically updated, in order to uniform and guide clinical practice. The aim of this review is to synthesize the most relevant clinical trials and the most important existing guidelines about the role of CSFs in solid tumours. Role of CSFs as primary prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis and treatment of afebrile and febrile neutropenia is discussed. A special focus is dedicated to neutropenia and the use of CSFs in the treatment of the three "big killers" among the solid tumours: breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 08/2007; 63(1):53-64. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The addition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and prolonged constant infusion (PCI) of gemcitabine to treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) might improve treatment efficacy. We aimed to assess whether the addition of rofecoxib or PCI gemcitabine could improve overall survival compared with first-line treatment with cisplatin plus gemcitabine given by standard infusion.
Patients with stage IV or IIIb (with supraclavicular nodes or pleural effusion) NSCLC who were under 70 years of age and who had performance status 0 or 1 were eligible for this multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomised phase III trial with 2 x 2 factorial design. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: group A, gemcitabine 1200 mg/m(2) in a 30-min intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8 and intravenous cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) on day 1, every 21 days for six cycles; group B, the same treatments as group A plus oral rofecoxib 50 mg/day until disease progression; group C, intravenous PCI gemcitabine 1200 mg/m(2) in a 120-min infusion on days 1 and 8 and intravenous cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) on day 1, every 21 days for six cycles; group D, the same drugs as group C plus oral rofecoxib 50 mg/day until disease progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival; secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, response rate, quality of life, and toxicity. Analyses were intention-to-treat. This trial is registered on the clinical trials site of the US National Institutes of Health website http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00385606.
Between Jan 30, 2003, and May 3, 2005, 400 patients were enrolled. Median age was 60 years (range 29-71). PCI gemcitabine did not improve overall survival (median 47 weeks [95% CI 40-55] vs 44 [36-52], with standard gemcitabine infusion, hazard ratio (HR) of death 0.93 [0.74-1.17], p=0.41), progression-free survival, nor any other secondary endpoint. Vomiting and fatigue were significantly worse with PCI gemcitabine. The two rofecoxib groups were closed early (on Oct 1, 2004) due to withdrawal of the drug because of safety issues. With intention-to-treat statistical analyses limited to 240 patients (ie, those randomised before July 1, 2004) who had at least 3 months of treatment, rofecoxib did not prolong overall survival (median 44 weeks [CI 36-55] vs 44 [40-54] without rofecoxib, and HR of death 1.00 [0.75-1.34], p=0.85), or progression-free survival, but did improve response rate (41%vs 26%, p=0.02), global quality of life, physical, emotional and role functioning, fatigue, and sleeping. Rofecoxib significantly increased the incidence of diarrhoea and decreased constipation, fatigue, fever, weight loss, and pain, and analgesic consumption. Severe cardiac ischaemia was more frequent with rofecoxib than without; however, the difference was not statistically significant in the primary analysis (p=0.06) and became significant when patients who were randomised between July 1, 2004, and Sept 30, 2004, were included in the analysis (p=0.03).
Neither PCI gemcitabine nor rofecoxib prolonged survival in the patients in this study. Rofecoxib improved response rate and several quality-of-life items, including pain-related items and global quality of life. Further studies with less cardiotoxic COX-2 inhibitors are needed in NSCLC.
The Lancet Oncology 07/2007; 8(6):500-12. · 25.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to analyze the costs of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in Italy.
In this prospective observational study at seven public oncology centers, incidence and intensity of CINV daily for 8 days after chemotherapy in consecutive patients receiving cisplatin-containing chemotherapy were recorded. All costs related to CINV (direct medical, direct nonmedical, and indirect) were recorded (in 2003 euros).
A total of 172 patients were enrolled; cost data were available for 168 patients. Thirty-seven percent of patients experienced acute CINV, and 57% experienced delayed CINV; 39% achieved total control, defined as no nausea, vomiting, or rescue therapy. Mean per-patient costs of acute and delayed CINV were 30.03 euro from the hospital perspective, 4.9 euro from the patient perspective, and 26.85 euro from the National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Costs of CINV were highly variable among oncology centers, largely because of differences in procedures for preventing delayed CINV. These costs were four times higher when antiemetic drugs were prescribed and paid for by the NHS than when antiemetic prophylaxis was provided directly from hospital pharmacies. Moreover, in the delayed phase, the NHS incurred a 94% increase in costs for patients without total control. Overall costs for patients who did not experience total control of CINV were 35.57 euro higher than for those who did (85% increase).
Costs of CINV for the Italian NHS could be reduced if hospitals furnished antiemetic prophylaxis directly to patients. Better control of both acute and delayed CINV would improve patient well-being as well as reduce the budgetary impact of CINV in Italy.
Supportive Care Cancer 02/2007; 15(1):31-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor