Philip Shaw

National Human Genome Research Institute, Maryland, United States

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Publications (54)465.41 Total impact

  • Philip Shaw
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 03/2014; 53(3):271-3. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endophentoypes, quantifiable traits lying on the causal chain between a clinical phenotype and etiology, can be used to accelerate genomic discovery in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we identify the neuroanatomic changes that are shared by 22 OCD adult and adolescent patients and 25 of their unaffected siblings who are at genetic risk for the disorder. Comparisons were made against 47 age and sex matched healthy controls. We defined the surface morphology of the striatum, globus pallidus and thalamus, and thickness of the cerebral cortex. Patients with OCD show significant surface expansion compared with healthy controls, following adjustment for multiple comparisons, in interconnected regions of the caudate, thalamus and right orbitofrontal cortex. Their unaffected siblings show similar, significant expansion, most marked in the ventromedial caudate bilaterally, the right pulvinar thalamic nucleus and the right orbitofrontal cortex. These regions define a network that has been consistently implicated in OCD. In addition, both patients with OCD and unaffected siblings showed similar increased thickness of the right precuneus, which receives rich input from the thalamic pulvinar nuclei and the left medial temporal cortex. Anatomic change within the orbitofrontostriatal and posterior brain circuitry thus emerges as a promising endophenotype for OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 11 February 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.3.
    Molecular psychiatry 02/2014; · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The basal ganglia are implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known of their development in the disorder. Here, we mapped basal ganglia development from childhood into late adolescence using methods that define surface morphology with an exquisite level of spatial resolution. Method Surface morphology of the basal ganglia was defined from neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 270 youth with DSM-IV-defined ADHD and 270 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls; 220 children were scanned at least twice. Using linear mixed model regression, we mapped developmental trajectories from age 4 through 19 years at approximately 7,500 surface vertices in the striatum and globus pallidus. Results In the ventral striatal surfaces, there was a diagnostic difference in developmental trajectories (t=5.6, p<0.0001). Here, the typically developing group showed surface area expansion with age (increase of 0.54mm2/yr, SE 0.29mm2/yr ) whereas the ADHD group showed progressive contraction (decrease of 1.75mm2/yr, SE 0.28mm2/yr). The ADHD group also showed significant, fixed surface area reductions in dorsal striatal regions, which were detected in childhood at study entry and persisted into adolescence. There was no significant association between history of psychostimulant treatment and developmental trajectories. Conclusions Progressive, atypical contraction of the ventral striatal surfaces characterizes ADHD, localizing to regions pivotal in reward processing. This contrasts with fixed, non-progressive contraction of dorsal striatal surfaces in regions that support executive function and motor planning.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 01/2014; · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in around half of those affected, constituting a major public health challenge. No known demographic, clinical, or neuropsychological factors robustly explain the clinical course, directing our focus to the brain. Herein, we link the trajectories of cerebral cortical development during childhood and adolescence with the severity of adult ADHD. METHODS: Using a longitudinal study design, 92 participants with ADHD had childhood (mean 10.7 years, SD 3.3) and adult clinical assessments (mean 23.8 years, SD 4.3) with repeated neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast was made against 184 matched typically developing volunteers. RESULTS: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persisted in 37 (40%) subjects and adult symptom severity was linked to cortical trajectories. Specifically, as the number of adult symptoms increased, particularly inattentive symptoms, so did the rate of cortical thinning in the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. For each increase of one symptom of adult ADHD, the rate of cortical thinning increased by .0018 mm (SE = .0004, t = 4.2, p < .0001), representing a 5.6% change over the mean rate of thinning for the entire group. These differing trajectories resulted in a convergence toward typical dimensions among those who remitted and a fixed, nonprogressive deficit in persistent ADHD. Notably, cortical thickening or minimal thinning (greater than -.007 mm/year) was found exclusively among individuals who remitted. CONCLUSIONS: Adult ADHD status is linked with the developmental trajectories of cortical components of networks supporting attention, cognitive control, and the default mode network. This informs our understanding of the developmental pathways to adult ADHD.
    Biological psychiatry 05/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • Philip Shaw
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2012; 51(11):1116-8. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classically, model-based segmentation procedures match magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes to an expertly labeled atlas using nonlinear registration. The accuracy of these techniques are limited due to atlas biases, misregistration, and resampling error. Multi-atlas-based approaches are used as a remedy and involve matching each subject to a number of manually labeled templates. This approach yields numerous independent segmentations that are fused using a voxel-by-voxel label-voting procedure. In this article, we demonstrate how the multi-atlas approach can be extended to work with input atlases that are unique and extremely time consuming to construct by generating a library of multiple automatically generated templates of different brains (MAGeT Brain). We demonstrate the efficacy of our method for the mouse and human using two different nonlinear registration algorithms (ANIMAL and ANTs). The input atlases consist a high-resolution mouse brain atlas and an atlas of the human basal ganglia and thalamus derived from serial histological data. MAGeT Brain segmentation improves the identification of the mouse anterior commissure (mean Dice Kappa values (κ = 0.801), but may be encountering a ceiling effect for hippocampal segmentations. Applying MAGeT Brain to human subcortical structures improves segmentation accuracy for all structures compared to regular model-based techniques (κ = 0.845, 0.752, and 0.861 for the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, respectively). Experiments performed with three manually derived input templates suggest that MAGeT Brain can approach or exceed the accuracy of multi-atlas label-fusion segmentation (κ = 0.894, 0.815, and 0.895 for the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, respectively). Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 05/2012; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, behaviors associated with autism and antisociality, disorders characterized by distinct social impairments, can be viewed as quantitative traits that range from frank impairment to normal variation, as found in the general population. Neuroimaging investigations of autism and antisociality demonstrate diagnostically specific aberrant cortical brain structure. However, little is known about structural brain correlates of social behavior in nonclinical populations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether autistic and antisocial traits exhibit dissociable cortical correlates and whether these associations are stable across development among typically developing youth. Three hundred twenty-three typically developing youth (age at first scan: mean = 10.63, SD = 3.71 years) underwent anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (1-6 scans each; total = 742 scans), and provided ratings of autistic and antisocial traits. Higher autistic trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex most prominently in right superior temporal sulcus while higher antisocial trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex in primarily bilateral anterior prefrontal cortices. There was no interaction with age, indicating that these brain-behavior associations were stable across development. Using assessments of both subclinical autistic and subclinical antisocial traits within a large longitudinal sample of typically developing youth, we demonstrate dissociable neuroanatomic correlations that parallel those found in the frank clinical disorders of autism (e.g., superior temporal cortex) and antisociality (e.g., anterior prefrontal cortex). Moreover, these correlations appear to be established in early childhood and remain fixed into early adulthood. These results support the dimensional view of psychopathology and provide neural signatures that can serve as informative endophenotypes for future genetic studies.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2012; 32(14):4856-60. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, behaviors associated with autism and antisociality, disorders characterized by distinct social impairments, can be viewed as quantitative traits that range from frank impairment to normal variation, as found in the general population. Neuroimaging investigations of autism and antisociality demonstrate diagnostically specific aberrant cortical brain structure. However, little is known about structural brain correlates of social behavior in nonclinical populations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether autistic and antisocial traits exhibit dissociable cortical correlates and whether these associations are stable across development among typically developing youth. Three hundred twenty-three typically developing youth (age at first scan: mean = 10.63, SD = 3.71 years) underwent anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (1-6 scans each; total = 742 scans), and provided ratings of autistic and antisocial traits. Higher autistic trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex most prominently in right superior temporal sulcus while higher antisocial trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex in primarily bilateral anterior prefrontal cortices. There was no interaction with age, indicating that these brain-behavior associations were stable across development. Using assessments of both subclinical autistic and subclinical antisocial traits within a large longitudinal sample of typically developing youth, we demonstrate dissociable neuroanatomic correlations that parallel those found in the frank clinical disorders of autism (e.g., superior temporal cortex) and antisociality (e.g., anterior prefrontal cortex). Moreover, these correlations appear to be established in early childhood and remain fixed into early adulthood. These results support the dimensional view of psychopathology and provide neural signatures that can serve as informative endophenotypes for future genetic studies.
    Journal of Neuroscience. 04/2012; 32(14):4856-4860.
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    ABSTRACT: Delineation of the cortical anomalies underpinning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can powerfully inform pathophysiological models. We previously found that ADHD is characterized by a delayed maturation of prefrontal cortical thickness. We now ask if this extends to the maturation of cortical surface area and gyrification. Two hundred thirty-four children with ADHD and 231 typically developing children participated in the study, with 837 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired longitudinally. We defined the developmental trajectories of cortical surfaces and gyrification and the sequence of cortical maturation, as indexed by the age at which each cortical vertex attained its peak surface area. In both groups, the maturation of cortical surface area progressed in centripetal waves, both lateral (starting at the central sulcus and frontopolar regions, sweeping toward the mid and superior frontal gyrus) and medial (descending down the medial prefrontal cortex, toward the cingulate gyrus). However, the surface area developmental trajectory was delayed in ADHD. For the right prefrontal cortex, the median age by which 50% of cortical vertices attained peak area was 14.6 years (SE = .03) in ADHD, significantly later than in typically developing group at 12.7 years (SE = .03) [log-rank test χ(¹)² = 1300, p < .00001]. Similar, but less pronounced, delay was found in the left hemispheric lobes. There were no such diagnostic differences in the developmental trajectories of cortical gyrification. The congruent delay in cortical thickness and surface area direct attention away from processes that selectively affect one cortical component toward mechanisms controlling the maturation of multiple cortical dimensions.
    Biological psychiatry 03/2012; 72(3):191-7. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. We performed a whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) study on 1,013 cases with ADHD and 4,105 healthy children of European ancestry using 550,000 SNPs. We evaluated statistically significant findings in multiple independent cohorts, with a total of 2,493 cases with ADHD and 9,222 controls of European ancestry, using matched platforms. CNVs affecting metabotropic glutamate receptor genes were enriched across all cohorts (P = 2.1 × 10(-9)). We saw GRM5 (encoding glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5) deletions in ten cases and one control (P = 1.36 × 10(-6)). We saw GRM7 deletions in six cases, and we saw GRM8 deletions in eight cases and no controls. GRM1 was duplicated in eight cases. We experimentally validated the observed variants using quantitative RT-PCR. A gene network analysis showed that genes interacting with the genes in the GRM family are enriched for CNVs in ∼10% of the cases (P = 4.38 × 10(-10)) after correction for occurrence in the controls. We identified rare recurrent CNVs affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission genes that were overrepresented in multiple ADHD cohorts.
    Nature Genetics 12/2011; 44(1):78-84. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes.
    Cerebral Cortex 08/2011; 22(6):1256-62. · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable epidemiological and neuropsychological evidence that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is best considered dimensionally, lying at the extreme end of a continuous distribution of symptoms and underlying cognitive impairments. The authors investigated whether cortical brain development in typically developing children with symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity resembles that found in the syndrome of ADHD. Specifically, they examined whether a slower rate of cortical thinning during late childhood and adolescence, which they previously found in ADHD, is also linked to the severity of symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity in typically developing children. In a longitudinal analysis, a total of 193 typically developing children with 389 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images and varying levels of symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity (measured with the Conners' Parent Rating Scale) were contrasted with 197 children with ADHD with 337 imaging scans. The relationship between the rates of regional cortical thinning and severity of symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity was determined. Youth with higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity had a slower rate of cortical thinning, predominantly in prefrontal cortical regions, bilaterally in the middle frontal/premotor gyri, extending down the medial prefrontal wall to the anterior cingulate; the orbitofrontal cortex; and the right inferior frontal gyrus. For each increase of one point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity score, there was a decrease in the rate of regional cortical thinning of 0.0054 mm/year (SE=0.0019 mm/year). Children with ADHD had the slowest rate of cortical thinning. Slower cortical thinning during adolescence characterizes the presence of both the symptoms and syndrome of ADHD, providing neurobiological evidence for dimensionality of the disorder.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 02/2011; 168(2):143-51. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was recently found that the development of typical patterns of prefrontal, but not posterior, cortical asymmetry is disrupted in right-handed youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using longitudinal data, we tested the hypothesis that there would be a congruent disruption in the growth of the anterior corpus callosum, which contains white matter tracts connecting prefrontal cortical regions. Areas of five subregions of the corpus callosum were quantified using a semiautomated method from 828 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance scans acquired from 236 children and adolescents with ADHD (429 scans) and 230 typically developing youth (399 scans), most of whom had repeated neuroimaging. Growth rates of each diagnostic group were defined using mixed-model linear regression. Right-handed participants with ADHD showed a significantly higher rate of growth in the anterior-most region of the corpus callosum (estimated annual increase in area of .97%, SEM .12%) than their typically developing peers (annual increase in area of .32% SEM .13%; t = 3.64, p = .0003). No significant diagnostic differences in growth rates were found in any other regions in right-handed participants, and no significant diagnostic differences were found in non-right-handed participants. As hypothesized, we found anomalous growth trajectories in the anterior corpus callosum in ADHD. This disrupted anterior callosal growth may reflect, or even drive, the previously reported disruption in the development of prefrontal cortex asymmetry. The finding documents the dynamic, age-dependent nature of callosal and congruent prefrontal cortical abnormalities characterizing ADHD.
    Biological psychiatry 01/2011; 69(9):839-46. · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood psychiatric disorders are rarely static; rather they change over time and longitudinal studies are ideally suited to capture such dynamic processes. Using longitudinal data, insights can be gained into the nature of the perturbation away from the trajectory of typical development in childhood disorders. Thus, some disorders may reflect a delay in neurodevelopmental trajectories. Our studies in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that cortical development is delayed with a rightward shift along the age axis in cortical trajectories, most prominent in prefrontal cortical regions. Other disorders may be characterized by differences in the velocity of trajectories: the basic shape of neurodevelopmental curves remains intact, but with disrupted tempo. Thus, childhood onset schizophrenia is associated with a marked increase during adolescence in the velocity of loss of cerebral gray matter. By contrast, in childhood autism there is an early acceleration of brain growth, which overshoots typical dimensions leading to transient cerebral enlargement. Finally, there may be more profound deviations from typical neurodevelopment, with a complete "derailing" of brain growth and a loss of the features which characterize typical brain development. An example is the almost complete silencing of white matter growth during adolescence of patients with childhood onset schizophrenia. Adopting a longitudinal perspective also readily lends itself to the understanding of the neural bases of differential clinical outcomes. Again taking ADHD as an example, we found that remission is associated with convergence to the template of typical development, whereas persistence is accompanied by progressive divergence away from typical trajectories.
    Human Brain Mapping 06/2010; 31(6):917-25. · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    Philip Shaw
    American Journal of Psychiatry 04/2010; 167(4):363-5. · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • Philip Shaw, Cara Rabin
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews recent advances in structural neuroimaging in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Observational studies have found treatment with psychostimulants to be associated more closely with dimensions of some brain structures in typically developing children than in those found in treatment-naïve children with ADHD. Novel analytic approaches allow for greater precision in the definition of brain regions that are most compromised in ADHD, with meta-analyses highlighting compromise of the basal ganglia. Cortical changes, particularly in the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortex, are also commonly reported, but with less consensus on the exact location of structural change. Anomalies in the shape of subcortical structures, specifically of the basal ganglia, hippocampus, and amygdala, implicate frontostriatal loops and the limbic system in the disorder. Finally, longitudinal data suggest that ADHD in childhood may be characterized by a delay in cortical maturation and that different clinical outcomes may be associated with different developmental trajectories in adolescence and beyond.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 10/2009; 11(5):393-8. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Just as typical development of anatomical asymmetries in the human brain has been linked with normal lateralization of motor and cognitive functions, disruption of asymmetry has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). No study has examined the development of cortical asymmetry using longitudinal neuroanatomical data. To delineate the development of cortical asymmetry in children with and without ADHD. Longitudinal study. Government Clinical Research Institute. A total of 218 children with ADHD and 358 typically developing children, from whom 1133 neuroanatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired prospectively. Cortical thickness was estimated at 40 962 homologous points in the left and right hemispheres, and the trajectory of change in asymmetry was defined using mixed-model regression. In right-handed typically developing individuals, a mean (SE) increase in the relative thickness of the right orbitofrontal and inferior frontal cortex with age of 0.011 (0.0018) mm per year (t(337) = 6.2, P < .001) was balanced against a relative left-hemispheric increase in the occipital cortical regions of 0.013 (0.0015) mm per year (t(337) = 8.1, P < .001). Age-related change in asymmetry in non-right-handed typically developing individuals was less extensive and was localized to different cortical regions. In ADHD, the posterior component of this evolving asymmetry was intact, but the prefrontal component was lost. These findings explain the way that, in typical development, the increased dimensions of the right frontal and left occipital cortical regions emerge in adulthood from the reversed pattern of childhood cortical asymmetries. Loss of the prefrontal component of this evolving asymmetry in ADHD is compatible with disruption of prefrontal function in the disorder and demonstrates the way that disruption of typical processes of asymmetry can inform our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders.
    Archives of general psychiatry 09/2009; 66(8):888-96. · 12.26 Impact Factor
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    Molecular psychiatry 05/2009; 14(4):348-9. · 15.05 Impact Factor
  • Judith L. Rapoport, Philip Shaw
    02/2009: pages 698 - 718; , ISBN: 9781444300895
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    ABSTRACT: While there has been considerable concern over possible adverse effects of psychostimulants on brain development, this issue has not been examined in a prospective study. The authors sought to determine prospectively whether psychostimulant treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with differences in the development of the cerebral cortex during adolescence. Change in cortical thickness was estimated from two neuroanatomic MRI scans in 43 youths with ADHD. The mean age at the first scan was 12.5 years, and at the second scan, 16.4 years. Nineteen patients not treated with psychostimulants between the scans were compared with an age-matched group of 24 patients who were treated with psychostimulants. Further comparison was made against a template derived from 620 scans of 294 typically developing youths without ADHD. Adolescents taking psychostimulants differed from those not taking psychostimulants in the rate of change of the cortical thickness in the right motor strip, the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus, and the right parieto-occipital region. The group difference was due to more rapid cortical thinning in the group not taking psychostimulants (mean cortical thinning of 0.16 mm/year [SD=0.17], compared with 0.03 mm/year [SD=0.11] in the group taking psychostimulants). Comparison against the typically developing cohort without ADHD showed that cortical thinning in the group not taking psychostimulants was in excess of age-appropriate rates. The treatment groups did not differ in clinical outcome, however. These findings show no evidence that psychostimulants were associated with slowing of overall growth of the cortical mantle.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 10/2008; 166(1):58-63. · 14.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
465.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Child Psychiatry Branch
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2011
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2005–2008
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • King's College London
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychological Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom