Philip Shaw

National Human Genome Research Institute, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (60)525.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Detailed descriptions of cortical anatomy in youth with Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID), are scant. Thus, the current study examined deviations in cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), at high spatial resolution, in youth with DS, to identify focal differences relative to typically developing (TD) youth. Participants included 31 youth with DS and 45 age- and sex-matched TD controls (mean age ∼16 years; range = 5-24 years). All participants completed T1-weighted ASSET-calibrated magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo scans on a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Replicating prior investigations, cortical volume was reduced in DS compared with controls. However, a novel dissociation for SA and CT was found-namely, SA was reduced (predominantly in frontal and temporal regions) while CT was increased (notably in several regions thought to belong to the default mode network; DMN). These findings suggest that reductions in SA rather than CT are driving the cortical volume reductions reported in prior investigations of DS. Moreover, given the link between DMN functionality and Alzheimer's symptomatology in chromosomally typical populations, future DS studies may benefit from focusing on the cortex in DMN regions, as such investigations may provide clues to the precocious onset of Alzheimer's disease in this at-risk group. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Cerebral Cortex 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhv107 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • 53rd Annual Meeting of the American-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology; 12/2014
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    ABSTRACT: There are varying, often conflicting, reports with respect to altered striatal volume and morphometry in the major psychoses due to the influences of antipsychotic medications on striatal volume. Thus, disassociating disease effects from those of medication become exceedingly difficult. For the first time, using a longitudinally studied sample of structural magnetic resonance images from patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS; neurobiologically contiguous with the adult onset form of schizophrenia), their nonpsychotic siblings (COSSIBs), and novel shape mapping algorithms that are volume independent, we report the familial contribution of striatal morphology in schizophrenia. The results of our volumetric analyses demonstrate age-related increases in overall striatal volumes specific only to COS. However, both COS and COSSIBs showed overlapping shape differences in the striatal head, which normalized in COSSIBs by late adolescence. These results mirror previous studies from our group, demonstrating cortical thickness deficits in COS and COSSIBs as these deficits normalize in COSSIBs in the same age range as our striatal findings. Finally, there is a single region of nonoverlapping outward displacement in the dorsal aspect of the caudate body, potentially indicative of a response to medication. Striatal shape may be considered complimentary to volume as an endophenotype, and, in some cases may provide information that is not detectable using standard volumetric techniques. Our striatal shape findings demonstrate the striking localization of abnormalities in striatal the head. The neuroanatomical localization of these findings suggest the presence of abnormalities in the striatal-prefrontal circuits in schizophrenia and resilience mechanisms in COSSIBs with age dependent normalization. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 12/2014; 36(4). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22715 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in cerebral cortical antomy have been tied to the clinical course of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We now ask if alterations white matter tract microstructure are likewise linked with the adult outcome of childhood ADHD. Seventy-five young adults, 32 with ADHD persisting from childhood and 43 with symptom remission were contrasted against 74 never-affected comparison subjects. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we defined fractional anisotropy, a metric related to white matter microstructure, along with measures of diffusion perpendicular (radial) and parallel (axial) to the axon. Analyses adjusted for head motion, age and sex, and controlled for multiple comparisons and medication history. Tract-based analyses showed greater adult inattention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the left uncinate (standardized beta=-0.37, t=3.28, p=0.002) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (standardized beta=-0.37, t=3.29, p=0.002). The ADHD group with symptoms persisting into adulthood had significantly lower fractional anisotropy than the never-affected controls in these tracts, differences associated with medium to large effect sizes. By contrast, the ADHD group who remitted by adulthood did not differ significantly from controls. The anomalies were found in tracts that connect components of neural systems pertinent to ADHD, such as attention control (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus) and emotion regulation and the processing of reward (the uncinate fasciculus). Change in radial rather than axial diffusivity was the primary driver of this effect, suggesting pathophysiological processes including altered myelination as future targets for pharmacological and behavioral interventions.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 22 September 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.241.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.241 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The basal ganglia are implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known of their development in the disorder. Here, we mapped basal ganglia development from childhood into late adolescence using methods that define surface morphology with an exquisite level of spatial resolution. Method Surface morphology of the basal ganglia was defined from neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 270 youth with DSM-IV-defined ADHD and 270 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls; 220 children were scanned at least twice. Using linear mixed model regression, we mapped developmental trajectories from age 4 through 19 years at approximately 7,500 surface vertices in the striatum and globus pallidus. Results In the ventral striatal surfaces, there was a diagnostic difference in developmental trajectories (t=5.6, p<0.0001). Here, the typically developing group showed surface area expansion with age (increase of 0.54mm2/yr, SE 0.29mm2/yr ) whereas the ADHD group showed progressive contraction (decrease of 1.75mm2/yr, SE 0.28mm2/yr). The ADHD group also showed significant, fixed surface area reductions in dorsal striatal regions, which were detected in childhood at study entry and persisted into adolescence. There was no significant association between history of psychostimulant treatment and developmental trajectories. Conclusions Progressive, atypical contraction of the ventral striatal surfaces characterizes ADHD, localizing to regions pivotal in reward processing. This contrasts with fixed, non-progressive contraction of dorsal striatal surfaces in regions that support executive function and motor planning.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 07/2014; 53(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.05.003 · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • Philip Shaw
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 03/2014; 53(3):271-3. DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.005 · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endophentoypes, quantifiable traits lying on the causal chain between a clinical phenotype and etiology, can be used to accelerate genomic discovery in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we identify the neuroanatomic changes that are shared by 22 OCD adult and adolescent patients and 25 of their unaffected siblings who are at genetic risk for the disorder. Comparisons were made against 47 age and sex matched healthy controls. We defined the surface morphology of the striatum, globus pallidus and thalamus, and thickness of the cerebral cortex. Patients with OCD show significant surface expansion compared with healthy controls, following adjustment for multiple comparisons, in interconnected regions of the caudate, thalamus and right orbitofrontal cortex. Their unaffected siblings show similar, significant expansion, most marked in the ventromedial caudate bilaterally, the right pulvinar thalamic nucleus and the right orbitofrontal cortex. These regions define a network that has been consistently implicated in OCD. In addition, both patients with OCD and unaffected siblings showed similar increased thickness of the right precuneus, which receives rich input from the thalamic pulvinar nuclei and the left medial temporal cortex. Anatomic change within the orbitofrontostriatal and posterior brain circuitry thus emerges as a promising endophenotype for OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 11 February 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.3.
    Molecular Psychiatry 02/2014; 20(2). DOI:10.1038/mp.2014.3 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although it has long been recognized that many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also have difficulties with emotion regulation, no consensus has been reached on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting toward, recognizing, and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. The authors then consider three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysregulation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide research on the much-neglected population of patients with ADHD and emotion dysregulation.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 01/2014; 171(3). DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13070966 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Classically, model-based segmentation procedures match magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes to an expertly labeled atlas using nonlinear registration. The accuracy of these techniques are limited due to atlas biases, misregistration, and resampling error. Multi-atlas-based approaches are used as a remedy and involve matching each subject to a number of manually labeled templates. This approach yields numerous independent segmentations that are fused using a voxel-by-voxel label-voting procedure. In this article, we demonstrate how the multi-atlas approach can be extended to work with input atlases that are unique and extremely time consuming to construct by generating a library of multiple automatically generated templates of different brains (MAGeT Brain). We demonstrate the efficacy of our method for the mouse and human using two different nonlinear registration algorithms (ANIMAL and ANTs). The input atlases consist a high-resolution mouse brain atlas and an atlas of the human basal ganglia and thalamus derived from serial histological data. MAGeT Brain segmentation improves the identification of the mouse anterior commissure (mean Dice Kappa values (κ = 0.801), but may be encountering a ceiling effect for hippocampal segmentations. Applying MAGeT Brain to human subcortical structures improves segmentation accuracy for all structures compared to regular model-based techniques (κ = 0.845, 0.752, and 0.861 for the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, respectively). Experiments performed with three manually derived input templates suggest that MAGeT Brain can approach or exceed the accuracy of multi-atlas label-fusion segmentation (κ = 0.894, 0.815, and 0.895 for the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, respectively). Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 10/2013; 34(10). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22092 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in around half of those affected, constituting a major public health challenge. No known demographic, clinical, or neuropsychological factors robustly explain the clinical course, directing our focus to the brain. Herein, we link the trajectories of cerebral cortical development during childhood and adolescence with the severity of adult ADHD. METHODS: Using a longitudinal study design, 92 participants with ADHD had childhood (mean 10.7 years, SD 3.3) and adult clinical assessments (mean 23.8 years, SD 4.3) with repeated neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast was made against 184 matched typically developing volunteers. RESULTS: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persisted in 37 (40%) subjects and adult symptom severity was linked to cortical trajectories. Specifically, as the number of adult symptoms increased, particularly inattentive symptoms, so did the rate of cortical thinning in the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. For each increase of one symptom of adult ADHD, the rate of cortical thinning increased by .0018 mm (SE = .0004, t = 4.2, p < .0001), representing a 5.6% change over the mean rate of thinning for the entire group. These differing trajectories resulted in a convergence toward typical dimensions among those who remitted and a fixed, nonprogressive deficit in persistent ADHD. Notably, cortical thickening or minimal thinning (greater than -.007 mm/year) was found exclusively among individuals who remitted. CONCLUSIONS: Adult ADHD status is linked with the developmental trajectories of cortical components of networks supporting attention, cognitive control, and the default mode network. This informs our understanding of the developmental pathways to adult ADHD.
    Biological psychiatry 05/2013; 74(8). DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.04.007 · 9.47 Impact Factor
  • Philip Shaw
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 11/2012; 51(11):1116-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.06.016 · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, behaviors associated with autism and antisociality, disorders characterized by distinct social impairments, can be viewed as quantitative traits that range from frank impairment to normal variation, as found in the general population. Neuroimaging investigations of autism and antisociality demonstrate diagnostically specific aberrant cortical brain structure. However, little is known about structural brain correlates of social behavior in nonclinical populations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether autistic and antisocial traits exhibit dissociable cortical correlates and whether these associations are stable across development among typically developing youth. Three hundred twenty-three typically developing youth (age at first scan: mean = 10.63, SD = 3.71 years) underwent anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (1-6 scans each; total = 742 scans), and provided ratings of autistic and antisocial traits. Higher autistic trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex most prominently in right superior temporal sulcus while higher antisocial trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex in primarily bilateral anterior prefrontal cortices. There was no interaction with age, indicating that these brain-behavior associations were stable across development. Using assessments of both subclinical autistic and subclinical antisocial traits within a large longitudinal sample of typically developing youth, we demonstrate dissociable neuroanatomic correlations that parallel those found in the frank clinical disorders of autism (e.g., superior temporal cortex) and antisociality (e.g., anterior prefrontal cortex). Moreover, these correlations appear to be established in early childhood and remain fixed into early adulthood. These results support the dimensional view of psychopathology and provide neural signatures that can serve as informative endophenotypes for future genetic studies.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2012; 32(14):4856-60. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6214-11.2012 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, behaviors associated with autism and antisociality, disorders characterized by distinct social impairments, can be viewed as quantitative traits that range from frank impairment to normal variation, as found in the general population. Neuroimaging investigations of autism and antisociality demonstrate diagnostically specific aberrant cortical brain structure. However, little is known about structural brain correlates of social behavior in nonclinical populations. Therefore, we sought to determine whether autistic and antisocial traits exhibit dissociable cortical correlates and whether these associations are stable across development among typically developing youth. Three hundred twenty-three typically developing youth (age at first scan: mean = 10.63, SD = 3.71 years) underwent anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (1-6 scans each; total = 742 scans), and provided ratings of autistic and antisocial traits. Higher autistic trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex most prominently in right superior temporal sulcus while higher antisocial trait ratings were associated with thinner cortex in primarily bilateral anterior prefrontal cortices. There was no interaction with age, indicating that these brain-behavior associations were stable across development. Using assessments of both subclinical autistic and subclinical antisocial traits within a large longitudinal sample of typically developing youth, we demonstrate dissociable neuroanatomic correlations that parallel those found in the frank clinical disorders of autism (e.g., superior temporal cortex) and antisociality (e.g., anterior prefrontal cortex). Moreover, these correlations appear to be established in early childhood and remain fixed into early adulthood. These results support the dimensional view of psychopathology and provide neural signatures that can serve as informative endophenotypes for future genetic studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Delineation of the cortical anomalies underpinning attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can powerfully inform pathophysiological models. We previously found that ADHD is characterized by a delayed maturation of prefrontal cortical thickness. We now ask if this extends to the maturation of cortical surface area and gyrification. Two hundred thirty-four children with ADHD and 231 typically developing children participated in the study, with 837 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired longitudinally. We defined the developmental trajectories of cortical surfaces and gyrification and the sequence of cortical maturation, as indexed by the age at which each cortical vertex attained its peak surface area. In both groups, the maturation of cortical surface area progressed in centripetal waves, both lateral (starting at the central sulcus and frontopolar regions, sweeping toward the mid and superior frontal gyrus) and medial (descending down the medial prefrontal cortex, toward the cingulate gyrus). However, the surface area developmental trajectory was delayed in ADHD. For the right prefrontal cortex, the median age by which 50% of cortical vertices attained peak area was 14.6 years (SE = .03) in ADHD, significantly later than in typically developing group at 12.7 years (SE = .03) [log-rank test χ(¹)² = 1300, p < .00001]. Similar, but less pronounced, delay was found in the left hemispheric lobes. There were no such diagnostic differences in the developmental trajectories of cortical gyrification. The congruent delay in cortical thickness and surface area direct attention away from processes that selectively affect one cortical component toward mechanisms controlling the maturation of multiple cortical dimensions.
    Biological psychiatry 03/2012; 72(3):191-7. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.01.031 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. We performed a whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) study on 1,013 cases with ADHD and 4,105 healthy children of European ancestry using 550,000 SNPs. We evaluated statistically significant findings in multiple independent cohorts, with a total of 2,493 cases with ADHD and 9,222 controls of European ancestry, using matched platforms. CNVs affecting metabotropic glutamate receptor genes were enriched across all cohorts (P = 2.1 × 10(-9)). We saw GRM5 (encoding glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5) deletions in ten cases and one control (P = 1.36 × 10(-6)). We saw GRM7 deletions in six cases, and we saw GRM8 deletions in eight cases and no controls. GRM1 was duplicated in eight cases. We experimentally validated the observed variants using quantitative RT-PCR. A gene network analysis showed that genes interacting with the genes in the GRM family are enriched for CNVs in ∼10% of the cases (P = 4.38 × 10(-10)) after correction for occurrence in the controls. We identified rare recurrent CNVs affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission genes that were overrepresented in multiple ADHD cohorts.
    Nature Genetics 12/2011; 44(1):78-84. DOI:10.1038/ng.1013 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes.
    Cerebral Cortex 08/2011; 22(6):1256-62. DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhr194 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was recently found that the development of typical patterns of prefrontal, but not posterior, cortical asymmetry is disrupted in right-handed youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using longitudinal data, we tested the hypothesis that there would be a congruent disruption in the growth of the anterior corpus callosum, which contains white matter tracts connecting prefrontal cortical regions. Areas of five subregions of the corpus callosum were quantified using a semiautomated method from 828 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance scans acquired from 236 children and adolescents with ADHD (429 scans) and 230 typically developing youth (399 scans), most of whom had repeated neuroimaging. Growth rates of each diagnostic group were defined using mixed-model linear regression. Right-handed participants with ADHD showed a significantly higher rate of growth in the anterior-most region of the corpus callosum (estimated annual increase in area of .97%, SEM .12%) than their typically developing peers (annual increase in area of .32% SEM .13%; t = 3.64, p = .0003). No significant diagnostic differences in growth rates were found in any other regions in right-handed participants, and no significant diagnostic differences were found in non-right-handed participants. As hypothesized, we found anomalous growth trajectories in the anterior corpus callosum in ADHD. This disrupted anterior callosal growth may reflect, or even drive, the previously reported disruption in the development of prefrontal cortex asymmetry. The finding documents the dynamic, age-dependent nature of callosal and congruent prefrontal cortical abnormalities characterizing ADHD.
    Biological psychiatry 05/2011; 69(9):839-46. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.11.024 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable epidemiological and neuropsychological evidence that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is best considered dimensionally, lying at the extreme end of a continuous distribution of symptoms and underlying cognitive impairments. The authors investigated whether cortical brain development in typically developing children with symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity resembles that found in the syndrome of ADHD. Specifically, they examined whether a slower rate of cortical thinning during late childhood and adolescence, which they previously found in ADHD, is also linked to the severity of symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity in typically developing children. In a longitudinal analysis, a total of 193 typically developing children with 389 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images and varying levels of symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity (measured with the Conners' Parent Rating Scale) were contrasted with 197 children with ADHD with 337 imaging scans. The relationship between the rates of regional cortical thinning and severity of symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity was determined. Youth with higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity had a slower rate of cortical thinning, predominantly in prefrontal cortical regions, bilaterally in the middle frontal/premotor gyri, extending down the medial prefrontal wall to the anterior cingulate; the orbitofrontal cortex; and the right inferior frontal gyrus. For each increase of one point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity score, there was a decrease in the rate of regional cortical thinning of 0.0054 mm/year (SE=0.0019 mm/year). Children with ADHD had the slowest rate of cortical thinning. Slower cortical thinning during adolescence characterizes the presence of both the symptoms and syndrome of ADHD, providing neurobiological evidence for dimensionality of the disorder.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 02/2011; 168(2):143-51. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10030385 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood psychiatric disorders are rarely static; rather they change over time and longitudinal studies are ideally suited to capture such dynamic processes. Using longitudinal data, insights can be gained into the nature of the perturbation away from the trajectory of typical development in childhood disorders. Thus, some disorders may reflect a delay in neurodevelopmental trajectories. Our studies in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that cortical development is delayed with a rightward shift along the age axis in cortical trajectories, most prominent in prefrontal cortical regions. Other disorders may be characterized by differences in the velocity of trajectories: the basic shape of neurodevelopmental curves remains intact, but with disrupted tempo. Thus, childhood onset schizophrenia is associated with a marked increase during adolescence in the velocity of loss of cerebral gray matter. By contrast, in childhood autism there is an early acceleration of brain growth, which overshoots typical dimensions leading to transient cerebral enlargement. Finally, there may be more profound deviations from typical neurodevelopment, with a complete "derailing" of brain growth and a loss of the features which characterize typical brain development. An example is the almost complete silencing of white matter growth during adolescence of patients with childhood onset schizophrenia. Adopting a longitudinal perspective also readily lends itself to the understanding of the neural bases of differential clinical outcomes. Again taking ADHD as an example, we found that remission is associated with convergence to the template of typical development, whereas persistence is accompanied by progressive divergence away from typical trajectories.
    Human Brain Mapping 06/2010; 31(6):917-25. DOI:10.1002/hbm.21028 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    Philip Shaw
    American Journal of Psychiatry 04/2010; 167(4):363-5. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10010037 · 13.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
525.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • National Human Genome Research Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Child Psychiatry Branch
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2011
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2009
    • Cardiff University
      • Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2008
    • King's College London
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Psychological Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Medical University of Lublin
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Lyublin, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2007
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom