[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling in bone remodeling, we analyzed the bone phenotype of female Axin2-lacZ knockout (KO) mice. We found that trabecular bone mass was significantly increased in 6- and 12-month-old Axin2 KO mice and that bone formation rates were also significantly increased in 6-month-old Axin2 KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. In vitro studies were performed using bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells isolated from 6-month-old WT and Axin2 KO mice. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation were significantly increased and osteoclast formation was significantly reduced in Axin2 KO mice. Nuclear beta-catenin protein levels were significantly increased in BMS cells derived from Axin2 KO mice. In vitro deletion of the beta-catenin gene under Axin2 KO background significantly reversed the increased alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteoblast marker genes observed in Axin2 KO BMS cells. We also found that mRNA expression of Bmp2 and Bmp4 and phosphorylated Smad1/5 protein levels were significantly increased in BMS cells derived from Axin2 KO mice. The chemical compound BIO, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, was utilized for in vitro signaling studies in which upregulated Bmp2 and Bmp4 expression was measured in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Primary calvarial osteoblasts were isolated from Bmp2(fx/fx);Bmp4(fx/fx) mice and infected with adenovirus-expressing Cre recombinase. BIO induced Osx, Col1, Alp and Oc mRNA expression in WT cells and these effects were significantly inhibited in Bmp2/4-deleted osteoblasts, suggesting that BIO-induced Osx and marker gene expression were Bmp2/4-dependent. We further demonstrated that BIO-induced osteoblast marker gene expression was significantly inhibited by Osx siRNA. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Axin2 is a key negative regulator in bone remodeling in adult mice and regulates osteoblast differentiation through the beta-catenin-BMP2/4-Osx signaling pathway in osteoblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, and the mechanism of its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Recent human genetic association studies showed that mutations in the Frzb gene predispose patients to OA, suggesting that the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling may be the key pathway to the development of OA. However, direct genetic evidence for beta-catenin in this disease has not been reported. Because tissue-specific activation of the beta-catenin gene (targeted by Col2a1-Cre) is embryonic lethal, we specifically activated the beta-catenin gene in articular chondrocytes in adult mice by generating beta-catenin conditional activation (cAct) mice through breeding of beta-catenin(fx(Ex3)/fx(Ex3)) mice with Col2a1-CreER(T2) transgenic mice. Deletion of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene results in the production of a stabilized fusion beta-catenin protein that is resistant to phosphorylation by GSK-3beta. In this study, tamoxifen was administered to the 3- and 6-mo-old Col2a1-CreER(T2);beta-catenin(fx(Ex3)/wt) mice, and tissues were harvested for histologic analysis 2 mo after tamoxifen induction. Overexpression of beta-catenin protein was detected by immunostaining in articular cartilage tissues of beta-catenin cAct mice. In 5-mo-old beta-catenin cAct mice, reduction of Safranin O and Alcian blue staining in articular cartilage tissue and reduced articular cartilage area were observed. In 8-mo-old beta-catenin cAct mice, cell cloning, surface fibrillation, vertical clefting, and chondrophyte/osteophyte formation were observed. Complete loss of articular cartilage layers and the formation of new woven bone in the subchondral bone area were also found in beta-catenin cAct mice. Expression of chondrocyte marker genes, such as aggrecan, Mmp-9, Mmp-13, Alp, Oc, and colX, was significantly increased (3- to 6-fold) in articular chondrocytes derived from beta-catenin cAct mice. Bmp2 but not Bmp4 expression was also significantly upregulated (6-fold increase) in these cells. In addition, we also observed overexpression of beta-catenin protein in the knee joint samples from patients with OA. These findings indicate that activation of beta-catenin signaling in articular chondrocytes in adult mice leads to the premature chondrocyte differentiation and the development of an OA-like phenotype. This study provides direct and definitive evidence about the role of beta-catenin in the development of OA.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 10/2008; 24(1):12-21. DOI:10.1359/jbmr.080901 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease whose molecular mechanism is currently unknown. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the development and function of articular chondrocytes. To determine the role of beta-catenin signaling in articular chondrocyte function, we generated Col2a1-ICAT-transgenic mice to inhibit beta-catenin signaling in chondrocytes.
The expression of the ICAT transgene was determined by immunostaining and Western blot analysis. Histologic analyses were performed to determine changes in articular cartilage structure and morphology. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining and the immunostaining of cleaved caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax proteins and caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 activities were examined in primary sternal chondrocytes isolated from 3-day-old neonatal Col2a1-ICAT-transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates and in primary chicken and porcine articular chondrocytes.
Expression of the ICAT transgene was detected in articular chondrocytes of the transgenic mice. Associated with this, age-dependent articular cartilage destruction was observed in Col2a1-ICAT-transgenic mice. A significant increase in cell apoptosis in articular chondrocytes was identified by TUNEL staining and the immunostaining of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP proteins in these transgenic mice. Consistent with this, Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) expression were decreased and caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 activity were increased, suggesting that increased cell apoptosis may contribute significantly to the articular cartilage destruction observed in Col2a1-ICAT-transgenic mice.
Inhibition of beta-catenin signaling in articular chondrocytes causes increased cell apoptosis and articular cartilage destruction in Col2a1-ICAT- transgenic mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is essential for normal skeletal development because conditional gain or loss of function of beta-catenin in cartilage results in embryonic or early postnatal death. To address the role of beta-catenin in postnatal skeletal growth and development, Col2a1-ICAT transgenic mice were generated. Mice were viable and had normal size at birth, but became progressively runted. Transgene expression was limited to the chondrocytes in the growth plate and articular cartilages and was associated with decreased beta-catenin signaling. Col2a1-ICAT transgenic mice showed reduced chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and an increase in chondrocyte apoptosis, leading to decreased widths of the proliferating and hypertrophic zones, delayed formation of the secondary ossification center, and reduced skeletal growth. Isolated primary Col2a1-ICAT transgenic chondrocytes showed reduced expression of chondrocyte genes associated with maturation, and demonstrated that VEGF gene expression requires cooperative interactions between BMP2 and beta-catenin signaling. Altogether the findings confirm a crucial role for Wnt/beta-catenin in postnatal growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postnatal cartilage development and growth are regulated by key growth factors and signaling molecules. To fully understand the function of these regulators, an inducible and chondrocyte-specific gene deletion system needs to be established to circumvent the perinatal lethality. In this report, we have generated a transgenic mouse model (Col2a1-CreER(T2)) in which expression of the Cre recombinase is driven by the chondrocyte-specific col2a1 promoter in a tamoxifen-inducible manner. To determine the specificity and efficiency of the Cre recombination, we have bred Col2a1-CreER(T2) mice with Rosa26R reporter mice. The X-Gal staining showed that the Cre recombination is specifically achieved in cartilage tissues with tamoxifen-induction. In vitro experiments of chondrocyte cell culture also demonstrate the 4-hydroxy tamoxifen-induced Cre recombination. These results demonstrate that Col2a1-CreER(T2) transgenic mice can be used as a valuable tool for an inducible and chondrocyte-specific gene deletion approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an essential role in chondrocyte maturation. It stimulates chondrocyte proliferation
but inhibits chondrocyte differentiation. In this study, we found that TGF-β rapidly induced β-catenin protein levels and
signaling in murine neonatal sternal primary chondrocytes. TGF-β-increased β-catenin induction was reproduced by overexpression
of SMAD3 and was absent in Smad3-/- chondrocytes treated with TGF-β. SMAD3 inhibited β-transducin repeat-containing protein-mediated degradation of β-catenin
and immunoprecipitated with β-catenin following TGF-β treatment. Both SMAD3 and β-catenin co-localized to the nucleus after
TGF-β treatment. Although both TGF-β and β-catenin stimulated cyclin D1 expression in chondrocytes, the effect of TGF-β was inhibited with β-catenin gene deletion or SMAD3 loss of function. These
results demonstrate that TGF-β stimulates cyclin D1 expression at least in part through activation of β-catenin signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Runx2 is a bone-specific transcription factor that plays a critical role in bone development, postnatal bone formation, and chondrocyte maturation. The protein levels of Runx2 are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In previous studies we discovered that E3 ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) induces Runx2 degradation in a ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner, and Smurf1 plays an important role in osteoblast function and bone formation. In the present studies we investigated the molecular mechanism of Smurf1-induced Runx2 degradation. Smurf1 interacts with the PY motif of substrate proteins, and a PY motif has been identified in the C terminus of the Runx2 protein. To determine whether Smurf1 induces Runx2 degradation through the interaction with the PY motif of Runx2, we created a mutant Runx2 with a PY motif deletion and found that Smurf1 retained some of its ability to induce the degradation of the mutant Runx2, suggesting that Smurf1 could induce Runx2 degradation through an indirect mechanism. Smurf1 has been shown to interact with Smads 1, 5, 6, and 7, and Smads 1 and 5 also interact with Runx2. In the present studies we found that Smads 1 and 5 had no effect on Smurf1-induced Runx2 degradation. Although Smads 6 and 7 bind Smurf1, it is not known if Smads 6 or 7 interacts with Runx2 and mediate Runx2 degradation. We performed immunoprecipitation assays and found that Smad6 but not Smad7 interacts with Runx2. Smad6 enhances Smurf1-induced Runx2 degradation in an ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that in addition to its interaction with the PY motif of Runx2, Smurf1 induces Runx2 degradation in a Smad6-dependent manner. Smurf1-induced Runx2 degradation serves as a negative regulatory mechanism for the BMP-Smad-Runx2 signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wnt proteins are expressed during limb morphogenesis, yet their role and mechanism of action remains unclear during long bone growth. Wnt expression, effects and modulation of signaling events by BMP and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) were evaluated in chick embryonic chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures underwent spontaneous maturation with increased expression of colX and this was associated with an increase in the expression of multiple Wnts, including Wnt 4, 5a, 8c, and 9a. Both parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) and TGF-beta inhibited colX, but had disparate effects on Wnt expression. While TGF-beta strongly inhibited all Wnts, PTHrP did not inhibit either Wnt8c or Wnt9a and had lesser effects on the expression of the other Wnts. BMP-2 induced colX expression, and also markedly increased Wnt8c expression. Overexpression of beta-catenin and/or T cell factor (TCF)-4 also induced the type X collagen promoter. Overexpression of Wnt8c induced maturation, as did overexpression of beta-catenin. The Wnt8c/beta-catenin maturational effects were enhanced by BMP-2 and inhibited by TGF-beta. TGF-beta also inhibited activation of the Topflash reporter by beta-catenin, suggesting a direct inhibitory effect since the Topflash reporter contains only beta-catenin binding sequences. In turn beta-catenin inhibited activation of the p3TP-Luc reporter by TGF-beta, although the effect was partial. Thus, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a critical regulator of the rate of chondrocyte differentiation. Moreover, this pathway is modulated by members of the TGF-beta family and demonstrates the highly integrated nature of signals controlling endochondral ossification.