[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mental disorders are more common in people with lower socio-economic position (SEP) but it is not known which specific SEP component is most strongly linked to poor mental health. We compared the strength of associations of three SEP components-occupation, income and education-with common mental disorders in a Finnish population.
Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 4561 men and women aged 30-65 years. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview resulting in 12-month DSM-IV diagnoses of depressive, anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Participants were classified as having low SEP if they worked in a manual occupation, lacked secondary-level education or had income below the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) definition of relative poverty.
In models comparing the simultaneous association of all three socio-economic indicators with mental disorders, low income was associated with increased risk for depressive disorder [odds ratio (OR)=1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.31-2.29] and anxiety disorder (OR=1.56, 95% CI 1.14-2.12). Manual occupational class was modestly associated with risk for alcohol use disorder (OR=1.44, 95% CI 1.06-1.95). Low income was the only socio-economic component associated with psychiatric comorbidity, that is, a combination of various disorders within the same individual (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.52-3.37 for any combination).
Low income seems to be a more important correlate of mental disorders than education or occupation in a high-income country such as Finland.
The European Journal of Public Health 09/2011; 22(3):327-32. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the well-being differences among physicians working in different health care sectors and to test whether psychosocial stressors account for these differences. The well-being indicators used were psychological distress, self-rated health, and work ability.
A total of 2,841 randomly selected Finnish physicians (response rate 57 percent) returned the postal questionnaire, of which 2,047 (1,241 women) fulfilled all the participant criteria.
This is a cross-sectional questionnaire study.
General practitioners and medical specialists experienced lower well-being than private physicians and this difference was partly explained by differences in psychosocial stressors.
General practitioners and medical specialists report more problems in well-being than private physicians. It is of particular importance to be aware of the sector-specific difficulties in work environments.
Health Services Research 08/2011; 47(1 Pt 1):68-85. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the association between psychological symptoms, such as features of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), and learning difficulties among international adoptees in Finland.
The data for this study came from the FINnish ADOption (FINADO) study covering all internationally adopted children in Finland (n= 1450), with a response rate of 55.7%. The subsample consisted of 395 adopted children aged 9-15 (51.6% girls, 48.4% boys). Learning difficulties were evaluated by a screening questionnaire 'Five To Fifteen' and symptoms of RAD by FINADO RAD scale.
The parents estimated that one-third (33.4%) of the internationally adopted children had some, and 12.7% had severe learning difficulties, i.e. three and six times more than in normal population, respectively. RAD symptoms at the time of adoption were associated with learning difficulties at school age (OR 4.57, 95% CI 2.57-8.13).
Learning difficulties are common among internationally adopted children in Finland and symptoms of RAD are associated with a child's learning difficulties.
Child Care Health and Development 08/2011; 38(5):697-705. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the health-related selection hypothesis (that health predicts social mobility) and the social causation hypothesis (that socioeconomic status influences health) were tested in relation to cardiometabolic factors. The authors screened 8,312 United Kingdom men and women 3 times over 10 years between 1991 and 2004 for waist circumference, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6; identified participants with the metabolic syndrome; and measured childhood health retrospectively. Health-related selection was examined in 2 ways: 1) childhood health problems as predictors of adult occupational position and 2) adult cardiometabolic factors as predictors of subsequent promotion at work. Social causation was assessed using adult occupational position as a predictor of subsequent change in cardiometabolic factors. Hospitalization during childhood and lower birth weight were associated with lower occupational position (both P's ≤ 0.002). Cardiometabolic factors in adulthood did not consistently predict promotion. In contrast, lower adult occupational position predicted adverse changes in several cardiometabolic factors (waist circumference, body mass index, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin) and an increased risk of new-onset metabolic syndrome (all P's ≤ 0.008). These findings suggest that health-related selection operates at younger ages and that social causation contributes to socioeconomic differences in cardiometabolic health in midlife.
American journal of epidemiology 08/2011; 174(7):779-89. · 5.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether there are differences in job-related attitudes and well-being among physicians working in private sector and public sector. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors (organizational justice and job control) could mediate these possible differences in different sectors.
Cross-sectional survey data from the Finnish Health Professional Study was used. A random sample of Finnish physicians included 1522 women and 1047 men aged 25-65 years. Outcome variables were job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychological distress, work ability and sleeping problems. Job control and organizational justice were measured using established questionnaires. Series of regression analyses were performed and the mediational effects were tested following the procedures outlined by Baron and Kenny.
Physicians working in private sector had higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower levels of psychological distress and sleeping problems when compared with physicians working in public sector. Private physicians also had higher levels of organizational justice, which acted as a mediator behind more positive attitudes and better well-being in private sector. Private physicians had higher levels of job control but it did not act as a mediator.
Private physicians feel better than public physicians and this is partly due to higher organizational justice in private sector. Public health care organizations should invest effort to increase the fairness in their organizations and management and pay more attention in improving the well-being of their employees, which could possibly increase the attractiveness of public sector as a career option.
The European Journal of Public Health 08/2011; 21(4):520-5. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is a report of a study examining the association between ownership type and perceived team climate among older people care staff. In addition, we examined whether work stress factors (time pressure, resident-related stress, role conflicts and role ambiguity) mediated or moderated the above mentioned association.
There has been a trend towards contracting out in older people care facilities in Finland and the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Studies suggest that there may be differences in employee well-being and quality of care according to the ownership type of older people care.
Cross-sectional survey data was collected during the autumn of 2007 from 1084 Finnish female older people care staff aged 18-69 years were used. Team Climate Inventory was used to measure team climate. Ownership type was divided into four categories: for-profit sheltered homes, not-for-profit sheltered homes, public sheltered homes and not-for-profit nursing homes. Analyses of covariance were used to examine the associations.
Team climate dimensions participative safety, vision and support for innovation were higher in not-for-profit organizations (both sheltered homes and nursing homes) compared to for-profit sheltered homes and public sheltered homes. Stress factors did not account for these associations but acted as moderators in a way that in terms of task orientation and participative safety employees working in for-profit organizations seemed to be slightly more sensitive to work-related stress than others.
Our results suggest that for-profit organizations and public organizations may have difficulties in maintaining their team climate. In consequence, these organizations should focus more effort on improving their team climate.
Journal of Advanced Nursing 07/2011; 68(3):647-57. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elderly care systems have undergone a lot of changes in many European countries, including Finland. Most notably, the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Previous studies suggest that employee well-being and the quality of care might differ according to the ownership type.
The present study examined whether the ownership type and the staffing level were associated with organisational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction. In addition, we examined the potential moderating effect of organisational justice on these associations.
Cross-sectional questionnaire study.
1047 Finnish female staff members aged 18-69 years working in sheltered housing or nursing homes (units n=179).
The relationships were studied with analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for the effects of age and case-mix.
Organisational commitment and job satisfaction levels were low in for-profit sheltered homes when justice levels were low, but when justice levels were high, for-profit sheltered homes did not differ from other ownership types. Similarly, organisational justice acted as a buffer against low commitment resulting from low staffing levels. Staffing levels were lowest in public sheltered homes and highest in not-for-profit sheltered homes.
The results show that organisational justice can act as a buffer against low organisational commitment that results from low staffing levels and working in for-profit sheltered homes. Increasing justice in regard to the management, outcomes, and procedures in the organisation would thus be important.
International journal of nursing studies 06/2011; 48(12):1551-61. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent chronic illness and an important cause of avoidable mortality. Patients are managed by the integrated activities of clinical and non-clinical members of primary care teams. This study aimed to: investigate theoretically-based organisational, team, and individual factors determining the multiple behaviours needed to manage diabetes; and identify multilevel determinants of different diabetes management behaviours and potential interventions to improve them. This paper describes the instrument development, study recruitment, characteristics of the study participating practices and their constituent healthcare professionals and administrative staff and reports descriptive analyses of the data collected.
The study was a predictive study over a 12-month period. Practices (N = 99) were recruited from within the UK Medical Research Council General Practice Research Framework. We identified six behaviours chosen to cover a range of clinical activities (prescribing, non-prescribing), reflect decisions that were not necessarily straightforward (controlling blood pressure that was above target despite other drug treatment), and reflect recommended best practice as described by national guidelines. Practice attributes and a wide range of individually reported measures were assessed at baseline; measures of clinical outcome were collected over the ensuing 12 months, and a number of proxy measures of behaviour were collected at baseline and at 12 months. Data were collected by telephone interview, postal questionnaire (organisational and clinical) to practice staff, postal questionnaire to patients, and by computer data extraction query.
All 99 practices completed a telephone interview and responded to baseline questionnaires. The organisational questionnaire was completed by 931/1236 (75.3%) administrative staff, 423/529 (80.0%) primary care doctors, and 255/314 (81.2%) nurses. Clinical questionnaires were completed by 326/361 (90.3%) primary care doctors and 163/186 (87.6%) nurses. At a practice level, we achieved response rates of 100% from clinicians in 40 practices and > 80% from clinicians in 67 practices. All measures had satisfactory internal consistency (alpha coefficient range from 0.61 to 0.97; Pearson correlation coefficient (two item measures) 0.32 to 0.81); scores were generally consistent with good practice. Measures of behaviour showed relatively high rates of performance of the six behaviours, but with considerable variability within and across the behaviours and measures.
We have assembled an unparalleled data set from clinicians reporting on their cognitions in relation to the performance of six clinical behaviours involved in the management of people with one chronic disease (diabetes mellitus), using a range of organisational and individual level measures as well as information on the structure of the practice teams and across a large number of UK primary care practices. We would welcome approaches from other researchers to collaborate on the analysis of this data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Special police forces are exposed to periods of intense work stress in ensuring public order.
To explore the relationship between the work context (routine work or special event) of special force policemen and psychological measures of job strain (demand-control) and effort-reward imbalance.
All policemen assigned to the G8 meeting in L'Aquila, Italy, in July 2009 were invited to complete a questionnaire while engaged in routine work in January 2009 (Time A) and in June 2009 (Time B), while preparing for the special event.
Participation rate in the questionnaire study was 292/294 (99%) members of the special police force. Measures of job strain (-0.39, P < 0.001) and effort-reward imbalance (-0.37, P < 0.001) decreased significantly from Time A to Time B. On average, demand decreased from 14.2 ± 1.9 to 12.6 ± 2.7 (P < 0.001), control increased from 11.8 ± 2.5 to 14.4 ± 3.4 (P < 0.001) and social support increased from 17.8 ± 2.9 to 19.0 ± 3.1 (P < 0.001). At the same time, effort decreased from 17.4 ± 3.2 to 11.8 ± 3.8 (P < 0.001), reward grew from 37.6 ± 5.5 to 45.5 ± 7.4 (P < 0.001) and overcommitment dropped from 7.1 ± 2.1 to 6.6 ± 1.7 (P < 0.001).
In special police forces, routine work may be significantly more stressful than a single critical event.
Occupational Medicine 06/2011; 61(6):395-9. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hostility is a multidimensional personality trait with changing expression over the life course. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the components of hostility in a population-based sample of Finnish men and women for whom a total of 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available through direct or in silico genotyping. Hostility dimensions (anger, cynicism and paranoia) were assessed at four time points over a 15-year interval (age range 15–30 years at phase 1 and 30–45 years at phase 4) in 982–1780 participants depending on the hostility measure. Few promising areas from chromosome 14 at 99 cM (top SNPs rs3783337, rs7158754, rs3783332, rs2181102, rs7159195, rs11160570, rs941898, P values <3.9 × 10−8 with nearest gene Enah/Vasp-like (EVL)) were found suggestively to be related to paranoia and from chromosome 7 at 86 cM (top SNPs rs802047, rs802028, rs802030, rs802026, rs802036, rs802025, rs802024, rs802032, rs802049, rs802051, P values <6.9 × 10−7 with nearest gene CROT (carnitine O-octanoyltransferase)) to cynicism, respectively. Some shared suggestive genetic influence for both paranoia and cynicism was also found from chromosome 17 at 2.8 cM (SNPs rs12936442, rs894664, rs6502671, rs7216028) and chromosome 22 at 43 cM (SNPs rs7510759, rs7510924, rs7290560), with nearest genes RAP1 GTPase activating protein 2 (RAP1GAP2) and KIAA1644, respectively. These suggestive associations did not replicate across all measurement times, which warrants further study on these SNPs in other populations.Keywords: hostility; GWAS; personality; gene; development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression and inflammation have been suggested to be involved in the atherosclerotic processes, but empirical evidence is mixed. We tested the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with atherosclerosis only when combined with other risk factors, such as inflammation indicated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation.
Participants were 544 women and 442 men (aged 24-39 years) who participated in the Young Finns Study medical examinations in 2001 and 2007. At baseline (in 2001), IDO activity (tryptophan and kynurenine ratio) and other biological and behavioral risk factors were assessed and depressive symptoms were determined using a modified 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. Carotid atherosclerosis was measured on the basis of carotid intimamedia thickness (IMT) at baseline and again in 2007.
In women, IDO activity moderated the association between depressive symptoms and IMT (p=0.02), so that a longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and IMT was found only in combination with high IDO activity (B=0.21, p=0.009). This association was robust to adjustment for other risk factors except body mass index and lipids which largely removed the association.
The results of this study need to be confirmed using larger data sets and studies using clinical cut-off point for depression.
These data suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with preclinical y carotid atherosclerosis only if they are linked to inflammation, and that this association is present only in women. Underlying mechanisms are unknown but probably relate to adiposity.
Journal of affective disorders 05/2011; 133(3):611-4. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common occupational disease in Europe, with high prevalence among hospital workers. Both environmental and psychosocial work factors may impact significantly on the development and exacerbation of MSDs.
To evaluate whether environmental factors at work are associated with MSDs in hospital workers and to investigate potential interactions between environmental and psychosocial risk factors in the workplace that are associated with MSDs.
A cross-sectional investigation was performed using the Nordic questionnaire to assess MSDs, the IAQ/MM-040 indoor air questionnaire for environmental factors, the demand-control model for job strain and the Goldberg questionnaire for anxiety and depression. The association between environmental factors and MSDs was studied using logistic regression analysis. In addition, the interactions of environmental factors with strain, anxiety and depression for MSDs were examined.
Environmental complaints were associated with MSDs. The strongest associations were found between temperature complaints (OR 2.73), noise and light complaints (OR 2.22), other environmental complaints (OR 3.12) and upper limb disorders. A significant interaction between temperature complaints and strain for upper limb disorders (F = 9.52, P < 0.05) was found.
To prevent MSDs, a multi-level approach is needed, including environmental measures and interventions directed to both psychosocial and organizational factors.
Occupational Medicine 05/2011; 61(3):196-201. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between diabetes and depression is well demonstrated. Less is known about the trends in use of antidepressants in the rapidly growing population of diabetics. We examined trends in antidepressant medication use during 1997-2007 in Finland among persons with or without diabetes using register-based data on both diabetes and antidepressant use.
The diabetes population was obtained from the FinDM II database including 50,027 persons with insulin treated (ITDM) and 346,290 persons with non-insulin treated diabetes (NITDM) identified from several administrative registers. Data on persons without diabetes were obtained from the yearly population statistics and their antidepressant use from the register for refunded prescription medicine costs covering all medicine purchases of non-institutionalised residents. Differences in trends and prevalence were examined using the binomial regression model.
Antidepressant use was more common among persons with diabetes in all age groups and each study year among both genders (prevalence ratios (RR) 1.4-2.2 for women and 1.7-2.2 for men). Prevalence was both higher (RR 2.0-2.2 women, 1.9-2.2 men), and increased more rapidly among younger persons with NITDM.
The use of register data linked using unique personal identifiers allowed us to identify a total cohort of persons with diabetes, to separate between ITDM and NITDM patients and to examine patterns of antidepressant use in populations with and without diabetes during an 11 year study period. Our results suggest that more attention should be focused on psychological well-being in those with diabetes and especially young people in risk of type 2 diabetes.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 04/2011; 20(4):338-43. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the associations between socio-economic position (SEP) and the onset of psychiatric work disability, return to work and recurrence of disability.
Prospective observational cohort study (1997-2005) including register data on 141 917 public-sector employees in Finland. Information on International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnosis-specific psychiatric work disability (≥90 days) was obtained from national registers.
During a mean follow-up of 6.3 years, 3938 (2.8%) participants experienced long-term psychiatric work disability. Of these, 2418 (61%) returned to work, and a further 743 (31%) experienced a recurrent episode. SEP was inversely associated with onset of disability owing to depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance-use disorders. No association was found between SEP and disability owing to bipolar disorders or reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders. High SEP was associated with a greater likelihood of a return to work following depressive disorders, personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance-use disorders, but not bipolar disorders, anxiety disorders or reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders. Low SEP predicted recurrent episodes of work disability.
High SEP is associated with lower onset of work disability owing to mental disorders, as well as return to work and lower rates of recurrence. However, the socio-economic advantage is diagnosis-specific. SEP predicted neither the onset and recovery from disability owing to bipolar disorders and reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders, nor recovery from disability owing to anxiety disorders. SEP should be taken into account in the attempts to reduce long-term work disability owing to mental disorders.
Occupational and environmental medicine 03/2011; 68(11):791-8. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied whether there is an association between hostility and cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) risk factors, such as the metabolic syndrome, systemic inflammation and autonomic cardiac control. Participants were 912 women and 712 men aged 15-30 when hostility was measured in 1992. Metabolic syndrome was assessed 9years later in 2001 using 3 definitions: the National Institute of Health Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP), the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance criteria (EGIR), and the International Diabetes Federation criteria (IDF). C-reactive protein (CRP) defined in 2001 was the marker of inflammation. Cardiac control indices were from EGC recording. In women, hostility predicted increased risk of metabolic syndrome (EGIR, and the IDF definitions, ORs = 1.34, 1.35, p < 0.05), and higher levels of inflammation (β = 0.09, p < 0.01). We concluded that hostility is associated with metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in women and these conditions may be factors linking hostility to CHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether two inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and change in their concentrations over 12 years, are associated with lung function (FVC and FEV(1)) 12 years after baseline. Data are from over 1,500 participants free from self-reported respiratory problems in a large-scale prospective cohort study of white-collar male and female civil servants. CRP and IL-6 measured at baseline (1991-1993) and follow-up (2002-2004) and FVC and FEV(1), measured at follow-up. Results adjusted for sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, health behaviours, biological factors, chronic conditions and medications, and corrected for short-term variability in CRP and IL-6 concentrations. Higher baseline levels of CRP and IL-6 were strongly associated with lower FVC and FEV(1), independent of potential confounders. A 10% increase serum CRP from baseline to follow-up was associated with lower values of FVC and FEV(1) at follow-up, 4.7 and 3.0 ml, respectively. The corresponding values for a 10% increase in IL-6 were 12.6 ml for FVC and 7.3 ml for FEV(1). Systemic low-grade inflammation is associated with only slightly poorer pulmonary function in a population free from self-reported respiratory problems 12 years earlier. These data provide evidence linking inflammation to adverse outcomes beyond cardiovascular disease. Interventions targeting inflammation may prevent lung function impairment.
European Journal of Epidemiology 02/2011; 26(2):135-44. · 5.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hostility is a multidimensional personality trait with changing expression over the life course. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the components of hostility in a population-based sample of Finnish men and women for whom a total of 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available through direct or in silico genotyping. Hostility dimensions (anger, cynicism and paranoia) were assessed at four time points over a 15-year interval (age range 15-30 years at phase 1 and 30-45 years at phase 4) in 982-1780 participants depending on the hostility measure. Few promising areas from chromosome 14 at 99 cM (top SNPs rs3783337, rs7158754, rs3783332, rs2181102, rs7159195, rs11160570, rs941898, P values <3.9 × 10(-8) with nearest gene Enah/Vasp-like (EVL)) were found suggestively to be related to paranoia and from chromosome 7 at 86 cM (top SNPs rs802047, rs802028, rs802030, rs802026, rs802036, rs802025, rs802024, rs802032, rs802049, rs802051, P values <6.9 × 10(-7) with nearest gene CROT (carnitine O-octanoyltransferase)) to cynicism, respectively. Some shared suggestive genetic influence for both paranoia and cynicism was also found from chromosome 17 at 2.8 cM (SNPs rs12936442, rs894664, rs6502671, rs7216028) and chromosome 22 at 43 cM (SNPs rs7510759, rs7510924, rs7290560), with nearest genes RAP1 GTPase activating protein 2 (RAP1GAP2) and KIAA1644, respectively. These suggestive associations did not replicate across all measurement times, which warrants further study on these SNPs in other populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether occupational stress factors (high demands, low control, low social support, strain, and iso-strain) are associated with skin disorders in hospital workers and whether psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression, act as potential mechanisms through which occupational stress factors are associated with skin disorders.
1,744 hospital workers were invited to answer a questionnaire concerning the occurrence of skin disorders and psychosocial factors at work. The abbreviated Italian version of the Demand/Control model (Karasek) was used to assess perceived work strain, while the Goldberg scales were used to assess anxiety and depression. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, occupation, latex glove use and history of atopy.
Of the participants, 25% reported hand dermatitis in the previous 12 months and 35% had been affected by skin disorders in other parts of the body. High job demands (OR = 1.09 CI95% 1.05-1.14), low social support (OR = 0.90, CI95% 0.87-0.93), high strain (OR = 1.54 CI95% 1.20-1.98) and high iso-strain (1.66 CI95% 1.27-2.19) were all associated with a higher prevalence of reported hand skin disorders. Both depression (OR = 2.50 CI95% 1.99-3.14) and anxiety (OR = 2.29 CI95% 1.81-2.89) were associated with higher risk of hand skin disorders. The same pattern was observed for dermatological complaints in other parts of the body. Only a slight reduction in the association between occupational stress variables and skin disorders was observed after including depression and anxiety in the model.
Job stress plays a significant role in triggering skin disorders among hospital workers and psychological problems do not appear to be the mechanism behind this association. Occupational health education and training should focus on reducing job demands and occupational stress in order to prevent skin problems among hospital workers.
BMC Public Health 01/2011; 11:600. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the association between adulthood emotionality-activity-sociability temperament scale and preclinical atherosclerosis and, whether this association is mediated by cardiovascular risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body-mass index (BMI)). The participants were a nationally representative sample of 537 men and 811 women from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study aged 15-30 years at the baseline in 1992 and aged 24-39 years at the follow-up in 2001. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In men, there was an association between the temperament dimension activity and IMT (β = 0.08, p = 0.036) which was partially mediated by BMI (β decreased from 0.08 to 0.05; p-value of Sobel test = 0.002). However, after correction for multiple comparisons the association between IMT and the temperament dimension activity in men was only of borderline significance. In women, there were no associations between temperament and IMT or FMD. These results suggest that a highly active temperament may contribute to early signs of atherosclerosis in men and that body mass may mediate this association.
Psychology & Health 01/2011; 26(1):61-75. · 1.95 Impact Factor