[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein (cMyBP)-C are frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the mechanisms leading from mutations to disease remain elusive.
The goal of the present study was therefore to gain insights into the mechanisms controlling the expression of MYBPC3 mutations.
We developed a cMyBP-C knock-in mouse carrying a point mutation. The level of total cMyBP-C mRNAs was 50% and 80% lower in heterozygotes and homozygotes, respectively. Surprisingly, the single G>A transition on the last nucleotide of exon 6 resulted in 3 different mutant mRNAs: missense (exchange of G for A), nonsense (exon skipping, frameshift, and premature stop codon) and deletion/insertion (as nonsense but with additional partial retention of downstream intron, restoring of the reading frame, and almost full-length protein). Inhibition of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in cultured cardiac myocytes or in vivo with emetine or cycloheximide increased the level of nonsense mRNAs severalfold but not of the other mRNAs. By using sequential protein fractionation and a new antibody directed against novel amino acids produced by the frameshift, we showed that inhibition of the proteasome with epoxomicin via osmotic minipumps increased the level of (near) full-length mutants but not of truncated proteins. Homozygotes exhibited myocyte and left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced fractional shortening, and interstitial fibrosis; heterozygotes had no major phenotype.
These data reveal (1) an unanticipated complexity of the expression of a single point mutation in the whole animal and (2) the involvement of both nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in lowering the level of mutant proteins.
Circulation Research 07/2009; 105(3):239-48. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulin is subject to a special cycle of detyrosination/tyrosination in which the C-terminal tyrosine of alpha-tubulin is cyclically removed by a carboxypeptidase and readded by a tubulin-tyrosine-ligase (TTL). This tyrosination cycle is conserved in evolution, yet its physiological importance is unknown. Here, we find that TTL suppression in mice causes perinatal death. A minor pool of tyrosinated (Tyr-)tubulin persists in TTL null tissues, being present mainly in dividing TTL null cells where it originates from tubulin synthesis, but it is lacking in postmitotic TTL null cells such as neurons, which is apparently deleterious because early death in TTL null mice is, at least in part, accounted for by a disorganization of neuronal networks, including a disruption of the cortico-thalamic loop. Correlatively, cultured TTL null neurons display morphogenetic anomalies including an accelerated and erratic time course of neurite outgrowth and a premature axonal differentiation. These anomalies may involve a mislocalization of CLIP170, which we find lacking in neurite extensions and growth cones of TTL null neurons. Our results demonstrate a vital role of TTL for neuronal organization and suggest a requirement of Tyr-tubulin for proper control of neurite extensions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2005; 102(22):7853-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protocadherin 12 protein (PCDH12, VE-cadherin 2) is a cell adhesion molecule that has been isolated from endothelial cells. Here, we have used Northern and Western blots, immunohistology, and flow cytometry to examine the distribution of PCDH12 in mouse tissues. It is an N-glycosylated protein of 150-kDa mass. In the endothelium, PCDH12 immunoreactivity was variable and dependent upon the vascular bed. In both the embryo and embryonic stem cell differentiation system, signals were localized in vasculogenic rather than angiogenic endothelium. In addition, the protein was strongly expressed in a subset of invasive cells of the placenta, which were identified as glycogen-rich trophoblasts. In adult mice, strong PCDH12 signals were observed in mesangial cells of kidney glomeruli whereas expression was not detected in other types of perivascular cells. As opposed to most protocadherins, PCDH12 is not expressed in early embryonic (day 12.5) and adult brains. As a first approach to obtain insight into PCDH12 function, we produced transgenic mice deficient in PCDH12, which were viable and fertile. They did not display any obvious histomorphological defects. We conclude that PCDH12 has a unique expression pattern and that its deficiency does not lead to conspicuous abnormalities. Moreover, PCDH12 is the first specific marker for both glycogen-rich trophoblasts and mesangial cells.
Experimental Cell Research 02/2005; 302(1):48-60. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous protein kinase implicated in proliferation and cell survival. Its regulatory beta subunit, CK2beta, which is encoded by a single gene in mammals, has been suspected of regulating other protein kinases. In this work, we show that knockout of the CK2beta gene in mice leads to postimplantation lethality. Mutant embryos were reduced in size at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5). They did not exhibit signs of apoptosis but did show reduced cell proliferation. Mutant embryos were resorbed at E7.5. In vitro, CK2beta(-/-) morula development stopped after the blastocyst stage. Attempts to generate homozygous embryonic stem (ES) cells failed. By using a conditional knockout approach, we show that lack of CK2beta is deleterious for mouse ES cells and primary embryonic fibroblasts. This is in contrast to what occurs with yeast cells, which can survive without functional CK2beta. Thus, our study demonstrates that in mammals, CK2beta is essential for viability at the cellular level, possibly because it acquired new functions during evolution.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 03/2003; 23(3):908-15. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurons contain abundant subsets of highly stable microtubules that resist depolymerizing conditions such as exposure to the cold. Stable microtubules are thought to be essential for neuronal development, maintenance, and function. Previous work has indicated an important role of the microtubule-associated protein STOP in the induction of microtubule cold stability. Here, we developed STOP null mice. These mice were devoid of cold-stable microtubules. In contrast to our expectations, STOP-/- mice had no detectable defects in brain anatomy but showed synaptic defects, with depleted synaptic vesicle pools and impaired synaptic plasticity, associated with severe behavioral disorders. A survey of the effects of psychotropic drugs on STOP-/- mice behavior showed a remarkable and specific effect of long-term administration of neuroleptics in alleviating these disorders. This study demonstrates that STOP is a major factor responsible for the intriguing stability properties of neuronal microtubules and is important for synaptic plasticity. Additionally, STOP-/- mice may yield a pertinent model for study of neuroleptics in illnesses such as schizophrenia, currently thought to result from synaptic defects.
Genes & Development 10/2002; 16(18):2350-64. · 12.44 Impact Factor